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i m att the copy of a string on the subject in 2005. hope its of som help. read on----
COmpetency is the cumulative effect of atttiutde skills and knowlegde predominanatly. A trait is exhibited through behaviour dimension which is observable
I am unsure of the industry you belong to. It is expected to be in the manufacturing vertical, according to me.
To do a competency matrix - you need to have clear roles and responsibilities and Job descriptions from where the competencies to perform that role effectively, can be arrived at.
Competencies can be functional(technical), behavioural and managerial. there are many classifications, though. The competeny level exhibited by each role/funcion will have variations and that also need to be demarcated. For eg:
Competency Definition and classification
Inter Personal Skills
Ability to interact and engage with peers, superiors and subordinates with assertiveness and empathy. Clearly communicates the views and keep the group’s point of view in mind while discussing issues. Manages internal and external clients in harmony
1. Beginner (individual contributor)
The extent of rapport and confidence enjoyed by this person with the team members is very minimal. The person is either not too engaged with others else new to the group
Enjoys moderate amount of confidence and rapport among people Able to manage very close associates only with whom most of the interactions take place.
Enjoys good amount of rapport and confidence among team. Able to manage the people relations, but people might not be willing to open up personally all the times. Individually can handle people well, but in a group may not be effective always
Enjoys high amount of rapport and confidence among people. Engages very well with everyone and plays a vital role in the balancing act during the times of disagreement among the team member. People confide personally and professionally on this person
Developing a competency matrix would involve processes such as :
Job Descriptions : as rightly pointed out by rajesh , you begin with a job description of the different technical and commercial positions existing in your organisation. The job descriptions should specifically focus on the primary and secondary roles and responsibilities that the position demands and the KSA ( knowledge , skills & attitude) required for the position.
Developing a competency dictionary : by conducting BEI / semi structured interviews you can develop a comprehensive dictionary of generic , functional , technical and leadership competencies. In the dictionary you would be defining the competency.
Competency Profiling : Once the competencies are defined , 3-4 competencies can be clustered into one specific competency cluster and then you can define the proficiency levels for each competency existing in the competency cluster.
Role Fingerprinting : Once the competency profiling is done then you define the proficiency levels of the competencies for each level.
Competency Mapping :Once the role fingerprinting for each position is done then all the employees at that level are mapped for those competencies as against fingerprinted one's. Some of the tools used during the process include psychmetric tools , technical tests and other role based interventions.
And then you identify the competency gaps and accordingly interventions are designed.
Thus the process of competency mapping is completed but it is a more permanant intervention , generally lasting over more than five years.
all the best
Mapping the competency is actually to arrive at the understanding of the employee's existing competency level and to compare the same with the desired level for that role
As Shweta pointed out once the competencies are defined and behaviur dimension is earmarked, we should be conducting an assessment to understand the competency level. Some of the tools
Assessment centre - using LGD, BEI etc
36o degree feeedback analysis or any other methodology
Once we obtain the data this is mapped against the desired level of competency - this is the person-position profiling - or matrix
Each competency will be having a particular standard (numerical scale) for a particular role and the identified data of existing level will enable us to figure out the gap. This is usually worked out as a chart
Identification of gaps will enbale us to suggest the required intervention for improvement
Competency mapping is important and is an essential exercise. Every well managed firm should: have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively.
The competency framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. As a result of competency mapping, all the HR processes like talent induction, management development, appraisals and training yield much better results.
1.2. Meanings and Definitions
1.2.1. What is a competency? Competency as a cluster of related knowledge, attitudes, skills and other personal characteristics that: -
• Affects a major part of one’s job
• Correlates with performance on the job
• Can be measured against well-accepted standards
• Can be improved via training and development
(Source: Scott Parry 1998, Project Management Competency Development Framework, PMI)
Competencies in organizations tend to fall into two broad categories:
Personal Functioning Competencies: These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).
- Functional/Technical Competencies: These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry.
1.2.2. Competency Profiling and Competency Mapping
What is Competency Profiling?
Competency profiling is the process of identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and judgment required for effective performance in a particular occupation or profession.
Competency profiling is business/company specific.
What is competency mapping?
Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and
identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, an attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully
Definition by “McClelland”
“Competency is an underlying characteristic of an individual that is causally related to criterion referenced effective and/or superior performance in a job or a situation.”
1.2.3. What is a Competency Model?
A competency model is an organizing framework that lists the competencies required for
effective performance in a specific job, job family (e.g., group of related jobs), organization, function, or process. Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an organization or profession to understand, discuss, and apply the competencies to workforce performance.
The competencies in a model may be organized in a variety of formats. No one approach is inherently best; organizational needs will determine the optimal framework. A common approach is to identify several competencies that are essential for all employees and then identify several additional categories of competencies that apply only to specific subgroups. Some competency models are organized according to the type of competency, such as leadership, personal effectiveness, or technical capacity. Other models may employ a framework based on job level, with a basic set of competencies for a given job family and additional competencies added cumulatively for each higher job level within the job family.
1.3. History of Competencies
David McClelland the famous Harvard Psychologist has pioneered the competency movement across the world. His classic books on "Talent and Society", "Achievement Motive", "The Achieving Society", "Motivating Economic Achievement" and "Power the Inner Experience" brought out several new dimensions of the competencies. These competencies exposed by McClelland dealt with the affective domain in Bloom's terminology. The turning point for competency movement is the article published in American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland titled where in he presented data that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact competencies required to perform a given job effectively and measure them using a variety of tests. This article combined with the work done by Douglas Brey and his associates at AT&T in the US where in they presented evidence that competencies can be assessed through assessment centers an on the job success can be predicted to
some extent by the same has laid foundation for popularization of the competency movement.
Latter McBer a Consulting Firm founded by David McClelland and his associate Berlew have specialized in mapping the competencies of entrepreneurs and managers across the world. They even developed a new and yet simple methodology called the Behavior Event Interviewing (BEI) to map the competencies. With increased recognition of the limitations performance appraisal in predicting future performance potential appraisal got focused. And Assessment centers became popular in seventies. The setting up an Assessment center was in integral part of the HRD plan given to L&T by the IIMA professors as early as in 1975. L&T did competency mapping and could not start assessment centers until much latter as it was not perceived as a priority area.
1.4. What Methodology is used?
The following methods are used in combination for competency profiling:
1.4.1. Literature Review
A preliminary approach to defining job content and identifying required competencies is to conduct a review of the literature to learn about previous studies of the job or similar jobs. Quite often, no previous studies have been conducted. However, if they do exist, they can be extremely helpful in providing an introduction to the job and a preliminary list of competencies to consider. The literature review supplements, but does not replace, other data collection methods. It simply provides a quick overview. Sources of published literature include books, professional journals, association magazines, theses, and dissertations. Unpublished studies may be available from professional associations, consulting firms, colleges and universities that offer training programs for your target job, and through the Internet. The quality of these studies will vary widely and they need to be critically evaluated before use.
1.4.2. Focus Groups
In focus groups, a facilitator works with a small group of job incumbents, their managers,supervisees, clients, or others to define the job content or to identify the competencies they believe are essential for performance. A series of focus groups is often conducted to allow many people in the organization to provide input.
There are different approaches to conducting focus groups. Typically, the facilitator willuse a prepared protocol of questions to guide a structured discussion.
Expert panels are a special type of focus group in which persons who are considered highly knowledgeable about the job and its requirements meet to develop a list of the
competencies required for success. The members of expert panels are typically persons who write about or do research in the relevant discipline, such as published academics.
1.4.3. Structured Interviews
In structured interviews, carefully planned questions are asked individually of job
incumbents, their managers, or others familiar with the job. Benchmarking interviews with other organizations are especially useful in achieving a broader view of the job or determining which competencies are more universally deemed necessary for a particular job. However, it is important to be cautious in applying the information collected from other organizations. There are many variables such as work environment, culture, and differences in job responsibilities that may limit the relevance of the information.
1.4.4. Behavioral Event Interviews
In behavioral event interviews (BEI), top performers are interviewed individually about
what they did, thought, said, and felt in challenging or difficult situations. The competencies that were instrumental in their success are extrapolated from their stories. Often, average and low performers are also interviewed to provide a comparison. The interviewer will ask questions such as: “Tell me about a time when you had an extremely challenging client” or “Give me an example of a situation at work in which you had to make a difficult decision.”
In surveys, job incumbents, their supervisors, and perhaps senior managers complete a questionnaire administered either in print or electronically. The survey content is based on previous data collection efforts such as interviews, focus groups, or literature reviews. The respondents are typically asked to assign ratings to each listed job element or competency. For example, respondents may be asked how critical a competency is to effective job performance, how frequently the competency is used on the job, the degree to which the competency differentiates superior from average performers, and if the competency is needed on entry to the job or can be developed over time. Survey respondents are usually asked to provide in writing any additional information that they feel is important.
In this data collection method, the research team visits high performing incumbents and observes them at work. The more complex the job and the greater the variety in job tasks, the more time is required for an observation. For a very routine job in which the same task is repeated over and over throughout the day, an observation of a couple hours might suffice. For very complex jobs, observation of a week or more may be required. If the job changes based on work cycles, seasons, or other factors, the observations may have to be conducted over a period of weeks or months. The observation process may include asking employees to explain what they are doing and why. Sometimes observations of average and low performers are also conducted
to establish a basis for comparison. The competencies required for effective performance are then inferred from the observations by persons who are experts in competency identification.
1.4.7. Job Description
Job descriptions are a basic human resources management tool that can help to increase individual and organizational effectiveness..
For each employee, a good, up-to-date job description helps the incumbent to understand:
• their duties and responsibilities;
• the relative importance of the duties; and,
• how their position contributes to the mission, goals, and objectives of the organization.
For the organization, good job descriptions contribute to organizational effectiveness by:
• ensuring that the work carried out by staff is aligned with the organizations mission; and,
• helping management clearly identify the most appropriate employee for new duties and realigning work loads.
1.4.8. Work Logs
In the work log method of data collection, job incumbents enter into logs or diaries their daily work activities with stop and start times for each activity. Depending on the complexity and variety of the job, incumbents may be asked to make log entries for several days, weeks, or months.
1.5. Area of Implementation
Figure No. 4 (a)
Recruitment and selection
Choosing the right people to join and progress in an organization.
Competencies can be used to construct a template for using in recruitment and selection. Information on the level of a competency required for effective performance would be used to determine the competency levels that new hires should possess.
Depending upon the accepted definition , competency data may take the form of behaviors, skills , abilities and other characteristics that have been associated with effective
Training and Development
Identifying gaps and helping employees develop in the right direction.
Knowing the competency profile for a position allows individuals to compare their own competencies to those required by the position or the career path. Training or development plans could focus on those competencies needing improvement. Additionally education and development curricula would be linked to improving competency levels to the needed levels needed for effective performance.
Career and succession planning
Assessing employees’ readiness or potential to take on new challenges
Determining a person job fit can be based on matching the competency profile of an individual to the set of competencies required for excellence within a profession. Individuals would know the competencies required for a particular position and therefore would have an opportunity to decide if they have the potential to pursue that position.
Rewards and Recognition
Competency based pay is compensation for individual characteristics for skills and competencies over and above the pay a job or organizational role itself commands. Individual characteristics that merit higher pay may come in the form of competencies (experience, initiative, loyalty and memory portability).
One old fashioned way of improving employee performance is by recognizing and rewarding effort. Competency pay is the best way to do so. Rewarding employees for their ability to make the best use of their skills and competencies in accordance with the organization’s needs was the logic behind this once popular HR tool.
Source: The Hindu, “Are you being paid for your competencies?”, January 29,2003
Performance Management System
Competencies are critical behaviors demonstrated on the job and, as such, are often included as part of performance management. Performance management is about achieving results in a manner that is consistent with organizational expectations and desired behaviors. Competencies provide expectations for “how” the job is performed, not just “what” gets done. Assessing competencies as a part of performance management is an important means of assisting employees in understanding performance expectations and enhancing competencies on-the-job. Most departments have their own performance management systems. Competencies may play an important role in these systems.
1.6. Benefits and Criticism of competency Profiling
• Employees have a set of objectives to work towards and are clear about how they are expected to perform their jobs.
• The appraisal and recruitment systems are fairer and more open.
• There is a link between organizational and personal objectives.
• Processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries.
• It gives a clear insight in the necessary qualifications for a job and therefore;
• Provides a common language for discussing job requirements and/or individuals' capabilities;
• Increases identifying the best resources to fill a given role
• Provides a tool to help an employee, manager or organization assess its competencies and identify its future needs;
• Ensures the link between business strategy and Human Resource functions;
• Allows strategic-level tracking of the collective strengths and areas of expertise within an organization.
• It can be over-elaborate and bureaucratic.
• It is difficult to strike the right balance between reviewing the competencies often enough for them to remain relevant but not so often as to become confusing.
• If too much emphasis is placed on 'inputs' at the expense of 'outputs', there is a risk that it will favor employees who are good in theory but not in practice and will fail to achieve the results that make a business successful.
• They can become out of date very quickly due to the fast pace of change in organizations and it can therefore be expensive and time consuming to keep them up-to-date. .
• Some behavioral competencies are basically personality traits which an individual may be unable (or unwilling) to change and it is not reasonable to judge someone on these rather than what he or she actually achieves.
2. RESEARCH DESIGN
2.1. Methodology Adopted
Figure No.5 (a)
Step 1 : Identify departments for competency profiling
Here we have to decide and select the departments within the organization which we would like to include into our study. It is to e noted that departments should be chosen based on their criticality and importance to the organization.
At the Torrent Research and Development Center there are 10 departments
For this project all departments have been considered except the four support functions namely being the information management department, human resource department, engineering department and Purchase Department functions.
Step 2 :Identifying hierarchy within the organization and selection of levels
Study the organization hierarchy across each of the selected departments. For Torrents Research Centers hierarchy please look at Figure No.2(a). For the purpose of the study at Torrent Research Center we have selected Senior Management(Assistant General Manager), Middle Management(Group leader/Research Associate/Manager) and Junior Management (Scientist II Executive).
Step 3 :Obtain the job descriptions.
For all three levels at every department we obtained each role’s job description and in cases where they were not available we conducted a detailed interview to derive a job description.
Step 4 Preparation of semi structured interview
As on of the tools for collecting information we prepared a list of questions that
would make up a semi structured interview. These questions would be put forth
employees at all three management levels .
Step 5: Scheduling of interviews
Obtain a list of employees from respective department heads and accordingly schedule interviews. A minimum of 5 candidates are to be interviewed at each level in each department.
Step 6: Conducting of interviews
We would have to arrange for the semi structured interviews to be carried out at a convenient time and comfortable location as per the candidate’s convenience. Please Refer to Annexure XI for Sample Set of questions.
Step 7 Recording of interview details
The candidate’s answers and opinions have to be recorded in as much detail as possible for further reference during the project.
Step 8: Preparation of a list of Skills
As per the interview and the details that were generated from the candidate, we will generate a list of skills observed for the job. Thereon from which a list of identified competencies should be drawn for each interviewed candidate.
Step 9: Repeat for next levels and functions.
The interviews and appropriate recording of answers should be done at all remaining levels and other departments within the Torrent Research Center.
Step 10: Make the list of the competencies required for the department for each level and each function giving behavioral indicators.
For each position at each department a list of competencies observed from both the job description and the semi structured interview (list of skills) should be drawn up.
Each competency should be given a name and an appropriate definition that clearly indicates its meaning and essence.
Step 11: Indicate proficiency levels
Take one competency at a time and indicate different proficiency levels. For the project four levels of proficiency had to be defined for every competency. Each proficiency level was defined in term of behavioral indicators.
Step 12 Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with Head of Departments.
Confirm competency definitions with respective Head Of Department’s and obtain from the required proficiency levels of each competency that is ideal for each role. Also locate any missing competencies.
Step 13 Preparation of competency matrix
Prepare a matrix defining competencies required and corresponding proficiency levels for each level across all departments.
Step 14 Mapping of competencies
Mapping of competencies of selected employees against the competency matrix as per their employee level and department. Here an employee’s actual proficiency level of a particular competency would be mapped against the target proficiency level.
so was this of any help
Thanks alot girish ...thak you so much .. i was infact looking for this type of info only ..now it has made my doubts clear...though i have serach hard on this website and others too and i did got some info but that that was all defining about competency and related matters not how to do it which made me little confused..but they way you have given me the answer ..it will help me now to make structured step by step progamme on how to go about it...I mean this article has helped me to know how o start and how end what exactly i was looking for...again thanks so much .......