JOB DESCRIPTION COMES OUT OF AN EFFECTIVE JOB ANALYSIS.
JOB ANALYSIS is the foundation of any position.
The role of JOB DESCRIPTION is
-provide the lead for developing job specifications.
-provide the source for job recruitment.
-provide the source for selection process.
-provides the basis for developing KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS.
-provides the basis for job enrichment
-provides the basis for job rotation
-provides the source for COMPETENCY criteria development
-provides the basis for training / development
-provides the basis for performance appraisal
-provides the source for performance management
-provides the basis for compensation package development
-provides the resource for manpower planning
THESE ARE THE REASONS WHY THE ORGANIZATION
SHOULD PAY A LOT OF ATTENTION IN WRITING THE
JOB DESCRIPTION RIGHT FOR THE FIRST TIME.
From India, Mumbai
chapki_dpHello Mr.Leo Lingham,
Thanx for letting me know the role of JD.
I have few queries like
a. Does the organization get their JD's written through an external source ( i.e consultants) or an internal one.
b. How far an organization can reply on an external source?.
c. How often should the JD's be changed to meet the job's requirement esp in IT field?.
From India, Coimbatore
leolingham2000ROLE OF JD
1.The JD can be written by internal as well as external consultant.
WHOEVER does it, follows this process
-the internal / external person conducts the job analysis
-then discusses with the line manager, to whom the person reports.
-then writes the job description
-then it is approved by the line manager.
2.An organization will rely on the external consultant
depending on the experience/ trust they have with the
TO GIVE AN EXAMPLE,
I, AS A CONSULTANT, HAVE WRITTEN JD FOR CEÓs,
GENERAL MANAGERs, MARKETING MANAGERs, PRODUCT MANAGERs
3. JDs should be reviewed by the LINE MANAGERS ANNUALLY.
BUT, if there are major changes in the company, like
-new company objectives
-new company strategies
the JD must be reviewed.
From India, Mumbai
chapki_dpHello Mr.Lingham, Can u give some input on JD enlargement which is said to be a prime step in the recruitment process?. Thanks for answering my queries. Regards, Durga
From India, Coimbatore
leolingham2000JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESCRIPTION , JOB ENLARGEMENT
JD Enlargement is not the prime step in the recruitment
Process. It is the JOB ANALYSIS , which is the primary
Step. In certain circumstances, the job description is
Enlarged to accommodate certain talented applicants.
The enlargement expands the scope of the job ,
In an horizontal manner , and not vertical.
Breaking down the complexity of a person's job into logical parts such as duties and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems.
A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with a job.
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated with the
Job redesign to attract talents, where required.
Job analysis produces the following information about a job:
* Overall purpose why the job exists and, in essence, what the job holder is expected to contribute.
* Content the nature and scope of the job in terms of the tasks and operations to be performed and the activities to be carried out ie the processes of converting inputs (knowledge, skills and abilities) into outputs (results).
*Key result areas the results or outcomes for which the job holder is accountable.
*Performance criteria the criteria, measures or indicators that enable an assessment to be carried out to ascertain the degree to which the job is being performed satisfactorily.
Responsibilities the level of responsibility the job holder has to exercise
by reference to the scope and input of the job; the amount of
discretion allowed to makedecisions; the difficulty, scale, variety and complexity
of the problems to be solved; the quantity and value of the resources controlled;
and the type and importance of interpersonal relations.
* Organizational factors the reporting relationships of the job holder, ie to whom he
or she reports either directly (the line manager) or functionally (on'matters concerning
specialist areas, such as finance or personnel management);
the people reporting directly or indirectly to the job holder;
and the extent to which the job holder is involved in teamwork.
Motivating factors the particular features of the job that are likely to motivate
or demotivate job holders if, in the latter case, nothing is done about them.
Development factors promotion and career prospects and the opportunity
to acquire new skills or expertise.
Environmental factors working conditions, physical, mental and
emotional demands, health and safety considerations, unsocial hours,
mobility, and ergonomic factors relating to the design and use of
equipment or work stations.
Methods of Job Analysis
Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:
• review of job classification systems
• incumbent interviews
• supervisor interviews
• expert panels
• structured questionnaires
• task inventories
• check lists
• open ended questionnaires
• incumbent work logs
A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.
The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas
• Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.
• Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.
• Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
• Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.
• Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.
Choice of method
In the selection of a method of job analysis, the criteria for choice are the purpose for which it will be used, its effectiveness in obtaining the data required, the degree of expertise required to conduct the analysis and the resources and amount of time available for the analysis programme. The following is a summary of the advantages or disadvantages of each method:
*Interviewing this is the basic method of analysis and, as such, is the one most commonly used. It requires skill on the part of the analyst and is time consuming. Analysts need to be trained, and their effectiveness is increased by the use of a checklist.
*Questionnaires, checklists and inventories these can be a useful aid in helping individuals to describe their jobs and they save interviewing time. But it may still be necessary to invest a lot of time in constructing and evaluating questionnaires, which, ideally, should be related to the particular job. They may fail to reveal the full flavour of the job. If they are over generalized it will be too easy for job holders to provide vague or incoherent answers.
*Observation the most accurate technique for analysing job content (what people actually do). But it is so time consuming that it is seldom used except when preparing training specifications for manual or clerical jobs.
*Self description this is the quickest and most economic form of job analysis. But it relies on the often limited ability of people to describe their own jobs. It is therefore necessary to provide them with guidance in the form of questionnaires and checklists.
*Diaries and logs most useful for managerial jobs but they make great demands on job holders and can be difficult to analyse.
•Hierarchical task analysis this provides a helpful structure for job analysis in terms of outputs a particularly useful feature of this approach plans (inputs) and relationships. It can be used when analysing the data obtained by interviews or other methods.
There are six approaches to competency analysis. Starting with the simplest, these are:
5. critical incident technique;
6. repertory grid analysis.
This can be carried out at the same time , as the job analysis.
AN EXAMPLE OF THE JD
TECHNICAL SERVICE REPS
JOB ENLARGEMENT OF THE JD WITH ADDED
CUSTOMER SERVICE RESPONSIBILITIES.
Technical Service Representative
BASIC JOB lUNCTION .
Provides technical assistance to Dealership Service Department and assists in
customer inquiries to assure proper repair procedures.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
1 . Provides hands on technical assistance to dealer personnel.
2. Provides hands on technical assistance at site operation.
3. Inspects warranty parts.
4. Performs quality audits as requested.
5. Completes Technical Product Reports; reports on product problems
6. Provides dealer contact reports.
7. Provides warranty authorizations.
8. Maintains proper repair standards.
9. Creates a communication system between the dealer body, the District
Manager, and the Service Department to better serve the needs of our
dealers, our customers, and the interests of the company.
10. Investigates product liability claims by providing written reports and
testimony in regard to technical product failure.
11. Provides one on one technical training.
12. Represents the company in third party arbitration.
13. Handles other requests from management on a timely basis.
ENLARGEMENT OF THE JOB DESCRIPTIONS OF TECHNICAL
1. Receives and responds to all customer inquiries and complaints.
2. Documents customer contacts on report form and distributes to appropriate
staff responsible for resolution .
3. Responsible for guiding complaint resolution to ensure that proper and
satisfactory closing are obtained from dealers, etc.
4. Provides dealers with any and all backup data supplied by
customer or warranty files to assist in making sound decisions and achieve
5. Follows up on a regular and as needed basis with dealers and field service
operations on a open and unresolved customer contacts.
6. Reports any and all out of line conditions affecting customer satisfaction.
I HAVE GIVEN YOU AN EXAMPLE OF "JD" PLUS
AN ENLARGEMENT OF THE "JD" ---WITH ADDED HORIZONTAL
From India, Mumbai
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