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I want to know the possible reasons for high turnover,attrition and absenteeism rate in any organizations.
Dear Kunalj,
The root cause of high attrition or absenteeism is low morale of employees.Lack of proper machanism od grivance handlling & poor
HR practices.Job security may be another reaon and one more thing is that succession planing contribute a lot for the same.
You can conduct survey to diagnose the real enabler.
Dear Kunalj,
There are many/various reasons for high turnover/attrition/absenteeism:-
1) The question of Job Security among the employees can be the reason(as prevelant in BPOs)
2) The Promotion or the productivity less in the employee(in other sense low employee productivity).
3) The Salary of the employee at that particular level may be less as compared to that level in the market.
4) the Company's working environment and its policy and attitude towards its employees
5) Also you can go through the Employee Satisfaction Survey in your company to find out the main cause or root for high rate of attrition/absenteeism/turnover in your company.
I would recommend you to infact go for the employee satisfaction survey. this may help you a lot for know the root cause of the problem.
in case one decides to conduct a survey what are the possible questions?
are there any professionals surveyors whose help can be sought? if yes please let me know.TIA.
thanks and regards
bhavik h chheda
there are many reasons for Attrition, Turnover and Absenteeism like the most important factor in every organization is Culture, environment
People expect a better culture and environment and of course best HR policies
other aspects Motivational factors, Salaries etc
hope this can help you out
- Mirza
Hello kunalj:

>I want to know the possible reasons for high turnover,attrition and absenteeism rate in any organizations.<

The number one cause of "high turnover, attrition and absenteeism" is management.

Hiring managers who make bad hiring decisions suffer high turnover of new hires.

Managers who mismanage their direct reports suffer high attrition and high absenteeism often precedes attrition.

There is no way around it, to fix these problems we need to change what managers do and/or how they do it.

The one step employers can take that will have an immediate impact on all three areas is to start hiring and promoting for talent.

Very few managers know how to identify a job's talent requirements so they hire for competence and alma maters.

Talent is unrelated to; competence, alma maters, GPAs, resumes, work experience and interviews. Most hiring managers ignore talent and then complain that 1/3 to 2/3 of their direct reports are not as successful as they had hoped they would be. Their successful direct reports have a talent for their jobs but where hired for other reasons, e.g., competence, alma maters, GPAs, resumes, work experience and interviews.

Bob Gately

Worldwide, the following are the statistics that reflect the cause of attrition in the industry. The study is based on a sample of 3149 employees, appropriately categorized into the four employee needs as :

1. The Need for Trust: Expecting the company and management to

deliver on its promises, to be honest and open in all communications

with you, to invest in you, to treat you fairly, and to compensate

you fairly and on time.

2. The Need to Have Hope: Believing that you will be able to grow,

develop your skills on the job and through training, and have the

opportunity for advancement or career progress leading to higher


3. The Need to Feel a Sense of Worth: Feeling confident that if you

work hard, do your best, demonstrate commitment, and make

meaningful contributions, you will be recognized and rewarded

accordingly. Feeling worthy also means that you will be shown

respect and regarded as a valued asset, not as a cost, to the organization.

4. The Need to Feel Competent: Expecting that you will be matched

to a job that makes good use of your talents and is challenging,

receive the necessary training to perform the job capably, see the

end results of your work, and obtain regular feedback on your


On being asked the question, "Why do you want to leave?", the answers were mostly in tandem and could be categorized into the following 20 reasons.

1. Limited Career Growth or Promotional Opportunity (16 percent),

indicating a lack of hope.

2. Lack of Respect from or Support by Supervisor (13 percent),

indicating a lack of trust or confidence.

3. Compensation (12 percent),

indicating an issue of worth or value.

4. Job Duties Boring or Unchallenging (11 percent),

indicating a lack of competence and fulfillment in the work itself.

5. Supervisor’s Lack of Leadership Skills (9 percent),

indicating a lack of trust and confidence.

6. Work Hours (6 percent), including comments ranging from undesirable

work schedule, to inflexibility, to overtime (too much or

too little), to undesirable shift—reasons

indicating a lack of worth,inasmuch as the organization, in their minds, did not view their satisfaction as important enough to warrant a change.

7. Unavoidable Reasons (5 percent), generally considered unpreventable

by the organization and including excessive commuting distance,

retirement, birth of a child, child-care issues, relocation,

other family issues, career change, too much travel, return to

school, and death or illness in the family.

8. Lack of Recognition (4 percent),

indicating a lack of worth.

9. Favoritism by Supervisor (4 percent),

indicating a lack of trust.

10. Supervisor’s Poor Employee Relations (4 percent),

indicating a lack of trust.

11. Poor Working Conditions (3 percent),

pertaining mostly to undesirable physical conditions, indicating a lack of worth.

12. Training (3 percent), pertaining mostly to insufficient offerings,

poorly conducted training, or the denial of permission to attend

training—all indicating the lack of perceived worth.

13. Supervisor’s Incompetence (2 percent),

indicating a lack of trust and confidence.

14. Poor Senior Leadership (2 percent), same reasons as those given for

next level management, plus lack of clear vision or direction—

indicating a lack of trust or confidence.

15. Supervisor’s Lack of Technical Skills (1 percent),

indicating a lack of trust and confidence.

16. Discrimination (1 percent), indicating a lack of trust and hope.

17. Harassment (1 percent), indicating a lack of trust.

18. Benefits (1 percent), indicating a lack of worth.

19. Coworkers’ Attitude (1 percent), indicating a lack of trust.

These encompass all the possible reasons and there is very little other than these that may be responsible for attrition.

Generally, the supervisor is the one who is held responsible... remember the quote..'People do not leave jobs but their bosses'. There are times where ppl leave even without new opportunities at hand.

Also, HR needs to concentrate on the cases where attrition is due to JDs not been communicated or designed properly or KRAs have been designed without appropriate vision and framework.

Apart from these, if more than 20% of the attrites are joining the same organisation / group, you have a major poaching issue at hand. This needs to be solved at a legal level or in appropriate discussion with the so-called poacher.

Hope this helps.

There is standardized Job satisfaction inventories developed to measure the job satisfaction and motivation of the employees of an organization. it includes to cover various job related factors like -intrinsic aspects of the job, supervision,job security,relation with higher officials/ management, working conditions,salary,opportunities for career advancement, social aspects of the job,communication channels,fringe benefits etc.
if you are interested to know more about the JS inventory and possibility for hiring consultants etc to conduct a study in the organization, please let me know.
dr.latha bhaskar
Highest attrition ratio is due to less satisfaction in current organization
When there is a restricted growth, not getting enough power and authority. High pressure hectic work schedule etc. not getting proper rewards for their efforts.
Sometimes it happened when we recruit wrong person at wrong place or when HR dont have that clarity abt the position and he placed person in wrong position.
Vaishali Mehta

hi vaishalli,
you are right but the organisation i am workin with offers good salary and good incentive scheme to shopfloor even then attrition is very high.
can you please suggest me a quesstionnare which i can administer for finding out reasons at shop floor.
With warm regards
Dear PlanetAnup, Your abservation / points are very good and can introduced for HR HEALTH CHECK UP. Rgds, KUMAR DAVE
Ok I think u r talking abt some mall or so. In that case there is many youngsters working there they work for their pocket money. They generally look for challenging job.

Why Do People leave Jobs?

There are various factors that affect an individuals decision to leave a job. While an employees leaving the job is considered attrition by one organization, it is looked at as talent acquisition by the new organization and to the individual it means a career move, economic growth and enhanced quality of life/convenience or closeness to family etc. Hence, what is a problem for one may be an opportunity for another.

This short note examines the key reasons for attrition and explores what enhances retention as well as outlines some of the factors that can control attrition. It also touches up those factors that are beyond ones control.

Factors Affecting Attrition and Retention

There are various reasons why people leave their current job. These reasons may vary from individual to individual and when data are collected from a large number of individuals leaving or who have left an organization, some consistencies may be observed-providing more insights as to why people leave in large numbers. If these are controllable-one attempts to control. If these are not within the control of the organization, the organization should prepare itself for managing attrition.

Managing attrition does not mean reducing attrition only. It could also mean bringing down the negative affects of attrition and increasing the positive affects of attrition. To increase the positive effects of attrition and reduce the negative affects, appropriate retention and capacity utilization or talent utilization tactics should be used. In one of the organizations, attrition has been used as brand building opportunity. Thus an organization may say that we provide talent for other companies or they may say that if you join us your brand value goes up and you get good jobs etc.

Today when a person leaves it causes a lot of disturbances in the organization. If it is a small organization the disturbance is even greater. Hence it is important to understand and manage attrition. There can be various reasons for people leaving their current jobs.

Some of these include:

Ambitions or Career Aspirations: It is but natural in a growing society and growing economy that employees at all levels aspire to build their career. There are economic aspirations, professional aspirations, family aspirations and all kinds of aspirations and ambitions that affect a persons desire to move. It is rare not to have such career aspirations. In the past, organizations grew at a pace and stability and individuals mostly saw their career in the current organization and stuck to the same. Now a days either organizations dont grow at the pace at which the individual career aspirations grow or other organizations grow at a pace that matches the individual causing individuals to move. When you treat all the world as a large space for growth and building a career, it is futile for any organization to all the time compete with the rest of the world and try to provide careers for all the employees at the same pace at which the entire world or the best of the organizations in the world is moving. It is better to appreciate the growth and mobility and movement of the mind and take attrition as a natural phenomenon than to be agitated about it and have sleepless nights. However, if the organization can do something to create new opportunities, that meet the growing aspirations of competent people, it should certainly be attempted. However, such attempts require correct diagnosis of the situation.

Comparisons and Equity Considerations: Comparisons with peers or classmates from the same college, batch, age group, organization, first job, city, etc. there are numerous dimensions on which similarities can be picked up and compared. Individuals today are flooded with such comparisons. Business magazines, compensation surveys by consultants and MNC companies have only aggravated this situation and enhanced comparisons. Organizations in their zeal to compete with one another in the market places commission such compensation surveys and further fuel the situation instead of controlling it. Unfortunately some of these organizations have to suffer the consequence of what they have created in their hay days.

Parental and family mobility; Some times the desire to be with the closed ones also pushes the person to move. Although we have largely moved away from the joint family concept, there are still strong affiliations and affections. Need for being close with the family, spouse, children, parents etc. at different stages of ones life to fulfill different types of affiliation needs prompt a few people to leave their jobs and move from one city to another.

Personality factors: Some people have a high need for variety. They get bored and fatigued easily. They need to change their job or what they are doing at periodic intervals. Other wise they are restless and create morale problems with others working with them. They waste others time discussing organizational politics and polluting the atmosphere. Some people are constantly searching and seeking. They are highly ambitious and restless. They are highly achievement driven and want to achieve new heights in the shortest time. They have either been socialized so or fulfill their own power or other motives. Some may have a different motivation or value profile which may not be matched by the current job or the company and hence the decision to leave.

Job related factors: The job related factors that cause the decision to leave are many these include the following:

1. Inability to use ones competencies

2. Lack of challenge

3. Boss and his styles

4. Lack of scope for growth in terms of position salary, status and other factors

5. Role clarity

6. Job Stress or role stress or role stagnation

7. Lack of independence or freedom and autonomy

8. Lack of learning opportunities

9. Lack of excitement and innovation, novelty etc. in the job

These factors may be intrinsic and job related or extrinsic and job related or job chemistry related. Intrinsic factors are the factors related to the characteristic of the job. These are in plenty in BPOs where the work conditions (night work, work at odd hours, the nature of clients to deal with, etc) pose difficulties.

Extrinsic factors are factors like role clarity, independence and autonomy, bad boss, wrong chemistry of the team, work conditions that can be changed easily, lack of respect shown to the individuals, etc. A large number of the extrinsic factors can be controlled.

Economic Factors: this deal with the aspirations in relation to salary and perks, housing, quality of living, need for savings etc.

In addition to these there could be many other factors that affect decisions:

Mobility of partner


Family reasons like having to look after old parents

Closeness to kith and kin ROI in education

Factors affecting Individual decision to leave:

The factors can be classified as the following:

1. Individual related factors

2. Role or job related factors

3. Organization related factors

4. Professional factors

5. Societal factors including Peer pressure factors and socio-economic environment related factors

Some of the Potential methods of managing retention and employee engagement or skill utilization include the following:

First Find the Source of Attrition- where and why?

Any method of controlling attrition or increasing retention should be based on a good understanding of the factors leading to attrition. The factors may be some times very simple and could be reveled by an examination of the statistical data. The statistical data could answer simple questions like the following:

Where is the attrition occurring?

Is it more in males than females? What levels? Is there anything in common among those who leave? Is it related to some disciplines or people from a particular region or linguistic group? Is it more among candidates from certain colleges or institutions? Age groups? Etc. Simple demographic analysis among those who leave could reveal some insights.

For example: in one oil Exploration Company such an analysis reveled that attrition is limited to those from the Drilling division and financial services division. Those who left the drilling division were found to be older in age and those who left Finance department younger in age. Those who left the Drilling department left with VRS and got good jobs elsewhere because experienced people are in demand. Those who left the finance department left because the demand for young CAs and financial managers had gone up in the outside environment. In both cases there were push as well as pull factors operating simultaneously.

UPS found that they had a lot of attrition amongst its drivers who pick up and deliver the parcel services. They were a very critical part of the organization as they were most familiar with the routes and clients. They then discovered that the drivers job included loading and unloading which they hated. It then became easy for UPS to hire loaders and save the drivers from this work. It reduced the attrition rate remarkably.

In one study by the author of an engineering services company the attrition was found to be more among certain section of engineers who faced the stress due to changing technologies and requirements of the company. Until the study was conducted it was assumed that people left because they did not like the style of their manager. The survey revealed that on the contrary employees stayed longer because of the task centered but developmental style of their manager.

In another study of a software services company the root cause for attrition was found to be the differential wage structure of the permanent employees as compared to the temporary employees. Temporary employees were paid on an hourly rate at double the amount of hourly rate calculated for permanent employees by dividing the cost to the company by 2000 hours. However they were not properly informed of the amounts spent by the company through various benefits and the outsourcing fee that was paid to the agency. Later the company had to undertake a program to change the CTC structure and also to educate the permanent employees.

Once the source/cause of attrition is identified, solving the problem becomes relatively easy. At least the organization can then determine if any internal interventions will help reduce attrition. Some of the possible interventions that could help in enhancing retention are as follows:

Compensation, Financial restructuring and New Incentive schemes- including Salary and perks restructuring, ESOPs, PLPs, etc. ILFS introduced a new Performance Linked pay in mid nineties to manage retention at all levels. In this system all employees received a performance linked pay at the end of the year depending on the company performance (financial), departmental performance and individual performance. Combining all the three performance parameters it was possible to get as much as a years salary or more as PLP depending on the financial performance of the company. Introducing small recognition schemes may go a long way.

Loyalty pay is a good mechanism of retaining the employee. In the loyalty pay the individual gets his share of the performance linked pay or enhanced incentive pay proportionate to his stay. For example in the ILFS case only a part of the PLP was given at the end of the first year and the remaining part is given proportionately at the end of the second and third years.

Organizations use most of the time compensation surveys and hike up the salaries. The tendency to use Golden handcuffs with deferred compensation, investment options etc. are useful. However in a competitive world often they artificially hike up the salaries as the recruiters also work out mechanisms of buying out such handcuffed people at any cost. Hot skills premium is paid by some companies for those who have crucial skills in short supply. They premium can be removed as the skill availability increases or the need goes down.

ESS and OC interventions: Organizational climate and employee satisfaction surveys help in indicating the factors affecting attrition and help organizations take corrective action. In the case of one manufacturing company a climate survey revealed the lack of schooling facilities, commuting facilities to a nearby town; schooling facilities could improve the tenure of its employees. In another study the technological innovations were found to create tension and resulting is decisions to leave in fresh and junior levels of management. Such climate schemes may indicate small things like organizational communications, social get togethers and celebrations could inculcate a sense of identity and belonging ness and enhance the we feeling and thereby retention. Climate surveys also indicate those aspects of the personnel policies that need to be revamped for enhancing retention. In one company such a survey indicated that too much of differentiation and discrimination between the workmen and officers in terms of the canteen food, leave facilities and other work conditions reduced the resentment to management an enhanced commitment to the company. The attrition was more psychological than physical in this company. Psychological attrition and retirement are particular problems in Indian PSUs.

In the development sector CARE India is one such agency that undertakes periodic organizational climate surveys to keep in touch with the large number of employees engaged in development work and use it to restructure its processes and HR polices and retain people. It is interesting to have such a program in an organization where the jobs are contractual. In a development organization it is considered all the more essential to have motivated staff all the time.

HRD Audit also gives insights in to the factors that may enhance retention. In one HRD audit it of an electronics company located in Bangalore where the salaries for found technicians was 20 % to 30% more than the market salaries, intention to leave the company were related to lack of career plans of the company. The company did not have any career plans as even the strategic plan was being determined by the Head Office in Europe and year to year targets came through the MD of the company. On the basis of the audit, the MD of the company was able to present his case to the Head office and get a strategic plan prepared and also institute career planning mechanisms.

Audits and surveys by them selves are not solutions to the issue. Some times they could raise the hopes of an individual. In any case they are at best diagnostic tools and unless they are followed up in terms visible actions they may also set some amount of cynicism in motion.

Celebrations and Social and cultural Networks: In some of the surveys and audits with which TVRLS is associated it has been found that employees get a sense of belongingness if the organization encourages some form of social networks, cultural programs, team celebrations. These can be done with very little investments. By encouraging employees to have picnics, social gatherings, celebrations and festivals etc. we encourage some amount of social networking and sense of belonging ness. Tata and Birla group of companies are known for doing these in their own ways. Some of these organizations have created a sense of belongingness through their clubs, cultural forums and group celebrations and activities. When the person and is family feel at home with a company and have developed a social network retention goes up. Loyalty to colleagues can be thus made a significant retention force. New forums and methods need to be thought of to suit the requirements and chemistry of a given group. Thus in one case there may be an investment club, in another Golf Club, and a third cooperative society a fourth a charitable group to assist local community and so on.

Assimilation and Integration

Studies have linked the retention capacity of a firm to the induction and assimilation process. The new Economy industry and the need to be competitive require that the person needs to be indicted into the company even before he/she joins it. If the new employee joining at the top level joins the organization with full understanding of the culture, and the role he is supposed to handle a lot of employee turn over can be contained.

According to studies in the US while firms go to great lengths to hire new employees, only 20% of them stay two years. Nearly 70% of the newly hired seniors leave within two years .There is only a 50% chance that when some one takes up a new job he will be with the company for more than two years. In a 3 month period in the year 2000 alone 350 CEOs in the US let their jobs. According to a HBR article (2000, issue 78) 80% of a pool of executives changed their jobs within two years. Another study reports that 47% of executives appointed as presidents left within four years. In a study of 359 positions listed in resumes it was found that 68% left their previous jobs within twelve months. (Smart, 1999)

Bradford Smart (1999) estimates that the cost of mis-hires are perhaps.. 40 times base cost at top levels. When you consider recruiting, actual compensation expenditures, severance, and additional cost of lost productivity, the time it takes for some one to become productive, business mistakes and missed opportunities etc. Research by Sibson & Co in four high turn over four high turn over industries found that replacement costs have reduced the earnings and stock process by an average of 38%. The estimated cost of replacement has to be multiplied at least three fold for every top leader who does not make it failed or left the origination)

Effects of losing a leader ripple through out the organization.

X Loss affects the organization's competitive position due to leadership vacuum

X Triggers turnover at other levels

X Creates loss of developmental and intellectual resources

X Disrupts and weakens customer relationships

X Employee turnover has a significant effect on companies bottom-line by inhibiting their ability to keep current customers, acquire new ones, increase productivity, and pursue growth opportunities

People dont quit companies. They quit bosses. Numerous studies have indicated the correlation between job satisfaction and direct supervisors and managers. According to new study 41% of high value employees who intend to leave their jobs are dissatisfied with their managers or supervisors. Gallup of 2 million employees form 700 companies indicated that strong links between employee tenure and employee-supervisor relationships.

When a new leader joins the team they join three types:

X Functional team they lead

X Executive team they collaborate with including the senior leaders

X Project related cross functional teams

X When leader turnover is high the working alliances across the organization are not in place long enough to embed any changes that are introduced

The purpose of induction and assimilation therefore is to ensure that leaders will adapt and become full contributors in the new organization faster, better and with fewer destabilizing effects to the individual and the organization. A successful assimilation is one in which both the individual and the organization are transformed for the better and are able to leverage each others strengths to achieve mutually beneficial goals. The individual and the organization need to treat together for this purpose.

Assimilation of new leaders occurs in four stages: It begins with point of hire and completes when the individual is a full contributor and no longer an outsider. The assimilation journey is a continuous negotiation between the two extremes and they need

To be balanced.

The balance needs to be between:

X Being patient and becoming productive

X Setting ones own pace versus following organizations pace

X Trusting intuition versus making data based decisions

X Pleasing various stake holders versus meeting ones own priorities

X Implementing change versus respecting the culture of the organization

X Demonstrating competence versus seeking advice when one needs it

X Building relationships based on trust versus testing assumptions about others

X Intervening appropriately versus waiting until you have all information

X Drawing on the past versus not letting the past bind you

X Acting with authority versus staying in learning ode

X Not leading ego versus staying with confidence

X Making your position clear versus seeking feedback

X Affiliating with people versus maintaining boundaries

The HR Departments as well as the top management and other line manager have a responsibility to ensure that the managers indicted at the top levels assimilate the culture, role and other things of the company fast and manages the contradictions mentioned above. This will only ensure that the retention is higher and top management recruited newly into the firm give their best and high ROI.

Assimilation is both fluid and dynamic. It can be influenced by different factors at different points of time of the organizational life cycle. New leaders are most likely to leave when they lack support they need to their best work. Attrition is usually the result of not being able to contribute what they were hired to make. They are most likely to stay if they feel a deep commitment and affiliation to an organization.

Effective assimilation strategy:

X Acknowledges difficulties of entry into a new organizations

X Legitimizes and individuals adjustment period

X Builds in multifaceted supporting mechanisms an institutional level (peer support, tips on bridging organizational knowledge, and learning gaps) to asset the new leader through the process

Assimilation savvy organizations should:

X Focus on assimilation as a tool for retention and leaderships strategy

X Have a formal system and program of assimilation

X Use coaches for assimilation

X Use HR for assimilation process

People join an industry that is perceived as leader but stay only if they meet intellectual and emotional needs.

Coaching services: With increased competition and scope for career enhancement the world of executives is becoming a busy world. It is a world of work pressures, competition. Organizations pay more and put pressures on employees to perform as they need to get their ROI on CTC. The young manager is busy proving to his company that he can make a difference and serves what he is being paid. There is no time for family and self. This is resulting in increased stress and frustration. The world is becoming some times and for some people most of the time lonely world. In such a situation making available mentors, coaches and guides will go a long way in helping the individuals get the right type of counseling and advice. Such advise with a group of mentors and experienced counselors could go a long way in helping employee get realistic picture of what he is likely to get or dont get from the change he makes.

Employee Engagement: The best way to retain is to provide work motivation. Challenge, job satisfaction, treating the employee with significance, being sensitive to his needs, making the organization predictable with systems and practices that are not bent or changed to accommodate any individual at any time etc. may help retention. Using task forces could be constituted to examine the sources of attrition. When employees are adequately engaged and care is taken to see that they enjoy their job ad their families are taken good care of and adequate social and financial security is provided retention goes up on its own. There is no substitute for an engaging company with a secure and protective atmosphere. The engagement should come from challenge. There are many examples of HR practices that have been found to engage employees. Providing periodic training, learning opportunties, freedom and autonomy at the work place, recognition of contributions, supportive boss, recognition of contributions etc. will make a lot of difference in enhancing retention rates.

Market Driven Approach: Prudential introduced a building management capability program which integrates recruitment, retention and training efforts. The program is anchored by a sophisticated planning model that enables business managers to develop highly targeted retention programs that create cost-effective contingency plans for filling potential gaps in skills. Prudential has begun to assess how long the organization would like the employees to stay on board. They decide those whom the company wants to have indefinitely, those who should be there for a shorter period and those on whom retention investments dont make any sense. Then they use a number of mechanisms depending on the categories of employees. They tailor the programs for the retention requirements rather than employing them across the board (Cappelli, 2000)

Job Design and OB Customization: This method involves assessment of which tasks to be included in what jobs. For example the united parcel service mentioned earlier redesigned the job of drivers by separating the loading job from that of the drivers. Though it increased the turnover of the loaders it decreased the turn over of drivers which are considered an important role. The loaders could be replaced with ease. Designing the jobs for specified periods of time is another way of managing retention. If a person is appointed for a period of three years and the organization is prepared for the same and the employee is also prepared part of the issues resolved. CARE India and many other international NGOs use this approach. In customization programs the employees are given scope to define their job after an assessment of their skills and interests. Key employees might undertake a formal self-assessment of their work and non-work goals and how those goals could best be achieved in the context of company; operations. The assessments would form the basis for individual employment agreements, which might be created using cafeteria-style programs similar to those in allocating employee benefits (Cappelli, 2000 p 107).

Change of Styles through 360 Degree Feedback and Internal Customer satisfaction Surveys: Some times the style of manager may be responsible for employees in certain departments to leave. With supportive managers and Head of departments employees think several times before they leave. Some managers may not realize that their coercive style, excessive task centeredness, and the way they assign tasks including the clarity with which they give instructions, respect etc to employees have tremendous impact on their staying with the company. By recognizing the roles they play and the styles they exhibit and seeing the impact they are making senior managers can at least reduce the push factors for attrition. There are several cases of Senior Managers realizing the impact of their style in the 360 degree Feedback programs conducted by TVRLS.

Other Methods:

X Start with recruitment. Dont recruit those people who will be the most difficult to retain. Pay attention to this aspect from recruitment stage itself.

X Adapt to Attrition. Attrition is the order of the day. Market forces are too strong. Focus on what you can change. Dont focus on what you cant change and lose your sleep. Some times you dont have to recruit all high powered staff. In the olden days some of the business houses did not go to business schools where the graduates are expensive and are job-hoppers. These included a highly rated business schools. They recruited from the less popular business schools and found them to contribute a lot and stay loyal.

X Simplify and standardize jobs and use multi-skilling to help meet any contingencies.

X Focus on retaining intellectual capital even when employees leave. Think of appropriate mechanisms and build organizational memories and knowledge systems to retain talent and intellectual capital. Teamwork task forces and standardized systems help. IT support helps. Electronic records of employee knowledge helps in many cases.

X Cooperate with competitors. Form clubs and associations.

X Work with local schools and communities and develop a large source of skill base by giving projects and grants to local colleges.
Dear Mr BOB
Thank you for your views on attrition and turnover.I had seen one of your attrition and turnover calculator but i could not apply it.Kindly let me have it again with explaination on each application so that compresion becomes easier.My Mailid is .
I sridevi studying mba in Bangalore .i am doing project on employee absenteeism .as part of my achadamic.Please forward me a project report on that topic to mail id
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