Job Description - What the person would be responsible for, in that job. Like, dealing with Performance appraisal, reporting to Head of the department and so on.
Job Evaluation - Analysis of how useful the job is and in what way. Like, the need of the candidate in the position he is in, the CTC and its feasibilty, Factors that it can add advantage in...and so on.
This is the best example that I can quote for you. Hope this is useful. Any way I want more discussion to happen on this.
JOB DESCRIPTION: It is a statement of duties, tasks, activities of a position. It elucidates the primary and secondary activities of a position. It also presents the reporting relationship and also the conditions under which the position holder should work. (For ex, desk job, lot of travelling involved, always on the field, etc)
JOB SPECIFICATION: It is a statement of the eligibility criteria. It describes the qualifications, skills required for the position.
JOB EVALUATION: It is a process of estimating the worth of a job in order to fix the salary/wage. There are many methods used to evaluate a job viz., point method, factor comparison method, etc.
JOB ENRICHMENT AND JOB ENLARGEMENT:
Job enrichment in organizational development, human resources management, and organizational behavior, is the process of improving work processes and environments so they are more satisfying for employees. Many jobs are monotonous and unrewarding. Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due to a lack of a challenge, repetitive procedures, or an over-controlled authority structure. Job enrichment tries to eliminate these dysfunctional elements, and bring better performance to the workplace.
Job enrichment, as a managerial activity includes a these two steps technique:
1. Turn employees' effort into performance:
# Ensuring that objectives are well-defined and understood by everyone. The overall corporate mission statement should be communicated to all.
# Individual's goals should also be clear. Each employee should know exactly how she fits into the overall process and be aware of how important her contributions are to the organization and its customers.
# Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This includes support functions like information technology, communication technology, and personnel training and development.
# Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks, supportive management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and politicking.
# Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy.
# Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward employee initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered.
# Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators.
# Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at universities or on the job training.
# Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation programmes.
# It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of procedures, elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures.
2. Link employees performance directly to reward:
# Clear definition of the reward is a must
# Explanation of the link between performance and reward is important
# Make sure the employee gets the right reward if performs well
# If reward is not given, explanation is needed
Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its duties and responsibilities.
This contradicts the principles of specialisation and the division of labour whereby work is divided into small units, each of which is performed repetitively by an individual worker.
The boredom and alienation caused by the division of labour can actually cause efficiency to fall. Thus, job enlargement seeks to motivate workers through reversing the process of specialisation.
Hope it will give you clear understanding.