Organization Development Interventions
Organization Development (OD) interventions techniques are the methods created by OD professionals and others. Single organization or consultant cannot use all the interventions. They use these interventions depending upon the need or requirement. The most important interventions are,
1. Survey feedback
2. Process Consultation
3. sensitivity Training
4. The Managerial grid
5. Goal setting and Planning
6. Team Building and management by objectives
7. Job enrichment, changes in organizational structure and participative management and Quality circles, ISO, TQM Survey feedback:
The intervention provides data and information to the managers. Information on Attitudes of employees about wage level, and structure, hours of work, working conditions and relations are collected and the results are supplied to the top executive teams. They analyse the data, find out the problem, evaluate the results and develop the means to correct the problems identified. The team are formed with the employees at all levels in the organization hierarchy i.e, from the rank and file to the top level. Process Consultation :
The process consultant meets the members of the department and work teams observes thie interaction, problem identification skills, solving procedures et. He feeds back the team eith the information collected through observations, coaches and counsels individuals & groups in moulding their behavior. Goal setting and planning :
Each division in an organization sets the goals or formulates the plans for profitability. These goals are sent to the top management which in turn sends them back to the divisions after modification . A set of organization goals thus emerge there after. Managerial grid:
This identifies a range of management behavior based on the different ways that how production/service oriented and employee oriented states interact with each other. Managerial grid is also called as instrumental laboratory training as it is a structured version of laboratory training. It consists of individual and group exercises with a view to developing awareness of individual managerial style interpersonal competence and group effeciveness. Thus grid training is related to the leadership styles. The managerial grid focuses on the observations of behaviour in exercises specifically related to work. Participants in this training are encouraged and helped to appraise their own managerial style. There are 6 phases in grid OD:
First phase is concerned with studying the grid as a theoretical knowledge to understand the human behavior in the Organization.
Second phase is concerned with team work development. A seminar helps the members in developing each member’s perception and the insight into the problems faced by various members on the job.
Third phase is inter group development. This phase aims at developing the relationships between different departments
Fourth phase is concerned with the creation of a strategic model for the organization where Chief Executives and their immediate subordinates participate in this activity.
Fifth phase is concerned with implementation of strategic model.. Planning teams are formed for each department to know the available resources, required resources, procuring them if required and implementing the model Sixth Phase is concerned with the critical evaluation of the model and making necessary adjustment for successful implementation.
Management by Objectives (MBO) is a successful philosophy of management. It replaces the traditional philosophy of “Management by Domination”. MBO led to a systematic Goal setting and Planning. Peter Drucker the eminent management Guru in 1959 has first propagated the philosophy since then it has become a movement.
MBO is a process by which managers at different levels and their subordinates work together in identifying goals and establishing objectives consistent with Organizational goals and attaining them.
Team building is an application of various techniques of Sensitivity training to the actual work groups in various departments. These work groups consist of peers and a supervisor.
Sensitivity training is called a laboratory as it is conducted by creating an experimental laboratory situation in which employees are brought together. The Team building technique and training is designed to improve the ability of the employees to work together as teams.
Job enrichment is currently practiced all over the world. It is based on the assumption in order to motivate workers, job itself must provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth. The basic idea is to restore to jobs the elements of interest that were taken away. In a job enrichment program the worker decides how the job is performed, planned and controlled and makes more decisions concerning the entire process.
Written for CiteHR.com 21st September 2005 From India, New Delhi