Performance Appraisals - 360 Degree - CiteHR
Hanuma
Student
PriyaNair
Hr Assistant
Spruce
Executive - Hr

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Dear All,
Good Afternoon.
I have heard about 180 degree Performance Appraisal & 360 Degree Performance Appraisals. What type of Performance Appraisal is this?
And how it is done.
Hope my friends can help me.
Regards
Priya

The concept of 360 degrees makes me crazy. Let me get this off my chest ... there is no such thing as

"720 degrees." A circle has 360 degrees. That's it. That's all.

"A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized ° is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. When that angle is with respect to a reference meridian, it indicates a location along a great circle of a sphere (such as Earth, Mars, or the celestial sphere). The number 360 was probably adopted because of the number of days in a year." (Wikipedia)

Now that that issue is settled, let me take you through some of the basics of what a multi-rater means.

1. What is 360-degree feedback?

The term has become synonymous with feedback from multiple sources. Other names are multi-rater, multi-source, full-circle, group performance review, 180 degrees and, finally, the infamous 720 degrees. Someone coined the term "360 degrees" to represent a full circle of feedback from all angles, and we have been stuck with the misnomer ever since. Over the years, many consultants and organizations have tinkered with the 360 approach, creating 180-degree versions that collect feedback from limited levels, or a 720-degree approach which provides for two rounds of feedback (a pre- and post-test).

"The (360-degree) feedback process ... involves collecting perceptions about a person's behavior and the impact of that behavior from the person's boss or bosses, direct reports, colleagues, fellow members of project teams, internal and external customers, and suppliers." (Lepsinger 1997.)

2. Where do 360's come from?

The Booth Company suggests that in 1973, Clark Wilson, PhD developed the first 360 feedback survey instruments for management development. The first instrument was the "Survey of Management PracticesTM," and it has been used and studied since 1973. The origins of multi-rating can be traced back to the employee attitude surveys of the 1950s and 1960s.

3. Why use 360's?

The 360 combines input from supervisors, peers, and direct reports to provide a broad perspective on an employee's strengths and developmental needs. It has also been used extensively as part of an organization's performance appraisal system.

In addition, the aggregate data (cumulative results for a group) provide an organization with crucial information for effective strategic planning, overall training needs, improved team building and effective customer service.

4. Who uses 360's?

These days, the question should be, "Who isn't using 360's?" Not that they are being used necessarily well, but that is a separate issue. Most Fortune 500 companies have been using some form of multi-rater system for over 15 years. It is found less commonly in smaller organizations, and it is just beginning to migrate beyond North America.

5. When are 360's used?

On an individual basis, a multi-rater process—either from an online assessment or through the more involved structured interview process—can be invaluable for someone embarking on a coaching program. It is useful to conduct a second round (that "720 degrees") nine to twelve months later.

A number of factors need to be considered before pursuing any organizational 360-degree feedback program. The data collected MUST be based in clear and concise behaviors, criteria and competencies. The design elements and communications are as important as the implementation. Some other questions to be answered are:

Is the organization ready?

Is there trust?

Is the purpose clear?

How will the data be used?

Dear All, Greetings !!!! Can anyone advise me on the procedure of Performance Appraisal or the plan of action......... Expecting the response Thanxs Pooja
There is self appraisal done and approve and justified by the senior and also 360 degree appraisal.
To learn about 360 appraisal go on google.com
there are specifice format for every company designed in their own manner.
Regards
Niitu
9819126662

360 Performance Appraisal

Unlike, the traditional top-down appraisal where a supervisor appraises the performance of their subordinate, 360 Performance Appraisal incorporates multiple perspectives by using feedback from a variety of sources. These sources include peers, subordinates, customers, self, and supervisor.

May be called multi-source feedback, mult-rater feedback, multi-level feedback, upward appraisal, peer review.

The results of this type of feedback process provide an understanding how how the employee is perceived from different perspectives. This process helps an individual understand how others perceive them.

Feedback is essential to facilitating performance improvements. Feedback allows people to utilize their strengths to their advantage. Feedback informs employees which actions create problems for others and to know what changes may be needed.

360 Performance Appraisal: Uses

Uses for 360 Performance Appraisal include:

· Employee Development

· Performance Appraisal

· Performance Management

· Training Needs Assessment

· Evaluation of Training

· Attitude Survey

· Organizational Climate Survey

· Customer Satisfaction Survey

This process can also be a motivator of performance since it shows the employee that their opinions and views are considered important.

Benefits

May improve service to customers if they are able to offer feedback to the employee. 360 Performance Appraisal offers a more complete picture of the employee's performance. This feedback can provide guidance on skills that an employee may need to develop.

How it is conducted.

1. Develop questionnaire A questionnaire used for 360 Performance Appraisal typically contains items that are rated on a 5 point scale. These items may be developed to measure different dimensions of job performance (e.g., communication, teamwork, leadership, initiative, judgment, ...). Questionnaires also typically include one or more open-ended questions to solicit written feedback.

Questionnaires typically include from 50 to 100 items. When estimating the amount of time to complete the questionnaire you should estimate about 1 minute per questionnaire item.

If using a printed questionnaire form, you should consider using forms that can be scanned into a computer.

2. Ensure confidentiality of participants Steps must be taken to ensure the confidentiality of the feedback results. For example, feedback ratings from several subordinates may be combined (averaged) to mask the identity of an individual subordinate. Comments or written answers to questions may be summarized in the results to mask the identity of the author. The confidentiality helps ensure that the results are genuine.

3. Provide training/orientation Often the feedback process involves use of one or more questionnaires, confidential information, and involvement from many different areas of an organization. Therefore, training and orientation to the feedback process is needed to facilitate a smooth feedback process. During this training/orientation, employees should be informed of what 360 Performance Appraisal is and why it is being implemented at your organization. You may want to provide samples of the questionnaire items and/or feedback results.

4. Administer the feedback questionnaire Distribute questionnaire forms (if using printed copies) with instructions. May want to prepare answers to common questions if other employees will be assisting in the administration. If possible, post the questions and answers to your web site for easy access.

It is important to monitor the progress through the system in order to contact employees who need to complete forms.

5. Analyze the data Basic data analysis would include averages of ratings. More complicated analyses may include item-analysis and/or factor-analysis. Types of analyses include: Performance Dimension Summary; Summary-Performance vs. Expected; Individual Item Ratings; Item Ratings-Performance vs. Expected (normed); Highest- or Lowest-Rated Items (shows individual's strengths and weaknesses); Group & Organizational Ranking, and Recommendations for Development.

You may want to analyze the data by organizational division or department to assess group and organizational strengths and weaknesses. This can be used to support or promote training and organizational development.

6. Develop and Distribute Results Feedback results should be shared with the employee. It should not be mandatory that the employee share the results with their supervisor. However, you may want to make this an optional part of the performance review of the employee.

Most results for an employee will include a comparison of their ratings to the ratings of their supervisor and and average of the ratings from others (peers, customers...). The comparisons may be in the form of numbers or simple bar charts.

You may want to provide individual review sessions or group workshops conducted by a facilitator to help individuals review and understand the results and develop appropriate goals and objectives.

Dimensions

Responses are collected for items that fall under a specific dimension of job performance. A single questionnaire may contain dozens of questions that measure responses on one or more dimensions. Example dimensions are shown below.

· Problem Solving Items under this dimension measure how well a person can understand information and options, give appropriate considerations to information, make correct decisions, analyze and interpret information, and react to changing situations.

· Planning and Organizing Items under this dimension measure a person's ability to develop plans and objectives, develop long-term solutions, set business objectives adhere to schedules.

· Communication Items under this dimension measure the ability to present information formally and informally in both written and orally. Also measures the ability to communicate with customers, staff, peers and supervisors.

· Supervisory Skills Measures the individual's skill level in planning, organizing and overseeing the work of subordinates. Also measures a person's ability to manage work flow efficiently.

· Administrative Skills Measures an individual's ability to implement and monitor actions to ensure compliance with policies and regulations. Also helps identify the ability to distribute information, allocate staff and maintain records or documents.

· Business Control Measure the skill in, and concern for, controlling expenses, reducing costs, setting performance standards and reviewing budgets.

· Manager Potential Index A measure of the composite score of the scales reflecting an individual\'s overall ability to successfully perform management tasks.

Requirements?

A 360 Performance Appraisal process requires a coordinated effort to collect hundreds, or even thousands, of pieces of data. In addition, the validity of the results is enhanced by ensuring confidentiality of the participants.

The survey administration may require time (to complete the questionnaires) and computer resources to analyze the data.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE WITH FEEDBACK,

REWARDS, AND POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

Opening thought: We need to work smarter, not harder.

Feedback: objective information about individual or collective performance How am I doing? How does this compare to others?

Serves 2 functions: 1) instructional 2) motivational

Three sources of feedback · Others: are peers, supervisors, lower-level employees and outsiders.

· Task: the task itself is a source of feedback as to how well or not one does something.

· Self: however, there is often a self-serving bias that is used more by those with high esteem for themselves than low. Feedback must meet certain criteria to attain desired outcomes:

1) desire for feedback

· depends on self-reliance

· self-assessment ability

· preference for external information

Note: -recipients must be open to feedback

-low self-esteem, self-efficacy recipients do not often seek feedback

-high need achievers and self-monitors desire feedback

2) perception of feedback (positive or negative)

Feedback can be either positive or negative and people tend to process positive feedback much better than negative. · negative can have more positive outcomes because are motivated to improve

· negative must be presented carefully to avoid creating insecurity and defensiveness

· can damage self-efficacy

3) cognitive evaluation of feedback

· accuracy, credibility of source, fairness of system, performance-reward expectancies, reasonableness of standards

· if do not meet these criteria will be rejected or downplayed

· personal experiences dictates how these factors are weighed

· often has a profound and lasting effect on behavior

4) behavioral outcomes

· direction, effort, and persistence, and perhaps resistance --Resistance is one outcome of feedback and one that needs to be managed. If the employee sees the efforts as manipulative, it will lead to resistance as well other negative actions. Nontraditional Upward Feedback and 360-Degree Feedback Tradition has been top down feedback especially in a hierarchical structure. Newer organizational structures are trying new approaches (although Drucker recommend all of this in the 1950s) such as upward feedback and 360-degree feedback, meaning that a person can be evaluated from the top, the side, outside the organization, from those below in position, etc.

-There at least six (6) reasons why there is growing popularity for new approaches:

Traditional performance appraisal systems have created widespread dissatisfaction.

Team-based organization structures are replacing traditional hierarchies.

Multiple-rater systems are said to make feedback more valid than single source feedback.

Advanced computer network technology (the Internet and company Intranets) greatly facilitates multi-rater systems.

Bottom-up feedback meshes nicely with the trend toward participative management and employee empowerment.

Co-workers and lower-level employees are said to know more about a manager's strengths and limitations than the boss. As award-winning author of Science Fiction and other novels, Ursula Le Guinn, notes, "The slave knows the master better than the master knows the slave." -Upward feedback stands the traditional approach on its head by having lower-level employees provide feedback on a manager's style and performance. It is generally anonymous. Many managers resist because they believe it erodes their authority. -360-Degree Feedback is defined as "letting individuals compare their own perceived performance with behaviorally specific and usually anonymous performance information from their managers, subordinates, and peers". · Peer appraisals are seen as better than self-appraisals given the chance of self-serving bias. These approaches fly in the face of tradition and are quite often resisted with vigor. · Practical Recommendations: recommend anonymity and discourage using it for pay and promotion decisions. They say use it for managerial development and training.

Why Feedback Often Fails-These are six (6) reasons:

v Feedback is used to punish, embarrass, or put down employees.

v Those receiving the feedback see it as irrelevant to their work.

v Feedback information is provided too late to do any good.

v People receiving feedback believe it relates to matters beyond their control.

v Employees complain about wasting too much time collecting and recording feedback data.

v Feedback recipients complain about feedback being too complex or difficult to understand.

OVERALL Practical implications: · don't assume feedback will be automatically accepted

· managers need to establish credibility and trust

· negative feedback is often misperceived or rejected

· feedback is too infrequent in most work situations

· needs to be tailored to the recipient

· average and below performers usually need extrinsic rewards, while high performers respond to feedback

· recipients perceive more accuracy when actively (rather than passively) participate in feedback session

· destructive criticism causes conflict and reduced motivation

· the higher one rises in an org. the less likely one is to receive quality feedback about job performance

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