Here you you will get all videos. . . I will upload this evening on this thread i have few good videos with me. . .
12th April 2012 From United States, Fpo
12th April 2012 From United States, Fpo
fire week celebration Please use the link already we had enough discussion on this topic and you will get tons of document related to this topic if you need any specific items don't hesistate to ask us. . .
Keep on touch. . .
12th April 2012 From United States, Fpo
You had chooses a very good topic on this year for Fire week Refer the below link for Smoke management
Once you opened go with second link its contains lot of information on it. . .
Once you done fire week don't forget to update with us. . .
Keep on touch. . .
13th April 2012 From United States, Fpo
I have wriiten one essay on smoke management saves lives..please comment on it:
SMOKE MANAGEMENT SAVES LIVES
DISCOVERY OF FIRE: Prehistoric men must have discovered Fire by chance perhaps when lightening caused a fire or when the sun shining on the dry leaves caused them to ignite. NO doubt, the discovery of fire was a major breakthrough in the development of civilization. This is why the primitive people used to worship Fire as a manifestation of GOD.As per our Hindu mythology, Fire is one of five basic natural elements (Fire, space ,earth, water & air) responsible for the existence & identification of living beings.
FIRE IS FRIEND: So long the fire is under control, it is our friend. It is needed in fulfilling our needs
FIRE IS ENEMY: But there is another side of coin as well, If proper attention & care is not exercised, then the fire becomes our vicious enemy. Keeping fire under control, therefore, has been the primary task of mankind to avoid its devastating effect.
FIRE IS A GOOD SERVANT BUT A BAD MASTER.
The most readily evident by-product of a fire is smoke.
PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE.
It is better to prevent fire than to control them once they have started. Fire safety helps you prepare well in advance to deal successfully with an emergency situation.By being on the lookout for things that can cause fires and knowing what to do in case of fire, we can keep our family safe.
A youth was found dead under mysterious circumstances at his Haridevpur residence in Kolkatta .Preliminary probe revealed that he was asphyxiated after a minor fire broke out at his home,causing smoke choked him to death.
FOUR STAGES OF FIRE: fire develops typically in four stages:
Stage 1: Incipient stage: No visible smoke, no flame and very little heat. A significant amount of invisible (but sometimes smellable) combustion particles may be created. This stage usually develops slowly.
Stage 2: Smoldering stage: Smoke, but no flame and little heat.
Stage 3: Flame stage: Visible flame, more heat, often less or no smoke, particularly with flammable liquids and gas fires.
Stage 4: Heat stage: Large amounts of heat, flame, smoke and toxic gases are produced. The transition from the previous stage can be very fast.
SMOKE IS VERY LOW DURING INCIPIENT STAGE: As a fire progresses through these stages, many factors increase exponentially, including smoke, heat & property damage and not to mention risk of life; which becomes critical as smoke density increases. Fire research has shown that the incipient stage allows for the largest window of time to detect & control the progression of a fire. At the true incipient stage ,Heat is low(near ambient)temperature and flame is confined to a small area .At this time ,there will not be a well defined layer of hot gases ,so smoke is limited. Incipient fires do not spread beyond the area of the origin. Incipient stage detectors are the most sensitive smoke detectors Fire-fighters often use portable extinguishers to control incipient stage fires quickly. It is also used to determine which type of fire extinguisher should be placed in a given location so that incipient fires can be controlled quickly.
The longer the fire burns, the more products of combustion, which then leads to a higher chance of equipment failure even if the fire is successfully extinguished.
SMOKE IS A KILLER:The number one cause of death related to fires is smoke inhalation. An estimated 50%-80% of fire deaths are the result of smoke inhalation injuries rather than burns. Smoke inhalation occurs when you breathe in the products of combustion during a fire. Combustion results from the rapid breakdown of a substance by heat (more commonly called burning). Smoke is a mixture of heated particles and gases.
SMOKE MANAGEMENT: refers to the policy and practice of minimizing the quantities of emissions from fires that enter communities, sensitive areas, and other designated areas. Smoke management is a term used to describe the methods implemented to passively or actively control the movement of smoke within the built environment in the interest of providing safety to occupants, fire fighters and property.
In each State, there is a Smoke Management Program (SMP) which outlines policies and procedures for managing smoke from prescribed and wildfires. Smoke management methods include compartmentation, dilution, pressurization, airflow and buoyancy.
The following is a brief description of the different methods that are currently considered when designing smoke management systems. These systems can be implemented individually or in conjunction with one another.
1. Compartmentation - Passive compartmentation refers to the use of physical barriers to hinder the movement of smoke from the fire space into the non-fire spaces. These barriers include walls, partitions, floors, doors and smoke dampers.
2. Dilution - Dilution of smoke typically refers to the removal of smoke from non-fire spaces to maintain acceptable levels of gas or particulates within the non-fire spaces. As the name implies, this method relies on the provision of make-up air to dilute the smoke or combustion gases that infiltrate a non-fire space as the air from that space is exhausted.
3. Pressurization - Pressurization or smoke control refers to the use of mechanical ventilation systems (fans) to induce pressure differences across barriers having a relatively high resistance to airflow (i.e. small gaps) to control the movement of smoke between compartments. Stairwell and elevator shaft pressurization and zoned smoke control are typical implementations of the pressurization method.
4. Airflow - Smoke control by airflow is very similar to the pressurization method except that it typically refers to the flow of air through relatively large openings. This method is typically not implemented in buildings, but more commonly implemented for smoke control in transportation tunnels.
5. Buoyancy - Buoyancy refers to the venting of hot (buoyant) combustion gases through fan-powered and passive vents typically located in the ceiling of large, open spaces such as atria and covered shopping malls.
In general, smoke management programs require:
• knowledge of the fuels to be burned, such as the location, type, and amount of the biomass;
• evaluation of air quality and meteorological conditions to predict smoke dispersion (elevation and direction) and airshed affects;
• a process to authorize specific fires if conditions are appropriate; and
• tools to monitor and respond to impacts.
WHY SMOKE DETECTION: Devices have been developed that respond to various physical phenomena associated with a various physical phenomenon associated with a fire condition ,such as flame and smoke, which can be seen ,heat which can be felt, and invisible particles produced by the combustion process, which sometimes can be smelled.
Smoke detection system offers the earliest possible warning of a potential fire. Smoke detection is dependent on the 3 variables:
1. The sensitivity of the detector
2. The clarity of the smoke path leading to the detector
3. The density of the smoke after it reaches the detector.
SMOKE DETECTORS SAVE LIVES: It’s been said many times but it can’t be stressed enough, “Smoke Detectors Save Lives.” Smoke detectors, also called smoke alarms, have proven to be an inexpensive life saving device that gives people early warning if fire invades their home. An investment of less than $10.00 and 10 minutes installation time can mean the difference between life and death. When we think about home fires, we all have the tendency to think “It will never happen to me,” but the unfortunate truth is that fires occur in thousands of homes like ours across the country every day. Many of those fires result in the death of loved ones. It has been proven that most of those deaths could have been prevented had a smoke detector been installed. A properly maintained smoke detector senses small amounts of smoke so it warns you of a fire while the fire is still small and you still have time to escape the flames. Don’t depend on your hearing or sense of smell to give you adequate warning. Most fire deaths in homes occur between 10 at night and 4 in the morning, while people sleep. By the time a fire makes enough noise to wake even the lightest sleeper, it’s probably too late to escape. It has been found that home fire deaths have occurred not only due to a lack of smoke detectors but also because existing smoke detectors didn’t work. So, take a few minutes to save your life.
Many offices, business places, schools and areas of importance are fitted with fire alarm system, smoke detector, Fire sprinkler and fire extinguishers to avoid any danger associated with the sudden eruption of a deadly fire. However, the households in India are the least protected against its hazards. This explains the reason why people of our country are unaware of the most common fire safety facts and are less prepared to prevent the occurrence of devastation caused by fires every year.A residential fire sprinkler system be installed in all new construction. It is the need of the hour to educate people about safety facts and make them aware of the products being made available in the market for avoiding the danger of combustion. There is a need of water Hydrant in every street.
BEING CAREFUL AND HAVING SMOKE DETECTORS THAT WORK ARE VERY IMPORTANT, AND THESE PREVENTATIVE STEPS ARE HIGHLY IMPORTANT TO THE SAFETY OF OUR FAMILY
PROTECT YOURSELF FROM SMOKE INHALATION WHEN INSIDE. Take a cloth or a rag and wet it. Place it over your nose and mouth. This will only buy you a minute or so, which is not a lot of time, but it does help to filter those products of combustion which lead to smoke inhalation. Smoke inhalation causes people to become disoriented and can even render a person unconscious. Knowing this, you should cover your nose and mouth if you have to walk by or through a heavily smoke-filled room. If there is a lot of smoke and it's banked up towards the ceiling area, stay lower to the ground and crawl to get yourself out.
TYPES OF SMOKE DETECTORS:
1.SPOT TYPE OR CONVENTIONAL SMOKE DETECTORS : These type of smoke detectors cover an area of about 900 square feet.
Two types of Smoke detectors are available: photoelectric & Ionization.
a.PHOTOELECTIC DETECTORS: Photoelectric detectors work by using a light source or beam & a light sensor perpendicular to it. When nothing is in the chamber, the light sensor does not react. When smoke enters the chamber, some of the light is diffused & reflected into the light sensor, causing the alarm to sound.
b.IONIZATION DETECTOR: Ionization detectors use an ionization chamber & a small amount of radiation to detect smoke.Normally,the air in the chamber is being ionized by the radiation, causing a constant flow of current that is monitored by the detector. When smoke enters the chamber, it neutralizes or disrupts the ionized air, thereby causing the current to drop. This triggers the detector into an alarmed condition. Ionization type detectors respond to the first or incipient stage. This type of system is generally called an early warning detection system or products of combustion detection systems
2. INTELLIGENT SPOT-TYPE DETECTORS : These are very similar to conventional spot-type detectors, however they report more precisely the location of a fire. These detectors are intelligent because they are able to send information to a central control station, thereby pinpointing the exact location of the smoke.
3. AIR-SAMPLING SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEMS : These are sometimes refereed to as a “very early smoke detection (VESD) system, is usually described as a high-powered photoelectric detector. Air-sampling systems use an advanced detection method using a sensitive laser. Air sampling systems are designed to detect fire in high value applications, where conventional fire detectors simply fail to provide sufficiently rapid response. In applications where down time is a critical factor, high sensitivity smoke detection systems provide early warning fire detection up to 1000 times more sensitive than conventional spot type fire detectors. This provides rapid fire detection allowing facility personnel to address potential problems before they result in costly down time.
SMOKE DETECTORS PLACEMENT: Prevention is key when discussing smoke inhalation. Numerous prevention strategies can be employed to avoid exposure to smoke. Where you place smoke detectors depends on the size and layout of your home, and where people sleep in your home. Since the primary job of a smoke detector is to awaken sleeping persons and warn them of urgent danger, put a detector in each sleeping room and place additional detector(s) in the hallway or area by the bedrooms within five feet of the door to these rooms. In a house where the bedrooms are upstairs, one additional detector should be near the top of the stairs to the bedroom area. This should ensure early detection of smoke to allow plenty of time for evacuation.
Don't put detectors within six inches of where walls and ceilings meet, or near heating and cooling ducts. Detectors located in these areas may not receive the flow of smoke required to activate the alarm.
Facts & figures:
• Ninety-six percent of all homes have at least one smoke alarm, according to a 2010 telephone survey. Overall, three-quarters of all U.S. homes have at least one working smoke alarm.
• Almost two-thirds of home fire deaths in 2005-2009 resulted from fires in homes with no smoke alarms or no working smoke alarms.
• When smoke alarms fail to operate, it is usually because batteries are missing, disconnected or dead. Almost one-quarter of the smoke alarm failures was due to dead batteries.
There is more to checking a smoke detector than just pushing the test button. Dust and even small insects can sometimes block a photoelectric type or ionization type of smoke detector. They also should be cleaned periodically. Don’t go to long before changing batteries. If they are hard wired make sure they have a battery back up. Smoke detectors should not be taken lightly. They could save your life.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS: Modern SCBA has made fighting operations safer & more effective. Before SCBA, fire-ground injuries & fatalities caused by smoke inhalation were common. Thousands of fire-fighters dead from respiratory diseases ,cancer or other medical conditions that were direct consequences of repeated ,unprotected exposure to smoke& other products of combustion.
Smoky environment & oxygen-deficient atmospheres are deadly. It is essential to use SCBA at all times when operating in smoke environment.
BUILDING BYE-LAW: Many of the high-rise buildings in India have not yet been provided with inbuilt fire fighting arrangements, which are considered to be very essential from fire safety point of view. Buildings should have the required fire safety requirements as required under Building Byelaw. A strong view among fire services officials is that poor preventive measures and violation of building rules that denies space for fire-fighting.While buildings constructed prior to 1994 are exempted from setback space, the new buildings that are coming up especially the multi-storey special buildings should have a set back space of seven metres on all four sides, i.e., buildings of more than 15 meters height should have a seven metre set back space for the fire tenders and water tankers to negotiate and reach the ‘seat of fire' to battling the blaze. Simon Snorkel, equipment with a hydraulic platform to reach a height of 130 ft and which can spray water up to 60 ft, requires enough space around the building on fire to tackle the blaze effectively. Analysis of smoke management requires the consideration of the interaction of the many different building characteristics and driving forces that affect smoke movement.
In order to minimise or eliminate fire hazards in the high rise buildings, industries and business establishments, Fire Service should conduct demonstrations, lectures and film Shows.
DATA CENTRES: According to National Fire Protection Association(NFPA),43% of the business that are closed by a fire never re-open,23% of t hose that do not open fail within 3 years.Thus,when designing data centres ,fire prevention, detection & suppressions are always top concerns. In a data centre, the main goal of the fire protection system is to get the fire under control without disrupting the flow of business & without threatening the personnel inside. For the purpose of protecting a data centre, Smoke detectors are the most effective. Heat and flame detectors should not be used in proximity data centres, as they do not provide early warning for the protection of your valuable asset.
MANUAL CALL POINT: In many cases, people install safety gadgets for the purpose of obtaining a No Objection Certificate or a fire licence. Many of them refuse to maintain these after the inspection and their attention goes towards them only when the fire licence is due for renewal. In addition to installation and maintenance of such gadgets, there is need to impart training to people in using the building on how to use these gadgets in the event of an emergency. These gadgets need to be hooked on to a manual call point or panel board from where emergency response systems could be instantly and easily activated.
DUTY OF FIRE & RESCUE PERSONNEL: Despite misleading and prank calls, the Fire and Rescue Services makes it a point to reach the place. But the onus of preventing the fire rests on the people who use the building. In order to generate fire safety awareness amongst the people. In India, special drills should be conducted and fire safety tips ,Fire safety training through lectures and demonstrations should be provided quite frequently to train the civilians for the unfortunate event of a fire.
The theme of the observance this year is SMOKE MANAGEMENT TO SAVE LIVES. The underlying message is that many lives are smothered by the thick smoke, in addition to those that tongues of flames claim. There is a importance of controlling smoke during incidents of fire as smoke causes more casualties due to suffocation than burn deaths. If you manage smoke, you definitely can save lives. We must know what we want for our nation and have a burning desire to achieve it above all else.... ‘Country above self’! Everyone should be more cautious and pro-active towards smoke Management.
24th April 2012 From India, Vadodara