For employment of women in night shift duties in factories, does it require their written consent? If at the time of appointment the corporation has not informed about shift duties, can they deny ?
From India, Mumbai

The following is for your information but contact your factory inspector;
Section 66(1)(b) of Factories Act, 1948 prohibits women from being engaged in a factory from 7 PM till 6 AM. State Government through a notification in the Official Gazette may allow employees to work till 10 PM at night and begin work at 5 AM in the morning.
Women working at fish curring and fish canning industries are exempted from these provisions. There are similar provisions in the Shops & Establishments Act prohibiting engagement of female employees during night time.
Section 66(1)(b) of the Factories Act, 1948 has been declared as unconstitutional by the Madras & Gujarat High Court, as the same has been considered discriminatory and against Fundamental Right of equality enshrined under Article 15 of the Constitution. However, Kerala High Court has upheld the constitutionality. The Madras High Court laid down certain conditions for protection of women incase they are required to work beyond 10 PM, which includes protection against sexual harassment, separate transportation facility, separate canteen facility/restrooms, women to work in groups etc. However, Section 66 is valid in other states as on date preventing female employees from working after 7 PM in the evening till 6 AM in the morning.
In case of commercial establishments the State Governments have been granting exemption to specific establishments or group of establishments, such as IT companies, Hotels, Media Companies etc., allowing them to engage female employees beyond permissible hours at night. These exemptions are conditional and employer needs to follows certain measures such as;
Special arrangements should be made for protection of female employees working before 6 AM and after 8.30 PM including transport.
Female employees should be provided job jointly or in group.
Arrangement of rest rooms and lockers should be made for all women employees.
No women employee shall be asked to come for night shift for more than 15 days.For both factories and commercial establishments maximum permissible working hours in day is capped at 9 hours and in a week is capped at 48 hours. Any work beyond these periods is classified as overtime for which an employee is entitled to be paid at twice the ordinary rates of wages. Any deviation from this would require prior intimation and confirmation of the relevant regulatory authority. Under no scenario in factories can the total number of hours of work in a week, including overtime, exceed sixty and in a quarter total number of overtime hours exceed 50. Each State Govt. has prescribed similar limits on overtime hours in commercial establishments.
Similarly the spread-over of an employee in day whether in a factory or commercial establishment cannot be beyond 12 hours including intervals of rest in day under normal circumstances. Spread-over basically means the time period between commencement and termination of work. On certain days in year such as; year-end closing; financial year closing etc. spread over hours can be extended by taking prior permission of regulating authorities.

From India, Mumbai

As per new Maharashtra S&E act
1. No woman worker shall be allowed to work in any Establishment between 9.30 pm to 7.00 am. ……………Sec. 13.
However, woman worker with her consent shall be allowed to work during 9.30 pm to 7.00 am, provided, Employer provides her adequate protection of their dignity, honor and safety, protection from sexual harassment and their transportation from establishment to residence.
However State Govt. reserves its rights by notification in official gazette, in the public interest, prohibit or regulate the employment of woman worker during 9.30 pm to 7.00 am.
2. Yes Female employee can deny for the night shift if there consent is not taken.

Sir, Thanks a ton for ur response. Do anyone have the amended bill of Maharashtra factory act 2015 (not the drafted copy) ?
From India, Mumbai

Dear All,
If it is clearly mentioned in the offer/appointment letter of doing rotational shifts which includes night shifts and accepted by the candidate then i dont think an additional consent letter is needed.
However offer/appointment letter should clearly mention rotational shifts which includes night shifts
Thank you.

From India, Mumbai

In this case the appointment order does not speak about night shift working. In such circumstances what is important is to give 21 days notice of the decision to have night shifts following section 9A of the Industrial Disputes Act. But the most important thing is to obtain permission from the appropriate authority, the Inspector of Factories and Boilers, to engage women during night shift. There are some blanket permissions to engage women during night shifts given by the Labour Commissioner following the state's labour policy, IT policy etc, but this ccannot be applied in all individual cases but are specific orders applicable to certain industries, like, hospitals, hotels, establishments in IT & ITES, etc. There are valid reasons why in these industries women should be allowed to work during night. But in a factory kind of establishment which is not a public utility service, I don't think that permission will be granted to engage women during night. Therefore, before giving notice u/s 9A or taking consent of women workers please ensure whether you can engage them legally.
From India, Kannur
Dear Friend,
Pl. to inform you that, one of the unit in Pune area has got the stay (interim relief) on section 66(i)(b) of Factories Act, from Bombay High Court. If you want to know more pl. share your contact no.

From India, Belgaum

Dear All,
Plz find the latest amendment on Section 122 of Tamil Nadu Factories rule
" Insertion of clause 84 B. Guidelines for the employment of women employees in Night shift.".
Check with your state Factories rules.
Ratikanta Rath

From India, Durgapur
Attached Files (Download Requires Membership)
File Type: pdf Factories work amendment for employing female worker in Night shift.pdf (1.48 MB, 1220 views)


Most of the things which the occupier is required to ensure before women employees are engaged in night are even applicable when they are engaged during day time. Sexual harassment can take place during night also. It is not that during day shifts a common toilet can be used both by men and women. A separate rest room, lunch room etc are basic requirements when we engage women during day time also. Will you allow any men worker to visit women's hostels at odd times? No.Will you have male wardens at women's lodging places, No, we will only have women warden there. When we engage men workers at night will we not provide adequate light inside and outside the factory? Is is that men are like cats who can see even in dark? Then the mathematics regarding two thirds of the total workers and one third of women supervisors etc are provisions which seem to be ridiculous.
From India, Kannur
Shailesh Parikh_HR Pro

In state of Gujarat a special notifications from Director of Industrial Safety and Health..provides conditonal permission to engage female employees in night shift.
Employers have to give an undertaking about provisions as prescribed in conditions are made.
# Consent of female employees has to be obtained.
# Transportation to & fro with security is to be arranged.
# Seprate rest rooms to be arranged.
# Crech facility is ensured.

From India, Mumbai
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