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Please Elaborate on new methods of 'on the job' and 'off the job' Training.
From India, Chennai

There are two methods through which managers can improve their knowledge and skills. One is through formal training and other is through on the job experiences. On the job training is very important since real learning takes place only when one practices what they have studied. But it is also equally important in gaining knowledge through classroom learning. Learning becomes fruitful only when theory is combined with practice. Therefore on the job methods can be balanced with classroom training methods (off-the-job methods).
On-the-job training methods are as follows:
1. Job rotation:
This training method involves movement of trainee from one job to another gain knowledge and experience from different job assignments. This method helps the trainee under¬stand the problems of other employees.
2. Coaching:
Under this method, the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training and provides feedback to the trainee. Sometimes the trainee may not get an opportunity to express his ideas.
3. Job instructions:
Also known as step-by-step training in which the trainer explains the way of doing the jobs to the trainee and in case of mistakes, corrects the trainee.
4. Committee assignments:
A group of trainees are asked to solve a given organizational problem by discussing the problem. This helps to improve team work.
5. Internship training:
Under this method, instructions through theoretical and practical aspects are provided to the trainees. Usually, students from the engineering and commerce colleges receive this type of training for a small stipend.
2. Off-the-job Methods:
On the job training methods have their own limitations, and in order to have the overall development of employee’s off-the-job training can also be imparted. The methods of training which are adopted for the development of employees away from the field of the job are known as off-the-job methods.
The following are some of the off-the-job techniques:
1. Case study method:
Usually case study deals with any problem confronted by a business which can be solved by an employee. The trainee is given an opportunity to analyze the case and come out with all possible solutions. This method can enhance analytic and critical thinking of an employee.
2. Incident method:
Incidents are prepared on the basis of actual situations which happened in different organizations and each employee in the training group is asked to make decisions as if it is a real-life situation. Later on, the entire group discusses the incident and takes decisions related to the incident on the basis of individual and group decisions.
3. Role play:
In this case also a problem situation is simulated asking the employee to assume the role of a particular person in the situation. The participant interacts with other participants assuming different roles. The whole play will be recorded and trainee gets an opportunity to examine their own performance.
4. In-basket method:
The employees are given information about an imaginary company, its activi¬ties and products, HR employed and all data related to the firm. The trainee (employee under training) has to make notes, delegate tasks and prepare schedules within a specified time. This can develop situational judgments and quick decision making skills of employees.
5. Business games:
According to this method the trainees are divided into groups and each group has to discuss about various activities and functions of an imaginary organization. They will discuss and decide about various subjects like production, promotion, pricing etc. This gives result in co-operative decision making process.
6. Grid training:
It is a continuous and phased programme lasting for six years. It includes phases of planning development, implementation and evaluation. The grid takes into consideration parameters like concern for people and concern for people.
7. Lectures:
This will be a suitable method when the numbers of trainees are quite large. Lectures can be very much helpful in explaining the concepts and principles very clearly, and face to face interaction is very much possible.
8. Simulation:
Under this method an imaginary situation is created and trainees are asked to act on it. For e.g., assuming the role of a marketing manager solving the marketing problems or creating a new strategy etc.
9. Management education:
At present universities and management institutes gives great emphasis on management education. For e.g., Mumbai University has started bachelors and postgraduate degree in Management. Many management Institutes provide not only degrees but also hands on experience having collaboration with business concerns.
10. Conferences:
A meeting of several people to discuss any subject is called conference. Each par­ticipant contributes by analyzing and discussing various issues related to the topic. Everyone can express their own view point.

From India
In today’s world, training has become an organization to train and enhance some specific skills in their current and new employees. The two ways of providing training to workers are on-the-job training and off-the-job training. From their name, it suggests that the former refers to the training imparted at the real task location includes ‘hands-on’ training, where the latter method includes providing training to the workers at a place rather than the actual job location. On the job training is very important since real learning takes place only when one practices what they have studied. Some of the on job training methods are;

1. Coaching or one-on-one training

Coaching is an excellent way to train the recruit, which is role-specific and looks to comprehensively give training to your hires on the duties of their job role. It will also enlighten what is required of them to work efficiently and successfully in the team and the broader business.

2. Mentoring programs

Mentoring is a mutually beneficial training method in which a more expert staff member gives support and guidance to a new member. In addition to technical training and support, mentors also provide emotional advice and support to new employees. This training is crucial for onboarding as it helps to effectively develop bonds between the staff of varying departments, fostering cohesion throughout the business.

3. Computer or online-based training modules

Online programs are right on the job training ways, as they are comprehensive, and they do not need the presence of other staff. Most programs explicitly tailored to the needs of your recruit and the team in which they will work.

4. Job rotation

Job rotation is the practice of rotating a recruit between various roles in an organization. Job rotation can help to proffer them more extensive experience and train them in different skills. This approach will improve your recruit’s knowledge of the work.

There are some of the off the job training methods;

1. Individual lectures: This is also known as classroom training, where the recruits learn about their job requirements and the necessary skills required for implementing the job. The main objective of this practice is to make the employees well informed about their job roles and discuss their questions arising from the lectures.

2. Simulation: The employees are required to gain knowledge of machines and equipment that look the same as the same to those equipped on the real work floor.

3. Vestibule Training: The training is provided to the technical staff, office staff, and the employees who come to know the operations of tools and equipment installed at a place away from the real workplace.

4. Case Studies: The trainees are given a situation or a problem in the form of case study, and are required to solve it as per their learning from the training program.

5. Management Games: Under this method, the trainees are divided into groups, and then they are presented with the simulated marketplace or the situations wherein they are required to apply their learning and solve the problems accordingly.

From Australia, Melbourne
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From Ukraine, Kyiv
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