Lovlin ChoudhuryCan i knw what are Job description, job Analysis, Job evaluation. For which purpose these things will come in use. Sugestions will be mostly obliged
From India, Bangalore
PROFESSIONALS AND BUSINESSES PARTICIPATING IN DISCUSSION
Human Resources Management
Out of these three terms, job evaluation is an important function which also comprises of Job Description, Job Specification, Job Analysis etc.
Procurement (for personnel/human resources) is the first operative function of personnel management, which can be subdivided into various sub functions like human resources planning, recruitment and selection. Management should determine the kind of personnel require for a job and the number of persons to be employed. The organization should also find out the right man for the right job in right time. The knowledge of the job is essential to perform these functions.
Lets say, your company is looking for HR Manager. Once a job is to filled, that process is fully comprising of Job Evaluation. It means what numbers of people required, what qualities, qualification and experiences and also what compensation. Job Evaluation is important because when it comes to compensation, the compensation should be adhering to certain norms and some industry standards.
Next is Job Description, so called in short as JD. Jos Description gives details of the qualities, skills, talents, experiences and qualifications required on the job. For a HR Manager, qualification can be MBA-HR, skills may be recruitment, manpower planning, organisational development etc, experience may be 6-7 years in the same profile (should have worked as Dy/Asst. Manager for 1-2 years), quailities may be good written and verbal communication, good sourcing & presentable etc.
Next comes is Job Specification: what this new employee (HR Manager )will be doing in the company, typically you can say his/her job responsibilities.
Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It serves to identify a job for consideration by other job analysts. It tells us what should be done, and why it is to be done, and where it should be performed. JD is typically the job responsibilties of an employee.
To gain brief information you may look out for Jobs advertisements on various websites and newspapers.
Read more about the same here...
From India, Delhi
leolingham2000JOB ANALYSIS --JOB DESCRIPTION -- JOB EVALUATION
Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.
There are two key elements of a job analysis:
1. Identification of major job requirements (MJRs) which are the most important duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled. They are the main purpose or primary reasons the position exists. The primary source of MJRs is the most current, official position description.
2. Identification of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required to accomplish each MJR and the quality level and amount of the KSAs needed. Most job analyses deal with KSAs that are measurable, that can be documented, and produce meaningful differences between candidates. Typically, possession of KSAs is demonstrated by experience, education, or training. The goal of KSAs is to identify those candidates who are potentially best qualified to perform the position to be filled; they are most useful when they provide meaningful distinctions among qualified candidates. Source documents for KSAs may be the position description, HRM standard qualifications and job classification standards.
FIRST STEP --CLASSIFY THE JOB
STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS
THIS IS USA BASED . CHECK THE INDIAN SIC [ STANDARDS INDIAN CLASSIFICATIONS]
The Occupational Classification System manual was created for Bureau of STATISTICS field economists to help ensure correct occupational matches when collecting compensation data. Available to the public, this manual allows the user to lookup job descriptions for occupations and is used by field economists in the classification of thousands of occupations.
Major Occupational Groups (MOGs)
MOG A Professional, Technical and Related Occupations
MOG B Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations
MOG C Sales Occupations
MOG D Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical
MOG E Precision Production, Craft, and Repair Occupations
MOG F Machine Operators, Assemblers, and Inspectors
MOG G Transportation and Material Moving Occupations
MOG H Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers
MOG K Service Occupations, Except Private Household
SECOND STEP- CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS
Structured Interviews A structured interview may assume a definite format involving:
charting a job-holder's sequence of activities in performance
an inventory or questionnaire may be used
Care is needed to set up such interactions. A specialist analyst is not involved and participants need to know what they are doing, why and what is expected as a result. They may be intrained as interviewers and not structure the interview as recommended. Notes and records may be needed for subsequent analysis.
A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. The manager is the analyst.
Interviewing is a flexible method for all levels and types of job. An interview may focus on what a hypothetical job might involve.
Interviews generate descriptive data and enable job-holders to interpret their activities. A good interviewer can probe sensitive areas in more depth. Structured questionnaires cannot easily do this. Jobholders can give overviews of their work and offer their perceptions and feelings about their job and the environment. Rigid questionnaires tend to be less effective where the more affective aspects of work are concerned.
However information from different interviews can be
hard to bring together
there is potential for interviewer bias
certain areas of the work may fail to be picked up
an interview may stress one area and neglect others.
there are problems in interpretation and analysis with the possibility of distorted impressions
the subjectivity of the data captured needs to be considered
Interviewing as the sole method of job analysis in any particular project has disadvantages. Interviews are time consuming and training is needed. Co-counselling may remove the analyst and enable jobholders to discuss work between themselves. Through inexperience however they may miss items and there is the natural problem of people not establishing and maintaining rapport with each other during an interview.
Methods of Job Analysis
Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:
review of job classification systems
supervisor/direct boss interviews
expert panels [ direct boss/HRM/ others]
incumbent work logs
A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.
The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.
THIRD STEP ---ANALYSIS OF THE JOB.
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:
Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.
Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.
Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.
Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.
What does or should the person do?
What knowledge, skill, and abilities does it take to perform this job?
What is the result of the person performing the job?
How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization?
What is the job’s contribution toward the organization’s goals?
The process may seek to obtain information about the:
context within which the job exists
FOURTH STEP - DEVELOPING JOB DESCRIPTORS
Worker Functions. The relationship of the worker to data, people, and things.
Work Fields. The techniques used to complete the tasks of the job. Over 100 such fields have been identified. This descriptor also includes the machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in the job.
Materials, Products, Subject Matter, and/or Services. The outcomes of the job or the purpose of performing the job.
Worker Traits. The aptitudes, educational and vocational training, and personal traits required of the worker.
Physical Demands. Job requirements such as strength, observation, and talking. This descriptor also includes the physical environment of the work.
experience levels required
FIFTH STEP -- DEVELOPING JOB DESCRIPTIONS/JOB SPECIFICATIONS
There are as many different formats for job descriptions as there are jobs, but there are some basic pieces of information that most job descriptions have. Include them in yours, if you feel they are appropriate.
Job Scope . This section should contain a brief summary of the information found in more detail elsewhere in the description. A summary shouldn't be more than a few sentences long and should explain the main purposes and functions of the job.
Detailed duties and responsibilities. This is a more detailed description of the duties involved and separates the essential functions of the job from the incidental job functions for purposes of the ADA.
Accountabilities. A list of outcomes, the position is responsible for.
Skills required to perform the job. This can include compensable factors such as education, experience, and abilities.
Importance of job duties and tasks. Ranking the duties from most important to least important is a good way to convey this information since the task that consumes the most time is not necessarily the most important task. You can rank on a scale of one to 10, for example.
When and how often the tasks are performed. You might want to mention that certain tasks are only done once a month, quarter, year etc.
Job environment. Job environments can impact significantly on workers' motivation and job satisfaction. For example, it's a good idea to include in job descriptions factors like the fact that the work is done off-premises, or mention the existence of hazards, noises, physical proximity of other employees, and opportunities to communicate with other employees. Including these factors in the job description helps job applicants better understand the requirements of the job and helps you select the best candidate for the position.
Working Relationship. should include 1] direct reporting 2] dotted line communication 3]others.
KRA [ Key responsible areas]
KPA [ Key performance areas]
KPI [ Key performance indicators]
KPC [ Key performance criteria]
The aim of job evaluation is to provide a systematic and consistent approach to defining the relative worth of jobs within a workplace, single plant or multiple site organisation. It is a process whereby jobs are placed in a rank order according to overall demands placed upon the job holder. It therefore provides a basis for a fair and orderly grading structure.
Job evaluation does not determine actual pay. That is a separate operation, normally the subject of negotiation between management and employees or their trade union representatives. Only the job is evaluated, not the person doing it. It is a technique of job analysis, assessment and comparison and it is concerned with the demands of the job, such as the experience and the responsibility required to carry out the job. It is not concerned with the total volume of work, the number of people required to do it, the scheduling of work, or the ability of the job holder.
Several techniques of job evaluation have developed, varying in approach. Some involve an examination of jobs according to criteria such as skill, responsibility and working conditions. Others are less complex.
Why introduce job evaluation?
Key Points: -
* It can be beneficial when the existing grading structure is in need of review
* It can help establish or maintain the credibility and acceptability of a grading system
* Job evaluation facilitates the accommodation of new or revised jobs into the grading structure
* It can be used by organisations as a basis for job matching and external pay comparisons
Job evaluation is used for all types of jobs both blue collar as well white collar . The concern for unit labour costs makes it vitally important for organisations, operating in highly competitive markets, to ensure that the grading level of their employees accurately reflects the relative importance of their jobs to the organisation.
Properly introduced and maintained, job evaluation can help lay the foundation of fair and orderly pay structures and thus improve relationships. Job evaluation may therefore be appropriate in the circumstances.
Anomalies in the pay system/need for a pay structure
Job evaluation can help remove any anomalies or inequities in an organisation's payment system where the existing grading structure is thought to place jobs in an arbitrary order with no justifiable or logical reason. Job evaluation would help remedy this by providing a more structured basis for deciding grading levels. However, job evaluation should not be introduced if the main reason is unrelated to the basic grading structure, for example because a bonus and incentive scheme has fallen into disrepute.
Changes in the job content
Work restructuring within organisations may result in companies having fewer manual employees often with a greater range of duties. In addition, new 'high tech' machinery may have altered traditional roles and blurred the differences between 'operating' and 'craft' skills. All this may have the following effects on existing grading systems:
• they may not be able to cope with the introduction of new jobs or new skills, with a likely increase in the number of grievances about grading
• they may not be able to cope with any 'grade drift', with lower grades having less to do, while other jobs may have drifted upwards, and
• there may be leap-frogging to catch up with pay rates elsewhere in the company, or outside.
Frequent grievances or disputes over grading or pay may indicate that the existing grading structure is no longer appropriate. If unresolved, such dissatisfaction could result in consequential pay claims, the gradual erosion of differentials between grades, increased costs and deteriorating morale and employment relations. A job evaluation scheme, properly designed and installed with an appeals procedure, can help maintain the credibility and acceptability of a grading structure.
From India, Mumbai