Vinaykumar07
Human Resource
Samvedan
Consultancy_hr & Ir
Leolingham2000
Management Consultant
Jawaid
Hr Professional
Shamil
Academician

Thread Started by #jawaid

Dear All,
I'm in the process of making job descriptions for our organization, i would appreciate if you people share that what is the procedure to make effective job descriptions and how should a JD Questioner.
Looking forward for an early action.
Best regards,
Jay
29th August 2006 From Pakistan, Karachi
hi, the easiest way out would be if you could find similar JDs for the jobs in your organization. else its a hectic proces. you can also try onet web site. regards shamil
2nd September 2006 From Sri Lanka
Hi,

Job Descriptions are interesting but short-cuts often land us in trouble.

JDs are intended to convey to the incumbent the expected performance from him and parameters to his authorities, the coordination he must have with other functions.

The ground work necessary for preparing JDs covers:

1) Define Organization Structure showing all levels in which employees may be employed. These are "levels of significance".

2) Define the "organization of work" in your organization. This is "functionalization".

3) You will thus get "reporting relationships" in your organization that will show at each level who is responsible to do work and who is responsible to get work done. That will highlight "accountability".

4) While you may include, KRAs/KPAs and Performance Indicators, frankly these are critical to Performance Appraisal Systems and so will not elaborate here.

I am attaching a specimen JD which I terms as Job Profile as to me, JDs slowly get to be understood as Duty Lists which is not right.

You are invited to raise more questions after reading this response. I will try to explain and elaborate.

Regards

samvedan

September 3, 2006
3rd September 2006 From India, Pune

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Jay,

The first step in developing JD , is job analysis.

I have listed, herebelow , a sample format.

Only on completion of the job analysis, you should develop JD.

This job analysis form can be completed in a number of ways,

which is shown below.

IT IS NOT A COMPLICATED PROCESS, BUT IT IS TEDIOUS

BUT MUST BE DONE TO MAKE SURE YOU HAVE THE JD

FOR EVERY POSITION.

job analysis

Breaking down the complexity of a person's job into logical parts such as duties and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems.

job description

A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with a job.

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.

There are two key elements of a job analysis:

1. Identification of major job requirements (MJRs) which are the most important duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled. They are the main purpose or primary reasons the position exists. The primary source of MJRs is the most current, official position description.

2. Identification of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required to accomplish each MJR and the quality level and amount of the KSAs needed. Most job analyses deal with KSAs that are measurable, that can be documented, and produce meaningful differences between candidates. Typically, possession of KSAs is demonstrated by experience, education, or training. The goal of KSAs is to identify those candidates who are potentially best qualified to perform the position to be filled; they are most useful when they provide meaningful distinctions among qualified candidates. Source documents for KSAs may be the position description, HRM standard qualifications and job classification standards.

==========================================

FIRST STEP --CLASSIFY THE JOB

STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS

THIS IS USA BASED . CHECK THE INDIAN SIC [ standard pakistan classifications]

The Occupational Classification System manual was created for Bureau of STATISTICS field economists to help ensure correct occupational matches when collecting compensation data. Available to the public, this manual allows the user to lookup job descriptions for occupations and is used by field economists in the classification of thousands of occupations.

Major Occupational Groups (MOGs)

MOG A Professional, Technical and Related Occupations

MOG B Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations

MOG C Sales Occupations

MOG D Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical

MOG E Precision Production, Craft, and Repair Occupations

MOG F Machine Operators, Assemblers, and Inspectors

MOG G Transportation and Material Moving Occupations

MOG H Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers

MOG K Service Occupations, Except Private Household

================================================

SECOND STEP- CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS

Interview Methods

Structured Interviews A structured interview may assume a definite format involving:

charting a job-holder's sequence of activities in performance

an inventory or questionnaire may be used

Care is needed to set up such interactions. A specialist analyst is not involved and participants need to know what they are doing, why and what is expected as a result. They may be intrained as interviewers and not structure the interview as recommended. Notes and records may be needed for subsequent analysis.

A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. The manager is the analyst.

Interview Outcomes

Interviewing is a flexible method for all levels and types of job. An interview may focus on what a hypothetical job might involve.

Interviews generate descriptive data and enable job-holders to interpret their activities. A good interviewer can probe sensitive areas in more depth. Structured questionnaires cannot easily do this. Jobholders can give overviews of their work and offer their perceptions and feelings about their job and the environment. Rigid questionnaires tend to be less effective where the more affective aspects of work are concerned.

However information from different interviews can be

hard to bring together

there is potential for interviewer bias

certain areas of the work may fail to be picked up

an interview may stress one area and neglect others.

there are problems in interpretation and analysis with the possibility of distorted impressions

the subjectivity of the data captured needs to be considered

Interviewing as the sole method of job analysis in any particular project has disadvantages. Interviews are time consuming and training is needed. Co-counselling may remove the analyst and enable jobholders to discuss work between themselves. Through inexperience however they may miss items and there is the natural problem of people not establishing and maintaining rapport with each other during an interview.

Methods of Job Analysis

Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:

review of job classification systems

incumbent interview

supervisor/direct boss interviews

expert panels [ direct boss/HRM/ others]

structured questionnaires

task inventories

check lists

open-ended questionnaires

job observations

incumbent work logs

A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.

The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.

THIRD STEP ---ANALYSIS OF THE JOB.

What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?

Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:

Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.

Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.

Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.

Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.

Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.

What does or should the person do?

What knowledge, skill, and abilities does it take to perform this job?

What is the result of the person performing the job?

How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization?

What is the job’s contribution toward the organization’s goals?

The process may seek to obtain information about the:

work

worker

context within which the job exists

=================================================

FOURTH STEP - DEVELOPING JOB DESCRIPTORS

Worker Functions. The relationship of the worker to data, people, and things.

Work Fields. The techniques used to complete the tasks of the job. Over 100 such fields have been identified. This descriptor also includes the machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in the job.

Materials, Products, Subject Matter, and/or Services. The outcomes of the job or the purpose of performing the job.

Worker Traits. The aptitudes, educational and vocational training, and personal traits required of the worker.

Physical Demands. Job requirements such as strength, observation, and talking. This descriptor also includes the physical environment of the work.

skills

abilities

knowledge

tasks

work activities

work context

experience levels required

job interests

work values/needs

FIFTH STEP -- DEVELOPING JOB DESCRIPTIONS/JOB SPECIFICATIONS

There are as many different formats for job descriptions as there are jobs, but there are some basic pieces of information that most job descriptions have. Include them in yours, if you feel they are appropriate.

Job Scope . This section should contain a brief summary of the information found in more detail elsewhere in the description. A summary shouldn't be more than a few sentences long and should explain the main purposes and functions of the job.

Detailed duties and responsibilities. This is a more detailed description of the duties involved and separates the essential functions of the job from the incidental job functions for purposes of the ADA.

Accountabilities. A list of outcomes, the position is responsible for.

Skills required to perform the job. This can include compensable factors such as education, experience, and abilities.

Importance of job duties and tasks. Ranking the duties from most important to least important is a good way to convey this information since the task that consumes the most time is not necessarily the most important task. You can rank on a scale of one to 10, for example.

When and how often the tasks are performed. You might want to mention that certain tasks are only done once a month, quarter, year etc.

Job environment. Job environments can impact significantly on workers' motivation and job satisfaction. For example, it's a good idea to include in job descriptions factors like the fact that the work is done off-premises, or mention the existence of hazards, noises, physical proximity of other employees, and opportunities to communicate with other employees. Including these factors in the job description helps job applicants better understand the requirements of the job and helps you select the best candidate for the position.

Working Relationship. should include 1] direct reporting 2] dotted line communication 3]others.

Competencies.

KRA [ Key responsible areas]

KPA [ Key performance areas]

KPI [ Key performance indicators]

KPC [ Key performance criteria]

JOB ANALYSIS FORM

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Job title Name

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Department Responsible to

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Responsible to job holder

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OVERALL PURPOSE

Describe as succinctly as possible (one or two sentences) the overall purpose of the

job, ie in general terms, what the job holder is expected to achieve.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

KEY RESULT AREAS

Specify the key result areas (not more than 10) which govern the achievement of the

overall purpose of the job. Describe each key result area in one sentence beginning

with an active verb.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.

FACTOR ANALYSIS

By reference to the job analysis questionnaire, describe the characteristics of the job with regard to each of the five job evaluation factors.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Knowledge and skills

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Responsibility

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Decisions

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Complexity

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Contacts

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Job analysis carried out by (signed) Date

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Agreed by job holder (signed) Date

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Agreed by job holder's manager (signed) Date

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Are there any professional, technical or academic qualifications that you must have to do this job?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. What sort of experience and how much of it did you need before starting your job?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. What sort of training and how much of it did you need before starting your job?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. How long did it take you to become fully competent in your job after you started in it?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.What sort of training and how much of it have you had since starting your job?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RESPONSIBILITY

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. What contribution do you make to achieving the objectives of your section or department?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11. What resources do you control in the form of people, money or equipment?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

12. How much authority have you got over these resources?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

13. If someone in your job were to make a major error, what effect would it have on on the performance of your section or department?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

14. How easy or difficult would it be to detect such a mistake?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DECISIONS

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

15.How much guidance is available to you on what needs to be done and

how to deal with problems?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

16.Are there any matters on which you have to seek the prior permission of

your manager before taking action?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

17.How often are you in contact with your manager and on what sort of

matters?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.How does you manager know that you are doing your job properly?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COMPLEXITY

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

19. To what extent do you have to switch attention to different tasks

or problems during the day?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

20.How many people will you be in contact with on matters concerning your

work during the day?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

21.Do you have to use different sorts of equipment? If so, what?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

22.How complicated are the procedures you have to follow in carrying out

your job?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONTACTS

----------------------------------------------------------------------

23.With whom do you deal on matters concerning your work and on what

sort of matters?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

24.What skills have you to use in your job in dealing with people?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

REGARDS

LEO LINGHAM
3rd September 2006 From India, Mumbai
Hi

POSITION DESCRIPTION TEMPLATE

A. POSITION SUMMARY

(Summary or restatement of the goals of the position plus additional information that applies to the entire position, such as the level of supervision, the physical location, size of unit, staff, budget, etc.)

B. GOALS AND WORKER ACTIVITIES ( % A, B, C etc,)

A. (Goal - Major area of responsibility of the position.

Goals A, B, C, etc., should be listed in descending order of importance

and must include percent, 5% or greater.

Each goal should begin with a noun, such as "Management of, Coordination of, Preparation of, Supervision of," etc.

A1. (Worker activity - Specific task the employee performs to

accomplish the goal. Worker activity statements describe

what a worker actually does and should be listed in the order

in which the tasks are performed.

Assign a percent of time if possible - always, if the activity constitutes at least 10% of the position - and begin each with a verb, such as "File ...,

Maintain ..., Compose ..., Hire and evaluate ...," etc.)

A2. (Next Worker Activity)

A3. (Next Worker Activity)

(XX)% B. (Second most important goal)

B1. (Worker Activity)

B2. (Next Worker Activity)

B3. (Next Worker Activity)

...

Hope this will give you some inpust..

Rgrds

Vinay

http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/grou...ResourceOnLine

9866254387


8th September 2006 From India, Hyderabad
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