1) Why Britisher termed it as Deepavali Bonus rather calling it Statutory Bonus -
= Nobody termed as Deepavali Bonus and you cannot find any word as 'Deepavali' in the Acts also. The fact is Bonus is paid/payable once in a year, generally within 6 months after completion of Accounting year which is 31st March of any year and thereafter 6 months means before 30th Sept. which coincide with Deepavali/Durga pooja season in India. As you know, for most of Hindus the costliest festival/season is Deepavali involving new clothing, sweets, crackers. gifts etc. and everybody/family/employee require some additional income, other than salary to meet this expenses outside his/her monthly budget. So the bonus payment is the timely assistance. There are some practices followed in small private firms to time this payment to coincide with their major festivals, say before Christmas for Christians and before Ramzan for muslims, as per their options.
2) Why Statutory Bonus was introduced in India by Britisher ?
= See the attachment.
3) What was wage system in India before British came to rule?
= As we know India was not a single unified country before the Britishers set their foot on "Bharatha Kandam" as then it was known outside Indian plateau. Really we have to thank the Britishers who only annexed about over 50 provinces/kingdoms, big & small existing then and unified them to form a single country and gave the name India. Arguably, I read from ancient history that there was no country called 'India' before British rule, people lived around Indus (river) valley were called 'Indus' and the invades Persians/Greek (Aryans) who didn't use 'I' substituted with'H' then came 'Hindus', Hindustan and so on. It is also true various rulers like, Cholas, Chalukyas, Guptas, Harshas, Mouriyas, Ashoka, Pulikesis, Marattas, Rajputs, Sikhs, Krishna Deva roya, and many others (though not in the same order) ruled many parts of India during various periods under their kingdoms who are now known as 'Emperors'. Such unification also witnessed during the rule of Mughals, among them 'Akbar' was known to be the greatest having ruled greater part of India. That's why India is well known for its 'Unity' in 'diversity' because lots of culture, languages, eating habits, varied climate conditions, clothing etc.
Though these kings/emperors introduced various methods & systems/procedures to administer their territories only during British rule India witnessed a formal, codified, written Acts & rules. Before them what methods used is anybody's guess because it depended on the rulers' thinking. Ofcourse, we could read from ancient history about these methods. Most of them points towards daily wage payment not in cash (ie. coins) but in kind, like grains and other day-to-day uses. During British rule there were systems to pay wages daily, weeks, bi-weekly and later monthly and in cash, because they introduced coinage, notes which were freely negotiated throughout India.
17th October 2018 From India, Bangalore