Might I make some observations about competency-based TNA?
TNA or training needs analysis is the process of determining the training needs of a particular individual or group of individuals/whole organisation.
The key word for me here is 'needs'.
Who defines 'needs'?
The answer is - the stakeholders.
Who are the stakeholders?
Well, try this list - I'm sure there's more....
1 - Line Manager - is accountable for the performance and capabilities of his or her team, and so will be keen to make sure that every member of the team is performing at or above the minimum standards today, AND is getting ready to perform at the min standards for the future, even if these require totally new skills or competencies.
2 - Shareholder - who receives the financial benefit or loss arising from any efforts made by all the employees - benefits arising from better profits, loses from expenditure being too high (e.g. on training!)
3 - Training department - who don't want to be seen to be doing a bad job - would rather have a reputation for being a true business partner to line management in adding real value.
4 - Individual employee - would like to do a good job each day, and prepare for a great career in the future.
I notice that not all of these stakeholders are explicitly catered for in Diksha's questionnaire - but this could be easily added to.
Competences frequently aren't considered in terms of performance levels, though this is implied... COMPETENT to a DEFINED STANDARD.
Such DEFINED STANDARDS are usually expressed in terms of performance objectives. In turn, performance objectives comprise 3 elements:
1 - Task/Action/Behaviour - in otherwords, what is to be done or achieved, e.g. unload container ship
2 - Standard - the level this is to be done to or achieved, e.g. unload 25 containers from the ship in each hour.
3 - Condition - under what circumstances is this to be achieved, e.g. during night and day, and in all operating conditions, using standard quay gantry cranes.
If the condition was instead to be "using the ship's own derrick crane" this would perhaps suggest that the standard in (2) needs to be different, e.g. 18 containers per hour, as it simply takes longer.
With this structure it is much easier to structure and design the training to meet specific performance objectives.
So adding a list of such structured performance objectives to Diksha's questionnaire would really help.
Before doing the TNA I would suggest a business case and impact model be developed, which sets the context and scenario under which the training could be justified, such as
"For the past 3 months the rate of unloading containers from ships has averaged 20 containers per hour, and the standard is 22 containers per hour. This has resulted in ships leaving late or not fully serviced, resulting in penalty payments having to be made to the shipping lines. This has so far cost the company $250K. If this continues, penalty payments may exceed $1 million for the year.
Action is required to raise the consistent crane rate for all crane operators to 23 containers per hour within the next 3 months."
By linking the TNA to these kinds of impact statements or business cases, each TNA has a business case and context, so making it easier to get the funding for the training, and making it easier to link training outcomes and business performance measures and the bottom line.
This in turn makes for very good reputation of the training department.
Have a great day!
21st June 2006 From United Kingdom,
linked to this site not too long ago but i just want to say kudos to all you out there contributing to this. It's really a good site, and pushes you to improve on your expertise with all the suggesstions, proposals, samples etc. It's Great!
26th June 2008 From Ghana, Accra
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17th September 2010 From India, Mumbai