Leolingham2000
Management Consultant
Deepak586
Manager -hr
+2 Others

my question is how HRD re-energized the organization
From Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur


BARATHY,
HERE IS SOME USEFUL MATERIAL.

I HAVE SPLIT THE ANSWER INTO 2 PARTS
PART 1 AND PART 2

REGARDS
LEO LINGHAM
====================
PART 1


HRD--HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IS THE VEHICLE
FOR RE-ENERGIZATION OF ANY ORGANIZATION.

HRD as "a series of organised activities conducted within a specified time and designed to produce
behavioural change. HRD is about human beings functioning in productive systems"
.
particularly important because in HRD there is no preconceived recipe for success.
Every HRD process has to be designed, implemented, monitored and evaluated
according to its specific environment.
"Learning organisations are possible because, deep down we are all learners. No one has to teach an
infant to learn … Learning organisations are possible because not only it is our nature to learn but we
love to learn"
All categories of staff IN AN ORGANIZATION (managers, researchers, technicians or
support service staff; university or non-university educated staff are in principle eligible for benefiting from this HRD strategy.
Although the emphasis of this strategy is put on the permanent employees of the organization
there are also possibilities of training & development under this strategic framework
for the non-permanent staff .

HRD Strategies
Strategies are policies for action to achieve major goals; they are recipes for succeeding which are both planned in advance and emergent as experience is gained
HRD strategies are policies for action to achieve learning and development for performance improvement;
Not just formal written ‘training plans’, updated annually and used, for allocating budgets- though these can exist
They reflect core beliefs and the cultures of different kinds of organisations, leading to different levers for action
-----------------------------------
HRD STRATEGIES : THE OPTIONS
The Systematic Training strategy; job analysis, training professionals and formal courses
Business Orientation; business objectives, managerial involvement and performance review
Continuous Development and learning environments, self development (of self and by self )

1.Systematic Training Strategy
The planning and organisation of formal on-job training and off-job courses
Off-job course are run either inside the organisation or by outside providers
These course are designed and delivered by training specialists and professionals
Such training is often recognised or accredited and leads to the award of some qualification
Contextual Features
Bureaucratic culture
Formal systems
Accountable HRD professionals in action

2.Business Orientation
The promotion and advocacy of performance improving interventions by managers
E.g. National Training Awards Framework
Contextual Features
Performance culture
Project-management based
Manager led

3.Continuous Development
Aim to achieve a ‘learning organisation’, founded on experiential learning analysis
Contextual Features
Coaching and mentoring systems and culture
Self–directed and learner led
Personal Development Plans (PDPs)
Axioms
Any learning is a good thing as it leads to the embracing of the new and the extension of skills and capability
Learning which has the most potency is that chosen and specified by the learners themselves

-----------------------------------------------------------
Improvements in L&D process and practices
Formalise training procedures
Systematic instruction required
Develop tools to assist trainers
Set and use standards for competence
Clarify trainers roles and responsibilities
Get senior management commitment
Provide clearer guidelines to trainees
Improve record keeping; about the organisation, about training
Train the trainers
Test the STAFF


Benefits to the organization
Handle change more effectively
Encourage a learning culture
Contribute to productivity
Enhance confidence and morale
Help communications in the workplace
The outcomes may be qualification but are often not linked to qualifications and are seen to benefit the employer and employee by keeping the latter interested and able to learn.
adaptability in their daily work
commitment to the organisation
better information retention skills
higher morale
increased personal performance
more commitment and better understanding of job specific training
self confidence more willingness to learn
an increased ability to thrive on change
more ability to work effectively in teams
more commitment to building their careers or improving job prospects

BROAD AIMS OF CORPORATE HRD
Alignment to organizational business strategy
Blended learning adaptation
Promoting a culture of learning throughout the company
Integration of educational partners into the corporate university

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IS A MAJOR INTERVENTIONIST
TOOL IN THE CORPORATE / ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT.
HR DEVELOPMENT includes subsystems like
HRD SYSTEMS/ SUBSYSTEMS INCLUDE
-org. learning
-training
-education
-development
-Training evaluation
-e learning
-management development
-career planning
-career development.
-induction
-orientation
-performance management
-personal development
-KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
-WORKLIFE PROGRAMS
etc etc

1.ORGANIZATION learning
Organizational learning theory is concerned with how learning takes place in organizations. It focuses on collective learning but takes into account the proposition that organizations do not perform the actions, that produce the learning; it is individual members of the organization who behave in ways that lead to it, although organizations can create conditions which facilitate such learning.
ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
Organizational learning is concerned with the development of new knowledge or insights that have the potential to influence behaviour . It takes place within the wide institutional context of inter-organizational relationships and 'refers broadly to an organization's acquisition of understanding, know-how, techniques and practices of any kind and by any means. Organizational learning examines how in this context individual and team learning can be translated into an organizational resource and is therefore linked to processes of knowledge management .
Organizational learning could be defined as a process of 'coordinated systems change, with mechanisms built in for individuals and groups to access, build and use organizational memory, structure and culture to develop long term organizational capacity'.

Organizational learning is not simply the sum of the learning of individuals and groups across the organization. It can be said that without effective processes and systems linking individual and organizational learning, it can never be made effective.
Outcomes of organizational learning
Organizational learning outcomes contribute to the development of a firm's resourcebased capability. This is in accordance with one of the basic principles of human resource management, namely that it is necessary to invest in people in order to develop the intellectual capital required by the organization and thus increase its stock of knowledge and skills. Human capital theory indicates that: 'The knowledge and skills an employee has - which comes from education and training, including the training that experience brings - generate productive capital'.
It is equally important that the organizational learning focus should be on developing 'organizational capability'. This means paying attention to the intricate and often unnoticed or hidden learning that takes place and influences what occurs within the organization. 'Hidden learning' is acquired and developed in the normal course of work by people acting as individuals and,importantly as groups.

The process of organizational learning
Organizational learning can be characterized as an intricate three-stage process consisting of knowledge acquisition, dissemination and shared implementation . Knowledge may be acquired from direct experience, the experience of others or organizational memory.
Organizational learning takes place in a learning cycle as shown below.
[1]
Questioning
Exploring with
others the
outcomes and
behaviour
Reviewing and required Agreeing
consultation Working with
[6] By considering others to [2]
broader organizational explore
implications and learning needs
changing practices
Impienientation Modelling
By all parties Identifying with
[5] fulfilling other types of [3]
their part of the learning
agreement opportunities to
Negotiation help respond to
To agree rights and
opportunities to support
personal and team change
[4 ]

Principles of organizational learning
Five principles of organizational learning:
1.The need for a powerful and cohering vision of the organization to be communicated and maintained across the workforce in order to promote awareness of the need for strategic thinking at all levels.
2.The need to develop strategy in the context of a vision that is not only powerful but also open-ended and unambiguous. This will encourage a search for a wide rather than a narrow range of strategic options, will promote lateral thinking and will orient the knowledge creating activities of employees.
3.Within the framework of vision and goals, frequent dialogue, communication
and conversations are major facilitators of organizational learning.
4.It is essential continuously to challenge people to re-examine what they take for granted.
5.It is essential to develop a conducive learning and innovation climate.
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2.TRAINING
Training is concerned with the teaching of specific, factual,
narrow - scoped subject matter and skills. It is a formal
classroom learning activities.
EXAMPLES
*TIME MANAGEMENT COURSE.
*NEGOTIATION SKILL COURSE
etc.
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3.MANAGEMENT Development
is concerned with a broader subject matter
of a conceptual or theoretical nature and the development
of personal attitudes. It comprises all learning experiences,
both on and off the job, including formal, classroom training.
EXAMPLES
*JOB ROTATION.
*PROJECT HANDLING
*OVERSEAS COURSE LIKE [ HARVARD ]
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4.Education
is the act, process or art of imparting knowledge and skill
thru
-instruction
-pedagogics
-schooling
-teaching
-training
-tuition
-coaching
etc etc
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5.-e learning
learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology, e-learning can cover a spectrum of activities from supported learning, to blended learning (the combination of traditional and e-learning practices), to learning that is entirely online.
Whatever the technology, however, learning is the vital element. ...
E-learning is delivered using electronic delivery methods such as
-CD-ROMs,
-video conferencing,
-websites and
-e-mail.
Often used in distance-learning programmes.
Covers a wide set of applications and processes such as web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet, audio and videotape, satellite, and CD-ROM. However, many organizations only consider it as a network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.
================================================== ====================
" What are its advantages?
Advantages
Key advantages of E-learning are
- flexibility,
-convenience and
-the ability to work at any place where an internet connection is available and
-at one’s own pace.
E-classes are asynchronous which allows learners to participate and complete coursework in accordance with their daily commitments. This makes an E-learning education a viable option for those that have other commitments such as family or work or cannot participate easily e.g. depending on a disablility. There are also transportation cost (and time) benefits with not having to commute to and from campus.
The cost benefits of E-learning to large corporate organizations are difficult to ignore.
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
When using E-learning to train users of corporate computer systems, normally achieved by way of simulation-based learning content, the learner finds himself in a software environment that is exactly like the real one but which does not carry the same error risk. Unlike classroom training, users may repeat the E-learning course without duplicating the cost.
COST BENEFITS
It is commonly accepted that the initial cost of an E-learning implementation is expensive (once-off development cost), but that the cost of training (per user) goes down exponentially as more learners use the E-learning course material.

SPOT EVALUATION
When using E-learning simulations to assess learning progress, the instructor is assessing the actual competence of the user to perform a transaction and not merely knowledge of the system.

OTHER BENEFITS
-E-learning are the ability to communicate with fellow classmates independent of metrical distance, a greater adaptability to learner's needs,
-more variety in learning experience with the use of multimedia and the non-verbal presentation of teaching material. Streamed video recorded lectures and MP3 files provides visual and audio learning that can be reviewed as often as needed.

-For organizations with distributed and constantly changing learners (e.g. restaurant staff), E-learning has considerable benefits when compared with organizing classroom training.
############################################
6.career planning /development.
Career Planning is a critical element / outcome of SUCCESSION PLANNING,
Performance appraisal and Potential assessment systems.

The process of career planning
Career planning is the key process in career management. It uses all the information provided by the organization's assessments of requirements, the assessments of performance and potential and the management succession plans, and translates it in the form of individual career development programs and general arrangements for management development, career counseling, mentoring and management training.
MERITS OF Career Planning & Development Programs.
===========================================
FOR INDIVIDUALS
-Knowledge of various career opportunities / individual priorities.
-Internal promotuions, Up gradation and transfers
-Improves employees performance
-career growth as professionals
-professional growth opportunities
-opportunities for learning
-rewards for achievements
-performance oriented working
=======================================
FOR ORGANIZATIONS
-attracting and retaining talent
-Availability of human resources
-It ensures that people get equal opportunities for growth and development.
-Enhances cultural diversity
-Promote organizational goodwill
-roles are clarified in career counseling .
-more realistic approach of what is expected of them.
-personal career planning ability is increased
-human resource systems are effectively utilized
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. orientation

The orientation process is to effectively integrate the new employee into your organization
and assists with retention, motivation, job satisfaction, and quickly enabling each individual
to become contributing members of the work team


Purposes of Orientation
Orientation isn't just a nice gesture put on by the organization. It serves as an important element of the recruitment and retention process. Some key purposes are:
To Reduce Startup Costs: Proper orientation can help the employee get "up to speed" much more quickly, thereby reducing the costs associated with learning the job.

To Reduce Anxiety: Any employee, when put into a new, strange situation, will experience anxiety that can impede his or her ability to learn to do the job. Proper orientation helps to reduce anxiety that results from entering into an unknown situation, and helps provide guidelines for behavior and conduct, so the employee doesn't have to experience the stress of guessing.

To Reduce Employee Turnover: Employee turnover increases as employees feel they are not valued, or are put in positions where they can't possibly do their jobs. Orientation shows that the organization values the employee, and helps provide the tools necessary for succeeding in the job.

To Save Time for the Supervisor: Simply put, the better the initial orientation, the less likely supervisors and co-workers will have to spend time teaching the employee.

To Develop Realistic Job Expectations, Positive Attitudes and Job Satisfaction: It is important that employees learn as soon as possible what is expected of them, and what to expect from others, in addition to learning about the values and attitudes of the organization. While people can learn from experience, they will make many mistakes that are unnecessary and potentially damaging. The main reasons orientation programs fail: The program was not planned; the employee was unaware of the job requirements; the employee does not feel welcome.

All new employees should complete a new employment orientation program that is designed to assist them in adjusting to their jobs and work environment and to instill a positive work attitude and motivation at the onset.
A thoughtful new employee orientation program can reduce turnover and save an organization thousands of dollars. One reason people change jobs is because they never feel welcome or part of the organization they join. The most important principle to convey during an orientation is your commitment to continuous improvement and continual learning. That way, new employees become comfortable with asking questions to obtain the information they need to learn, problem solve and make decisions.
###############################################
8.induction
The INDUCTION should be simple to understand but must
be complete to create satisfaction in the minds of the new
employee.
This INDUCTION should cover three specified areas
-Corporate culture
-Policies and procedures
-Safety , benefits, rights and responsibilities.
ORGANIZATION
-history
-Mission
-Vision
-Organizaional Philosophy
-Organizational objectives
-Organizational structures
-Industry
-Products and services
-Customers
-Employee's department
-Facilities
COMPENSATION
-pay schedule
-payroll deductions
-worker's compensation [ if any]
BENEFITS
-medical [ if any]
-life insurance
-pension
-credit union [ if any]
-employee purchase [ if any]
-service rewards
ATTENDANCE
-work hours
-rules on lateness, sickness, absence
LEAVE AND HOLIDAYS
-holidays
-leave policy
HEALTH AND SAFETY
-safety guidelines
-first aid
-emergency procedure

SECURITY
-security procedures
-restricted areas
-confidentiality
COMMUNICATION
-Co. newsletter
-bulletins board
-employee handbook
-emails
TRANSPORTATION
-co. bus [ if any]
-parking
-travel policies
-travel expenses
PERSONAL
-rest breaks
-meal breaks
-smoking policy
-canteen locations
PERFORMANCE/ RESPONSIBILITIES
-expectation from the employees
-ethical standards
-conflict of interest
-probationary period
-dress code
-performance reviews
-suggestion box
-equal opportunity
-sexual harassment
etc
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9. performance management

Definition of Performance Management

Performance management is the practice of actively using performance data to improve the organization's health. This practice involves strategic use of performance measures and standards to establish performance targets and goals, to prioritize and allocate resources, to inform managers about needed adjustments or changes in policy or program directions to meet goals, to frame reports on the success in meeting performance goals, and to improve the quality of management/organization practice.

Performance Management is an ongoing dialogue between manager and employee that links expectations, ongoing feedback and coaching, performance evaluations, development planning, and follow-up.

Set Expectations
As a best practice, we encourage supervisors to define expectations for every position. These expectations and performance measurement standards should be communicated to new employees, and reviewed at least once a year with all employees. Expectations for each position can include: purpose of the position, key responsibilities - both tasks and duties, conduct expectations, and performance standards, as well as, measures such as quality, quantity, timeliness, initiative, and teamwork for each key responsibility.

Gather Data
Performance evaluations should not be a one time event. Supervisors are encouraged to gather data regarding employee performance in a systematic manner throughout the year. The Performance Record and the Coaching Log are guides that can be used by supervisors, in addition to their own best practices, to gather data throughout the year and provide ongoing feedback to employees regarding performance. This information will then be available to supervisors when drafting the Annual Performance Evaluation.

Performance Evaluations
As a supervisor, your role is to set expectations, gather data, and provide on going feedback to your employees to assist them in utilizing their skills, expertise and ideas to produce results. To provide this direction, you should communicate to employees what is expected of them, define satisfactory performance for those expectations, and then monitor and evaluate the performance on an on going basis.
The Annual Performance Evaluation should provide a comparison of actual on-the-job performance to established performance measurement standards. The Annual Performance Evaluation encourages periodic and structured communication between supervisors and employees about the job, and should take place continuously. While day-to-day evaluation is usually informal,

Annual performance evaluations are the final phase of an effective performance management system. As a best practice, we recommend that the process start with performance planning between the supervisor and the employee in which they discuss expectations, performance standards, and objectives for the next year. The performance management process both ends and begins anew with the Annual Performance Evaluation.


Feedback
Feedback is a process by which effective performance is reinforced and less-than-desirable performance is corrected. Feedback should be information that highlights the relationship between what is expected and what has been accomplished after the work is performed or the action is taken.
Feedback can take many forms; it can be informal or formal. It can be given as praise in the form of reward and recognition, or it can be corrective in the form of disciplinary or corrective action.


Development Planning
Development planning is the process of creating experiences for your employees that promote skills and knowledge related to the position, as well as to professional growth.
Development plans draw from the Performance Evaluation:
Performance goals or needs (deficiencies) to be addressed
The employee, with supervisor assistance, identifies ways to achieve those goals and/or address performance deficiencies in systematic ways
Address opportunities for professional growth
Agreement and/or commitment between employee and supervisor
Planned follow-up
etc etc
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PART 2 FOLLOWS

From India, Mumbai

BHARATHY
PART 2
Human resource development is the study and practice of increasing the learning capacity of individuals, groups, collectives, and organisations through the development and application of learning-based interventions for the purpose of optimising human and organisational growth and effectiveness.
HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organisation development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness.

The people placed the following subjects under the umbrella HRD : training and development, organizational development, human resource planning, and career planning.

Yet, today's business environment requires that HRD not only supports the business strategies or organisations, but that it assumes a pivotal role in the shaping of business strategy. ... As a primary means of sustaining an organisation's competitive edge, HRD serves a strategic role by assuring the competence of employees to meet the organisation's present performance demands. Along with meeting present organisational needs, HRD also serves a vital role in shaping strategy and enabling organisations to take full advantage of emergent business strategies.

Strategic HRD can be viewed as a proactive, system-wide intervention, with it linked to strategic planning and cultural change. This contrasts with the traditional view of training and development as consisting of reactive, piecemeal interventions in response to specific problems. HRD can only be strategic if it is incorporated into the overall corporate business strategy. It is in this way that the HRD function attains the status it needs to survive and to have a long term impact on overall business performance and respond to significant competitive and technological pressures.
. Strategic HRD enables:
• the organization to respond to challenges and opportunities through the identification and delivery of HRD interventions;
• individuals, supervisors, line managers and top managers to be informed of their roles and participate in HRD delivery;
• management to have operational guidelines which explain the reasons for investment in HRD;
• information to be disseminated which explains the training, education, development and learning opportunities available for employees;
•a policy statement to explicitly describe the relationship between the objectives of the organization and the HRD function;
• a positive public relations awareness for new and potential employees to know that skills deficiencies will be provided for;
• the continuous assessment of learning and development opportunities for its employees and thereby enabling them to advance their careers and support organizational growth;
• clearly specified objectives and targets that enable the HRD function to be evaluated against strategic requirements;
• policies which relate the HRD function to the other operating functions;
• training, education, development and learning opportunities to have a coordinated role within a systematic process.
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AS PART OF THE ENERGISING PROGRAM ,
THE HRD HAS BEEN USED IN ORGANIZATIONS IN MANY AREAS.

The HRD is used to address the development of individuals and organizations.
ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS -the first step. This sounds simple, but we are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes the correct intervention but not always. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for HRD -- implement the appropriate planning. This needs assessment and planning will lead to several possible ways to improve performance. (Of course, one of these is to do nothing! -- we may decide to focus on other activities with greater impact and greater value.)
PROGRAM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION. We need to consider the benefits of any HRD intervention before we just go and do it: What learning will be accomplished? What changes in behavior and performance are expected? Will we get them? And of prime importance -- what is the expected economic cost/benefit of any projected solutions?
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT-- acquiring knowledge, developing competencies and skills, and adopting behaviors that improve performance in current jobs, including: adult learning theory and applications, instructional systems design, train-the-trainer programs, and instructional strategies and methods.
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT -- the diagnosis and design of systems to assist an organization with planning change. OD activities include: change management, team building, learning organizations, management development, quality of work life, management by objectives, strategic planning, participative management. organizational restructuring, job redesign, job enrichment, centralization vs. decentralization, changes in the organization's reward structure, process consultation, executive development, action research, third party interventions, and more.
CAREER DEVELOPMENT -- activities and processes for mutual career planning and management between employees and organizations. Changes in our organizations (including downsizing, restructuring, and outsourcing) are resulting in more empowerment for employees. The responsibility for our own career development is downloaded to us. (Translation: career ladders are gone; career development is now the responsibility of the individual.)
ORGANIZATION RESEARCH & PROGRAM EVALUATION -- an exploration of methods to evaluate, justify, and improve on HRD offerings.
HRD can give you the tools you need to manage and operate your organizations. Everything -- production, management, marketing, sales, research & development, you-name-it -- everything may be more productive IF your people are sufficiently motivated, trained, informed, managed, utilized and empowered.



IN USING THE ''HRD'' AS AN ENERGIZER,
YOU BEGIN,

SET The vision is to:
Promote a workplace culture of effectiveness that provides person and team centred practice
DEVELOP Our mission statement is to:
Provide a collaborative approach to practice that encourages people to question the way things are done with a desire to improve workplace culture and care for individuals / organization. .
CREATE Value Statements
Promote an effective workplace environment through challenge and support to enable shared learning underpinned by a facilitative framework
Respect the wealth of diversity within a team through recognising each persons individuality and uniqueness (ie person centredness)
Foster shared leadership based on the principles of integrity advocacy, autonomy, accountability, participatory decision making and collaboration.
Work value effective communication that is clear, concise, honest, informative, timely, respects diversity and supports collaboration
Recognised that change is a slow process therefore support one another in the perseverance, innovation and risk taking, solution focused approach & dedication that this requires
Key Performance Indicators are identified as:
To provide and enable work- based facilitated learning, where opportunities for learning are embedded in daily activity.
To be creative in the way in which education, research and practice is delivered that results in better care for individuals and teams .
To be open to adopting and promoting new models of work practices that will transcend traditional professional boundaries
To maintain and develop skills, knowledge and expertise through participation in professional and personal development
To build expertise in communication and share knowledge and skills with team members .
To lead in advocating and implementing new work practices based on research evidence and professional craft knowledge & experience
To participate in learning, education and research programs and share experiences to improve service delivery and the outcomes .
To remain up to date with the latest practices, techniques available .
To achieve outcomes, identified through a process of shared vision and values, that have positive impact on the experience for all

Different work practices which promote learning

ONE SET OF WORK PRACTICES.
At least four key steps are involved in creating a strong
learning" climate. They involve understanding and respecting the
adult learner and creating a positive MANAGER/ STAFF
relationship:

1.Recognise that participants in your programme should
ultimately take their learning to their "real world", and that most
of the responsibility for making it work in the application
environment must be theirs .
2.Acknowledge specifically and at the beginning of your
programme, that the responsibility for programme success must be
shared - that you have organised the information (experiences) to
respond as closely as possible to the needs of the group but that
each individual must modify as necessary to make the information
relevant and to apply it in the "real world".
Design, in other words, is a shared process, requiring that the
HRD :
Analyse group needs. Find information. Organise information.
Present information. Facilitate learning.
But that the learner:
Analyse their own needs. Customise objectives to those needs.
Adjust the application environment to make it congenial to the new
behaviours. Apply the learning.

3.Design activities that encourage learners to clarify their
own objectives and that help them plan application.

4.Create an adult problem-solving climate in the "classroom" by
planning a design that allows you to interact with learners as a
counsellor/consultant would. Your design should allow you to:
Create a physical environment that encourages sharing and reduces
barriers between the educator and the learners.
Be empathic - showing you understand their situation, needs,
feelings.
Respect the learners and their attempts to contribute.
Be yourself - without defensiveness, hidden agenda, or pseudo
professionalism - sharing yourself and your experiences when they
can illustrate ideas or help establish empathy.
Focus on the learner's needs and problems - not on retro fitting
solutions.
Confront and challenge - but only after empathy and respect have
been established (this makes it less likely that learners will be
defensive).
Such a climate encourages learners to feel cared for, safe,
understood, real, responsible and strong. It helps open dialogue
and analysis channels.
In short, along with the other steps it facilitates the motivation
to learn.
=====================================
SECOND SET OF WORK PRACTICES.
Knowledge Acquisition: Learning occurs when an organization acquires knowledge. Acquisition of declarative knowledge or facts and information is achieved by monitoring the environment, using information systems to store, manage, and retrieve information, carrying out research and development, carrying out education and training, patent watching, and bibliometrics . Learning occurs not only due to knowledge acquisition from outside the organization but also due to the rearrangement of existing knowledge, the revision of previous knowledge structures, and the building and revision of theories.
Information Distribution: Information distribution refers to the process by which an organization shares information among its units and members, thereby promoting learning and producing new knowledge or understanding. Knowledge in the form of tacit know-how, letters, memos,informal conversations, and reports are captured and distributed. A lot of learning and innovation takes place in informal "communities of practice". Very often, learning in an organization takes place by members sharing stories or anecdotes of actual work practice as opposed to what is mentioned in formal job descriptions or procedure manuals. Greater sharing or distribution of information leads to greater organizational learning.
Information Interpretation: In order for information to be shared, such information must be interpreted. Information interpretation is the process by which distributed information is given one or more commonly understood meanings. Sense-making or the formation of meaning is called procedural knowledge . That individuals and groups have prior belief structures which shape their interpretation of information and thus the formation of meaning. These belief structures are stored as a rule-base or a profile which is automatically applied to any incoming information in order to form a meaningful knowledge that can be stored. The interaction between stored mental models and interpretation is critical to understanding how organizations learn. Greater learning occurs when more and more varied interpretations are developed.
Organizational Memory: Organizational memory refers to the repository where knowledge is stored for future use. It is also called "corporate knowledge" or "corporate genetics" . Decision makers store and retrieve not only hard data or information but also "soft" information, that is, information with meaning. This soft or interpreted information can be in the form of tacit know-how, expertise, biases, experiences, lists of contacts, anecdotes, etc. Organizational memory plays a very critical role in organizational learning. Both the demonstratability and usability of learning depend on the effectiveness of the organization's memory. The major challenge for organizations exists in interpreting information and creating organizational memory that is easily accessible.
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THIRD SET OF WORK PRACTICES.
1.PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND INDIVDIUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN
helps the learning / development of the individuals.
2.EFFECTIVE TALENT MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
too help to learn/ develop individuals with potential.
=================================================
FOURTH SET OF WORK PRACTICES
AN EFFECTIVE JOB DESIGN COULD HELP THE FOLLOWING:
Job Enlargement: Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility.
Job Rotation: Job rotation moves employees from one task to another. It distributes the group tasks among a number of employees.
Job Enrichment: Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility, accountability, and independence when learning new tasks or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities.
Job Engineering: Work design allows employees to see how the work methods, layout and handling procedures link together as well as the interaction between people and machines.
INDUCTION
-a good/ effective induction helps to learn better/ faster
and make the entry to the company more easy/warm.

ORIENTATION
-a good/ effective orientation helps to learn better/ orientate faster
and make the entry to the job position more easier.
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FIFTH SET OF WORK PRACTICES.
Practice Inclusivity
• Individual differences with particular needs are acknowledged,
respected and valued
• Personal perceptions and attitudes about difference are examined and revised to
improve communication and professionalism
Principles underpinning inclusivity are integrated into all work practices
• The training and/or assessment organisation’s access and equity policy is used to
guide work practices
• Individuals’ rights and confidentiality are respected
SIXTH SET OF WORK PRACTICES
Promote and Respond to Diversity
• The ground rules for participation and behaviour with colleagues and clients are
established through a cooperative, agreed process
• Individuals are encouraged to express themselves and to contribute to the work
and learning environment
• Individuals are provided with opportunities to indicate specific needs to support
their participation in learning and work CULTURE.
• Relevant research, guidelines and resources are accessed to support inclusivity
Verbal and body language is sensitive to different cultures and backgrounds and
differences in physical and intellectual abilities

SEVENTH SET OF WORK PRACTICES
Develop and Implement Work Strategies to Support
Inclusivity
Documented resources to support and guide inclusive practices are identified and
used to inform work strategies
Support persons are identified and included in the work and learning process
where appropriate and agreed to
• Relevant professional support services are identified and accessed, as
appropriate
• Any physical environment support needs are acknowledged and incorporated into
work practices, where practicable and approved by appropriate personnel
OHS issues associated with inclusivity are identified and addressed
• Inclusiveness is modelled in work performance

EIGHTH SET OF WORK PRACTICES
Promote a Culture of Learning
• Support and advice is provided to colleagues and clients to encourage new and
ongoing participation in learning opportunities
• The benefits of learning are explored with colleagues and clients
• Learning and competency achievement is recognised and rewarded in the work
and/or learning environment
• Opportunities to develop own and others generic skills are identified
• Multiple pathways to achieve own and others future learning goals are discussed

NINTH SET OF WORK PRACTICES
Monitor and Improve Work Practices
• Effective work practices to enhance inclusivity and a learning culture are identified
• Conscious actions are taken to modify and improve work practices
• Strategies and policies to support inclusivity are regularly reviewed as part of
continuous improvement processes
• Proposed changes to relevant strategies and policies are documented and
reported to higher management
##################################


From India, Mumbai
Respected Sir Mr. Leo Lingham
I have gone through with your articles and information you have shared with the members of cite HR, Really its very nice to learn things from seniors.The information you have given is very much helpful.
Sir, i am Research Associate and want to pursue my Ph D in Interlink between Training system and Organizational Effectiveness, I really need you guidance.
It is my humble request to you to kindly advise me on the topic and if possible please help me objective and Hypothesis part.
Regards
Abhilasha Singh
Research Associate (HR/Mkt)

From India, Indore
ABHILASHA,
HERE IS SOME USEFUL MATERIAL.
REGARDS
LEO LINGHAM
=================================
Currently, the hot topic in the HR FIELD,
especially with the globalization program
is HRD--HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT.
 
HRD PLANS INCLUDE
-org. learning
-training
-education
-development
-Training evaluation
-e learning
-management development
-career planning
-career development.
-induction
-orientation
-performance management
-personal development
etc etc
======================================
BY ALIGNING WITH THE HRD OBJECTIVES
WITH THE CORPORATE OBJECTIVES / STRATEGIES,
 
YOU CAN HELP THE ORGANIZATION
To Maximize:
Human Resources
Performance
Learning
AND THUS IMPROVE THE ORGANIZATION
EFFECTIVENESS
 
WHICH CAN HELP TO IMPROVE THE
Productivity
Return on Investment
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
YOUR OBJECTIVE COULD BE
MAKE EFFECTIVE USE OF HRD PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE
THE ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS, BY
-maximizing the human resources development.
-improving the performance of the individual / organization.
-developing the learning outcomes of individual / organization learning.
==================================================
HYPOTHESIS
It is an assumption written in a clear, concise manner about what you think will happen in your project. A good hypothesis will provide direction for your project and will help to keep your investigate focused. A hypothesis is to be stated simply and concisely. It is critical for your project and must be testable. Ultimately you will accept or reject your hypothesis.
IN YOUR CASE, YOUR HYPOTHESIS COULD BE
''CAN WE ALIGN THE HRD PROGRAMS WITH THE
ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES
HRD PROGRAMS INCLUDE
-org. learning
-training
-education
-development
-Training evaluation
-e learning
-management development
-career planning
-career development.
-induction
-orientation
-performance management
-personal development
etc etc
 
AND IMPROVE THE ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS.
-healthy organization results
-good management performance
-effective strategic positioning
-high employee morale
-stable organization structure
-able to manage competition
-sustainable business practices
-acceptable customer satisfactions
-low employee turnover
-able to manage diversity
-HIGH Return on investment evidence
-GOOD Measured organizational performance improvement
-SOUND Improvements in customer service
-Increased quality of management
-GOOD Healthy organizational climate-
-HIGH morale
-LOW LEVEL labor turnover
-Sustainable business results
-GOOD Organizational and personal growth
-SOUND teamwork
-SOUND Retention strategies
-SOUND Succession planning
-EFFECTIVE Personal insight and change
etc etc etc.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
 
 
ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS
WHAT THIS MEANS
The organization is providing
-healthy organization results
-good management performance
-effective strategic positioning
-high employee morale
-stable organization structure
-able to manage competition
-sustainable business practices
-acceptable customer satisfactions
-low employee turnover
-able to manage diversity
-HIGH Return on investment evidence
-GOOD Measured organizational performance improvement
-SOUND Improvements in customer service
-Increased quality of management
-GOOD Healthy organizational climate-
-HIGH morale
-LOW LEVEL labor turnover
-Sustainable business results
-GOOD Organizational and personal growth
-SOUND teamwork
-SOUND Retention strategies
-SOUND Succession planning
-EFFECTIVE Personal insight and change
etc etc etc.
===============================================
 
 
ORGANIZATION
Effectiveness Approaches
Approach and Domains Criteria
1. Output Goals
Goal attainment: Achievement of main objectives .
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Outputs-quantity: Productivity (number or value of sales, services
sometimes per unit or cost of labor); profits, revenues
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Outputs-quality: Reliability (e.g., rejects, returns); reputation (customer
satisfaction, expert ratings); institutional standards
(e.g., approval by quality assurance body)
================================================
2. Internal System State
Efficiency and costs : Efficiency measures (e.g., output value + cost with
constant quality); wastage; costs per unit of output
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Human outcomes: Quality of work life (satisfaction with pay, working
conditions); work effort and commitment (low
absenteeism, turnover); employee health and safety;
motivation; organizational image; citizenship behavior
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Consensus/conflict:Goal and procedural consensus; cohesion (mutual
attraction and identification with work group and
organization); cooperation within and between units;
conflict behavior (work stoppages, protests, flights)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Work and information flows:Work coordination (smooth flow of products,
Information between units; few delays and snags);
adequacy and quality of information, multidirectional flows
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Interpersonal relations: Trust; moderation of status differences (reduced
prominence of status symbols and executive perks);
openness, honesty of interpersonal communication,
acceptance of diverse backgrounds and orientations
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Employee involvement: Empowerment; participation in decision making
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fits : Alignment of internal system, components, subcomponents, and
Features.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. System Resources and Adaptation
Resources-quantity: Size (employees, physical, financial, capital assets);
resource flows (sales, budget allocations)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Resources-quality: Human capital (training, experience of work force);
staff reputation; knowledge base; desirability of clients
(e.g., college selectivity)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adaptation: Ability to cope with external change and uncertainty;
crisis management capabilities
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Proactiveness: Impact on environment-clients (e.g., demand), competitors, suppliers, regulators; entrepreneurialism
 
Innovativeness: Technological and administrative innovation; implementation of new techniques and ideas
Legitimacy : Support by community and by public agencies or regulators; complianre with legal, professional, regulatory standards
Competitive position : standing compared to competitors (e.g., market share); reputation for leadership in industry or sector
Fit : Alignment of internal system with environment
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Multiple Stakeholder Assessments

Standards : Effectiveness domains and criteria selected and defined by stakeholders
Satisfaction : Satisfaction with organization on standards specified by stakeholders; stakeholders' overall level of satisfaction with organization.
 
===============================================
HRD CAN EFFECTIVELY CONTRIBUTE
TO THE ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS
AND HENCE THE BOTTOMLINE.
==========================================
HRD address the development of individuals and organizations.
ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS -the first step. This sounds simple, but we are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes the correct intervention but not always. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for HRD -- implement the appropriate planning. This needs assessment and planning will lead to several possible ways to improve performance. (Of course, one of these is to do nothing! -- we may decide to focus on other activities with greater impact and greater value.)
PROGRAM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION. We need to consider the benefits of any HRD intervention before we just go and do it: What learning will be accomplished? What changes in behavior and performance are expected? Will we get them? And of prime importance -- what is the expected economic cost/benefit of any projected solutions?
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT-- acquiring knowledge, developing competencies and skills, and adopting behaviors that improve performance in current jobs, including: adult learning theory and applications, instructional systems design, train-the-trainer programs, and instructional strategies and methods.
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT -- the diagnosis and design of systems to assist an organization with planning change. OD activities include: change management, team building, learning organizations, management development, quality of work life, management by objectives, strategic planning, participative management. organizational restructuring, job redesign, job enrichment, centralization vs. decentralization, changes in the organization's reward structure, process consultation, executive development, action research, third party interventions, and more. We will discuss these in future articles.
CAREER DEVELOPMENT -- activities and processes for mutual career planning and management between employees and organizations. Changes in our organizations (including downsizing, restructuring, and outsourcing) are resulting in more empowerment for employees. The responsibility for our own career development is downloaded to us. (Translation: career ladders are gone; career development is now the responsibility of the individual.) Later in this series we will explore strategies and tactics to survive and prosper in this new workplace environment.
ORGANIZATION RESEARCH & PROGRAM EVALUATION -- an exploration of methods to evaluate, justify, and improve on HRD offerings.
THE HRD PROFESSION(S) AND PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS -- we plan to list and briefly describe the principal HRD organizations, their missions and goals, and their addresses and contacts.
HRD can give you the tools you need to manage and operate your organizations. Everything -- production, management, marketing, sales, research & development, you-name-it -- everything may be more productive IF your people are sufficiently motivated, trained, informed, managed, utilized and empowered.
================================================== =========================
 
WE ALSO USE THE ''HRD'' TO DEVELOP
Technical Competencies
1. Adult Learning Understanding*
2. Career Development Theories and Techniques Understanding
3. Competency Identification Skill*
4. Computer Competence
5. Electronic Systems Skill
6. Facilities Skill
7. Objectives Preparation Skill*
8. Performance Observation Skill
9. Subject Matter Understanding
10. Training and Development Theories and Techniques Understanding
11. Research Skill
Business Competencies
12. Business Understanding*
13. Cost-benefit Analysis Skill
14. Delegation Skill
15. Industry Understanding
16. Organizational Behaviour Understanding*
17. Organizational Development Theories and Techniques Understanding
18. Organization Understanding
19. Project Management Skill
20. Records Management Skill
Interpersonal Competencies
21. Coaching Skill
22. Feedback Skill*
23. Group Process Skill
24. Negotiation Skill
25. Presentation Skill*
26. Questioning Skill*
27. Relationship Building Skill
28. Writing Skill*
Intellectual Competencies
29. Data Reduction Skill
30. Information Search Skill*
31. Intellectual Versatility*
32. Model Building Skill
33. Observing Skill*
34. Self-knowledge
35. Visioning Skill
*core competency
================================================
HRD FOCUS IN ORGANIZATIONS ARE
Individual Learning
• Individuals take responsibility for their own learning and
development and can do so competently
• They have personal learning plans, derived from an
understanding of their own needs and those of the business
• They understand their own learning style, and how to both
choose and utilise different learning options
• They are skilled at both giving and receiving feedback
• They know how to use others, and help others, in the
learning process
Team Learning
• Teams and working groups utilise the capability of each
member for the benefit of all
• They frequently learn and unlearn together, in order to
share a common approach
• They support each other in individual learning objectives
• The organisation encourages cross-boundary groups,
communities of common interest, and internal and external
networks in order to maximise sharing of learning
• Teams help other teams and learn from each other
Organisational Learning
• The organisation consciously adapts its strategies to the
changing environment; planning processes are flexible &
iterative
• There are mechanisms for listening to all the
stakeholders, for benchmarking against best practice,
and for adapting objectives as a result
• There is a systematic and disciplined approach to the
flow of knowledge into and across the organisation
• Structures are designed to consider learning and
knowledge flow
======================================
HRD ACTION PLAN INCLUDE
 
After action review
A process that helps teams to learn quickly from their successes and failures and share their learning with other teams. Involves conducting a structured and facilitated discussion after a task or project has been completed to review what should have happened, what actually happened and why it happened; this allows participants to learn how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses in subsequent tasks or projects.
 
Balanced scorecard
A business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.
 
Benchmarking
The practice of comparing the performance of your organisation, department or function against the performance of 'the best' - whether they be other organisations, industry standards or internal departments. The aim is to look at how well you are doing compared to others in the same field or industry, and to learn from their best practices as a basis for improving your own.
 
Best practice (or: Good practice)
A process or methodology that has been proven to work well and produce good results, and is therefore recommended as a model. Some people prefer to use the term 'good practice' as in reality it is debateable whether there is a single 'best' approach.
Coaching
A one-to-one relationship that aims to bring about individual learning and performance improvement, usually focusing on achieving predefined objectives within a specific time period. The role of the coach is to create a supportive environment in which to challenge and develop the critical thinking skills, ideas and behaviours of the person being coached, so that they might reach their full potential.
Double-loop learning (or: Generative learning)
In contrast to singleloop learning , which involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions and often based on what has worked in the past, double-loop learning goes a step further and questions existing assumptions in order to create new insights. For example,
the supply chain failures in an organization.
E-Learning
The use of electronic information systems (especially internet technologies) to deliver learning and training.
Extranet
A website that links an organisation with other specific organisations or people. Extranets are only accessible to those specified organisations or people and are protected via passwords.
Groupware
Computer software applications that are linked together by networks, and so allow people to work together and share electronic communications and documents
Information
Data that has been organised within a context and translated into a form that has structure and meaning. (Note: while most people have an idea about what information is, it is rather difficult to define in a meaningful way).
Intranet
A computer network that functions like the internet, but the information and web pages are located on computers within an organisation rather than being accessible to the general public.
 
Continuous --Learning organisation
An organisation that views its success in the future as being based on continuous learning and adaptive behaviour. It therefore becomes skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting and retaining knowledge and then modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights.
Mentoring
Mentoring is a one-to-one learning relationship in which a senior member of an organisation is assigned to support the development of a newer or more junior member by sharing his or her knowledge, experience and wisdom with them. Related term: Coaching (Note: While the strength of mentoring lies in transferring the mentor's specific knowledge and wisdom, in coaching it lies in the coach's ability to facilitate and develop the other's own personal qualities.)
Organisational learning
The ability of an organisation to gain knowledge from experience through experimentation, observation, analysis and a willingness to examine both successes and failures, and to then use that knowledge to do things differently. While organisational learning cannot happen without individual learning, individual learning does not necessarily produce organisational learning. Organisational learning occurs when an organisation becomes collectively more knowledgeable and skillful in pursuing a set of goals.Single-loop learning (or: Adaptive learning)

Single-loop learning involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions, and often based on what has worked in the past.
etc etc etc
################################

From India, Mumbai
Dear Mr.Leo Lingham That’s the excellent post for every HR professional starters to understand the concept of HR and other people who says the HRD are the villains in the organizations.
From India, Bangalore
Hello Mr. Leo Lingham,
I have read your articles, you have given really a plenty of information regarding Hrd. I am doing a project on HRD Strategies in an Organisation. i ll interviewing the employees of a particular Mnc organisation.
Can u guide me for d questionnair based on Hrd Strategies..
I'll be greatful to you..
Regards
Deepika Verma

From India, New Delhi
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