It would be good to check if the same appointment letter has a clause for notice period, stating that on resigning the employee is supposed to serve a notice period. If there is a clause on serving the notice period, then this contradicts the clause that termination can happen without assigning any reason.
This is because the appointment letter then becomes invalid providing advantage to the company, but not to the employee who cannot leave whenever she/he wants to.
In the US, there is the "at will employment" which provides the employer and the employee the benefit of ending their work relationship without any notice or reason, as long as there is no ground for discrimination or retaliation of any kind. Under such arrangements, the company can terminate the employee's services anytime or the employee can leave the company anytime without serving any notice period.
Now, if your appointment letter poses terms of at will employment, which is most unlikely in India, you can still provide evidence from the harassment you have suffered over the months, stating that your exit was part of a "constructive discharge" where an employee is made to feel uncomfortable in a hostile work environment finally resulting in exit.
9th October 2019 From India, Bengaluru
Yes there is a clause about notice period too, but it says either party can wave off the notice period by paying salary equivalent to the notice period duration.
9th October 2019 From India, Hassan
Now coming to the protection available to employees, there are two approaches, viz, approach for an employee who had no reportee under him or a worker as per definition of Industrial Disputes Act and approach for an employee who had supervisory or managerial powers as per FUNCTIONS. I have highlighted the word "functions" because you may be designated as Manager but you may not have any managerial right,like, right to approve leave of your subordinate, initiate disciplinary action against the subordinate or do performance appraisal of your subordinate. In the case of former, the provisions of the ID Act will prevail over the provisions of the appointment order and you cannot terminate an employee without following the procedures given in the ID Act whatever be the terms agreed by the employee. On the other hand, the provisions of the ID Act has nothing to do with service conditions of managerial persons. For them the contract of employment will prevail. However, this does not mean that you can make an agreement with clauses which favour the employer only.
9th October 2019 From India, Kannur
You challenge your termination by filing a case in labour office/civil court as per the position. Let the court decide, whether the termination is right & justified as per terms of appointment.
The court has got ample authority to treat the clause good or bad in the light of action. Take an oppurtunity prove your employer wrong by giving a fight.
10th October 2019 From India, Mumbai