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Hello friends, i need big time help. i need games around the change process which also shows some element of emotions in it. it will be nice of you people to help me out. please
From India, Ghaziabad

I am not sure about games in this process. It's very long. Please read it if you like it. Hope this information will be useful.

Please give your suggestion or views on this article.

Thank you

sonu :D

The Basics of Managing Change

Some key questions to get you started in understanding and working with change management:

What is change management?

Change management is a set of ideas, strategies, and skills that can be applied to engage change effectively. These may be applied

planning for change

implementing change

supporting continuous improvement following change

What kinds of change benefit from using change management?

Change management methods may be applied to any type of organizational change, including departmental mergers, technology implementation, creating team-based organizations and professional development.

It may be helpful to think about change management methods on two levels:

The first level of change management is generic enough to apply to any type of change, whether it's the creation of a new department or the implementation of a new technology. At this generic level, change management methods are mostly targeted at understanding the human response to change and creating effective strategies for engaging people to achieve change.

The second level of change management includes methods that are specific to a particular change. For example, in technology implementations, specific actions include establishing and communicating the business case for change, ongoing relationship building, communication and training for affected staff, redesigning business processes, and creating and sustaining groups to manage the project. While some of these activities apply to other types of change, this collection forms a boilerplate for technology implementation.

What are some examples of change management skills?

Here's an example of a change management idea: A guideline for assessing the likely success of a proposed change requires evaluating three key elements: the leadership capacity and attention span for driving the change, the business need for the change, and the energy of affected people for and towards the change.

An example of a change management strategy: For a communication plan, a leader should communicate about each step of the change "seven different times and in seven different ways" to encourage support for the change and help ensure its effectiveness.

Example of a skill: At the outset of a change process, a leader should meet with each major stakeholder group (staff, customers, suppliers, sponsors). Combine active sharing of the benefits and tradeoffs of the change with active listening to stakeholder concerns. This makes any resistance visible, discussable, and hopefully resolvable.

How can change management help me deal with change?

There are a number of ways change management helps people deal with change. Three key benefits include

Change management can help you recognize how powerful the human dynamics are in any change effort, how they dramatically affect the final result, and how you can use that knowledge to attain the best possible outcome.

A change management strategy can act as a map for guiding action and helping you "stay the course" rather than getting caught up in the complexity and tumult of change.

Change management ideas and tactics can help you develop the relationships you need to maximize the effectiveness of a change.

What are the stages that people go through when engaged in a significant change?

There are a variety of schemes for describing this general process, and each individual has a unique way of navigating them.

One helpful framework depicts change as a Four Room Apartment where we move from room to room as we navigate the challenges of change. Before change, we live in the room of contentment -- no need for change. As a need or demand for change comes along, we move to the room of denial where we are resistant to the change. After navigating through that room, we move to the room of confusion, where neither the old nor new offers firm guidance.

As things begin to come into focus, we reach the room of renewal, where our scattered ideas for the future may be arranged and structured in the best possible way. At last, once again we are in contentment. Then the cycle repeats, usually with many concurrent changes running through the four rooms. To learn more about this framework, see our article on the Four Room Apartment model of change.

What about personal change?

Significant personal change involves stages similar to those in the "four room apartment" model.

Solutions: What to Do in Each Room

Here are some general guidelines to help you manage yourself and others as you navigate the four rooms of change. Although broad, the OED team has found them remarkably valid and helpful in timing change management activities for healthy individual and organizational development. The solutions below are Weisbord's recommendations with minor embellishments from us. "In the organization" translates some of those into an organizational context.

In Contentment: No need to do anything but carry on maintaining and tuning the system.

In the organization: This is the status quo, which in our changing society and workplace implies a certain continuous learning and continuous improvement of the status quo. Making time for periodic check-ins to see how the organization inside and out is doing is a good health maintenance practice that will lessen the chances of being blindsided by change.

In Denial: Share information calmly. Don't force advice (you'll only deepen the resistance of denial).

In the organization: By definition, one is unable find oneself in the depths of denial -- but you'll recognize it as you emerge from it. So the strategy here applies most practically to helping others in denial.

A typical first instinct when dealing with a person or group in denial is either to not bother with them, or knock them over the head to wake them up. The former is too subtle and the latter too harsh -- neither will fit through the barely open cracks of awareness of those in denial. In a real life example, people might withhold information from a leader's likely angry reaction, so the problem grows and the leader and group chime in too little and too late in responding to the change. They may make it through, but far less gracefully and effectively than if they had followed Weisbord's advice not to force things on someone in denial, but to share information and create an environment where input is welcome.

In Confusion: Get people together. Share information. Focus on short term goals.

In the organization: These strategies are simple and practical. In Confusion, everyone is talking, imagining, wondering. Some are dreading. Eighty-five percent of the information that circulates in the Confusion Room is "smoke" with no substance. Much of it is rumor built upon rumor (think of the game of telephone, where people in a circle whisper a message from person to person and discover by the time it completes the circle that a far different, often amusing, message has emerged).

Getting people together helps them stay grounded, test information, and contribute ideas. Focusing on short term goals helps sustain the commitment to current clients and activities that remain at the core of the organization.

In Renewal: Give people some structure and let them put the new together.

In the organization: The promise and perils of the Renewal Room are often illustrated during retreats. In the prioritizing activities of some retreats, an energizing initiative comes to the fore. Then the meeting ends. If it ends without an action plan, the whole result is at risk -- and the group will probably settle for much less than that envisioned at the height of the meeting. Too structured an action plan is also risky, since people can feel excluded (especially those outside the room), or the invitation to be bold in responding can be squelched.

Your target is a promising solution that will challenge and stimulate people to be energized AND create enough structure to channel that energy into results.

Recall one other caveat from the Room of Renewal -- having emerged from the waves of confusion into this more buoyant place, it can be tempting to declare victory and abandon this change effort to go battle other change efforts that are still stuck in late denial or confusion. Do that and you will be pulled back into confusion. Bring it home first by keeping your focus on action and results

From United Kingdom, London

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The infusion and maintenance of strong corporate cultures begins with selection and training. At Southwest Airlines, for instance, only prospective employees who fit with the culture are hired. In companies such as Procter and Gamble, Daft describes the process of acculturation: ‘new employees are assigned minor tasks while they learn to question their prior behaviours, beliefs and values. Through extensive training, new recruits constantly hear about the company’s transcendent values and overarching purposes, about watershed events in the company’s history, and about exemplary individuals – the heroes.’

The way in which an individual becomes a fully integrated member of the organization is ordinarily addressed as an issue of socialization. Hebden (1986) talks of socialization as the infusion of organizational culture within newcomers (the ‘transmission of culture‘), as does Simpson (1967) that is, ‘learning the cultural content (skills, knowledge, ways of behaving) of a role and self-identification with the role which leads to internalization of certain values and goals’. Socialization has been studied from a number of different perspectives and conceptual orientations including, for example, information gathering approaches (for example, Ostroff & Kozlowski, 1992), cultural approaches (for example, Hebden, 1986), and social identity approaches (for example, Ashforth & Mael, 1989).

Schein (1971) describes socialization as individual movement within and between organizations. Whenever an individual crosses an organizational boundary (for example, moving from one rank to another) he or she is re-socialized to learn or construct a public self around the requirements of their changing roles. The focus of this model is, however, on structural and strategic aspects if socialization to the neglect of the cognitive and affective side of becoming an organizational member.

Socialization into a profession or organization may take place through informal and/or formal channels. Formally, induction courses may be run for new organizational recruits, which ‘sell’ the organization’s identity and culture through the company mission statement, provision of company literature (often branded and communicating the ‘flavour’ of the organization through specific use of language, phrasing and style) and via training. Informal channels of socialization may include: observation of existing workers; initiation rites (where a recruit is tested by employees); ‘buddying’ or ‘mentoring’; and being corrected for mistakes and organizational faux pas at the outset of one’s tenure.

The socialization process thus results in: specifications for behaviour (the appropriate rules and norms to follow); change in attitude (to reduce cognitive dissonance resulting from mismatch between one’s own attitudes and those of the group); and, if professional socialization, active internalization of ideologies, values and norms representing that profession.

Until recently, it has been assumed that the individual is a passive recipient of socialization practices regulated and controlled by a socializing agent. Nowadays, however, it is common to acknowledge that the recruit takes a proactive role in the socialization process via mechanisms such as ‘self-to-prototype matching’ (Setterland & Niendethal, 1993) and anticipatory self-stereotyping. For example, Niendethal and colleagues have shown that individuals seek out situations they believe to be self-defining and in which they receive self-verifying feedback. Individuals imagine the typical person found in a particular situation then compare the defining traits of the prototypes with those of him- or herself and select the product, situation or institution associated with the greatest similarity between the self and the prototypic person-in-situation (Setterland & Niendenthal, 1993: 269–270).

However, it is important to recognize that selection and internalization of prototype value sets may result in an idealized (and not realistic) perception of the group (and the self) during the socialization process. Thus, ‘reality shock’ may occur upon the realization that their stereotypical behaviours, norms and values are not consistent with reality. The mechanisms that may be used to reduce cognitive dissonance in such situations have been little studied. It is possible that such knowledge- and experience-based matching is under a constant review process, and is subject to change on a continuous basis over time, as suggested by Moreland and Levine (1982).

Research has demonstrated a clear link between perceived socialization experiences and commitment (Meyer, 1997: 197). Research has tended to rely heavily on the six-dimensional classification scheme of Van Maanan and Schein (1986). The dimension most strongly associated with commitment is ‘investiture versus divestiture’, which reflects the ‘degree to which newcomers received positive (‘investiture’) or negative (‘divestiture’) support after entry from experienced organizational members’ (. Investiture is found to be more strongly predictive of commitment that divestiture.

One potential problem with ‘instilling commitment’ is its consequences for employee inclination to be innovative. Another problem associated with the use of socialization practices to instill commitment is the tendency to focus on the form (that is, processes, practices), rather than the content (that is, messages) of commitment, and on organizationally initiated rather than employee-initiated (for example, information seeking) socialization strategies.

Commitment may also arise from the provision of training, although this is more of a knock-on consequence of training rather than an intended consequence. Research shows that commitment may result from perceptions of training efforts, as opposed to the training experience itself (Meyer, 1997). Commitment can, in turn, increase motivation to participate in training.

It is commonly expected that perceived provision for, and actual upward progression, will have a positive impact on employee commitment. Recent research indicates that this assumption should be qualified with reference to considerations of justice – that is, whether promotion procedures are perceived to be fair. The implication of this for organizations is the need to convey clear messages to employees about promotion opportunities and in particular how promotion decisions are made (Meyer, 1997: 200).

Within this context, the psychological contract has been seen both as a potential mediator of disillusionment in new recruits to organizations, and as a metaphor for career structure and development. Baker and Berry (1987) cited improved entry-level career counselling, combining dissemination of job-relevant information and recruit self-assessment in the pursuit of increased self-knowledge as resulting in improved person–job/organization match and an improved psychological contract between employee and employer. Feller (1995) discussed ways in which employment counsellors could assist clients in planning and taking action to enhance personal competitiveness in a workplace undergoing major structural change, using the psychological contract construct as a useful descriptor of that change process.

From Ghana, Accra
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