We have earlier established some reasons that have over the years affected the security industry. If there is any aspect of the issue that is more noticeable and crucial it is the human resource. The question of who should be called a security professional? What forms the criteria for membership of the profession? What are the relevant qualifications acceptable to bench mark with other professional bodies? The greatest need and challenge in the industry today are the need for qualitative employment and personnel development. Security Industry can gain more respect and recognition if managers and directors embrace standards in recruiting personnel who can stand out in the crowd of other professions and to be able to represent security.
Human resource management refers to the harnessing of peoples efforts in the pursuit of organisational goals. Some times referred to as personnel management, it has to do with strategising the organisation’s policy and planning of the employees and other personnel activities. Much as human resource management is very essential in every organisation manpower need, it is obviously a desirable issue confronting security management.
While one would not undermine the specialist role personnel managers and officers play in an organisation it is appropriate to reckon the need for the involvement of the security manager or line heads in developing criteria for recruitment of security staff, writing of job description, determining positions and payment structure and directing career development.
Security managers must change the course and bearing of employment in the industry if the industry is to be accorded desired respect. The following areas should be considered as general human resource activities of the security management.
* Manpower and Development planning
* Security Staff Recruitment and Selection.
* Induction of New Security Staff, Company Staff and Customers
* Training and Development
* Staff Performance Appraisal
* Job Structuring
* Implementation of Grievance and Disciplinary Procedure
* Team Motivation
* Salary and Welfare
Human Resource Planning in Security Management
Planning the resource of the security department or in a security organisation is an important responsibility of every security manager, security head or supervisors. It is concerned with identifying the organisation’s demand for the number of supervisors to supervise shifts, the number of officers and patrol staff to effectively cover all the designed beats, etc. Because most single important resource to be planned in security operations is the security personnel, it is very essential to ensure that sufficient number of the appropriate calibre of people are available to the organisation in pursuit of the department role and overall organisation objectives. Every security manager will agree that human resource planning is a strategic activity, which will include the following.
1. Recruitment of sufficient and suitable staff for security duties and position.
2. Their retention in the organisation
3. Optimum utilisation of the security staff for duty and operations
4. Improvement of staff performance
5. Disengagement of security staff as necessary.
6. Turnover and resources management.
Security Staff Recruitment and Selection
Hiring new security employees is one important function and responsibility of security management. Recruitment of security staff should be a careful exercise to avoid situation where “goat is recruited to protect yam”. I would not subscribe to those who believe that every recruitment exercise including that of security department of an organisation should be directed from the personnel department. It should be the other way where the security management draw up the job description and practically determine who should be employed to work in the department. Security management must set a standard criterion for recruitment into the job and should as matter of fact involve the personnel department and possibly a security consultant with psychology-background. A minimum standard for recruitment of security personnel which can be applied to the lowest level of entry to the profession, should include the following.
1. The security applicant must be literate and educated.
2. The applicant must be medically and physically fit.
3 The applicant must not have any form of physical deformity or handicap.
4. The applicant must be emotionally and mentally stable.
5. The applicant must demonstrate responsibility, maturity and honesty.
6. The applicant must not have been convicted of crime.
7. Must show considerable level of intelligence.
The Hiring Process in Security
When there is need for more hands to be recruited to the department, the management must make appropriate plan to ensure that the process is systematic and conducted in such a manner that it is credible and devoid of the inherent errors of recruiting a wrong person for the right job. The job description as earlier asserted will usually be written by the security management and forwarded to the appropriate department for action. Hiring process in security management is a step-by-step process that eventually leads to engaging applicant who has accepted the offer of a security job position. Steps of hiring in security are as follows:
(1) Recruiting Activity
* Advertisement of the vacancy (internal or external). A function of the personnel department.
* Receiving of the applications from prospective applications. It is recommended that the security department maintains an application data bank so that those potentially qualified candidates who were not successful are contacted later on where new vacancy exist .
* Sorting of application to determine eligibility for interview.
* Short-listing and invitation of suitable applicant for interview
* Set up a board for the interview.
* Carry out the interview.
* Carry out background investigation of selected candidates.
* Notify successful candidates of the job offer.
The following are Recommended Basic Requirement for various security positions:
a. Security Manager and Head of Security.
* Should posses a University Degree or Higher National Diploma, Master Degree or a Higher Degree
* Must have an experience combined with or without public security and or private security.
* Must have a professional certificate in security, such as ANIIS, MNlIS, FNllS and CPP.
* Must be a member of at least two or more security professional body.
b Security Coordinators and Supervisors
* Must have a University Degree or Higher National Diploma
* Must be a member of at least two or more security professional associations.
* Must have at least five years of security experience either in the public security service and or private security.
* Must have a professional security certification such as ANIIS, MNIIS, FNllS and CPP.
c. Security Officers:
* Must possess a Diploma or Senior Secondary School Certificate or its equivalent.
* Must have a training of not less than six months on general security.
Induction of Security Staff, Non-Security Staff and Customers
Induction is an exercise carried out in most organisations. It is designed to enable new employees and customers of the company to understand certain operations and policies of the organisation which are mandatory for the business of the organisation. Induction is part of human resource activity, which includes the aspects of communication and compliance of mandatory security policies of the company. During the exercise, the security management is required to give talks on the security policies of the company as well as the expected behavioural response towards company rules and practices of security and consequences.
Such forum will afford the new security operative the opportunity to understand the laws which he or she will subsequently be duty bound to enforce. Questions are asked and clarification is usually given. A preferred modern method of giving induction talks is the use of multimedia power point presentation with a laptop computer. Area to be covered during induction may include.
* Introduction of the security staff on all assets, description of production and products, location and structural function of the organisation.
* The powers and legal limitations on the use of force while carrying out lawful duty.