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Could anybody pls help me in finding some HR policues in any manufacturing sector.Actually im new to the manufacturing sector and my boss has given me the task to implement the HR policies for the company.
kindly if any acn help me in this egard.

From India, Lucknow
Hi Friend,

I am coming across so many posts by members stating that they are new to their organisation & experience and have been asked to prepare policies/manual for their company. I personally feel that framing of policies should be done by experienced and top management people. Youngsters can definitely voice their opinion or do something in relation to it. Policies reflect the company's goal and objective.

Herewith I am reproducing some of the important points related to policies which may be helpful to those who want to know about them.

Policies are broad guidelines as to how the objectives of a business are to be achieved. While objectives provide the ends which a manager should try to achieve, policies provide the guidelines which he should keep in view while achieving the ends. A Policy is “an established guiding canon premised on objective, devised to govern the activities of the business enterprise and from which the basic precepts of conduct are derived”1. A policy is designed to guide the organizational members to deal with a particular situation in a particular manner. It delimits the area within which a decision is to be made and assures that the decision will be consistent with and contributive to business objectives.

A policy is a predetermined and accepted course of thought and action to serve as a guide towards certain accepted objectives. In other words, we can say that policies are related to the organization’s overall purpose and its objectives in the various areas with which its operations are concerned. Personnel policies lay down the decision making criteria in line with the overall purpose of the organization in the area of Human Resource Management. Personnel policies are developed by the top management to assist the managers at various levels to deal with the people at work. Thus, personnel policies can be interpreted as the recognized intentions of top management with respect to efficient management of workforce.

Personnel policies cover the principles and rules of conduct governing the dealings of the organization with its employees, and set the tone for the administration of personnel programmes in a manner conducive to the attainment of the objectives of the organization. The need for sound personnel policies stems from the fact that in order to achieve the overall objectives of the enterprise, an atmosphere has to be created in which optimum and spontaneous co-operation of the employees can be achieved.

Characteristics of a Policy

Policies tend to predecide issues, avoid repeated analysis, and give a unified structure to other types of plans. Thus, policies are not simple statements, they have certain purpose behind them. A statement should have the following characteristics in order to be accepted as a policy :

(i) Policy is an expression of intentions of Top Management. It should present the principle that will guide the organizational actions. Most of the policy statements reflect a faith in the ethical values of the society.

(ii) Policy is stated in Broad Terms. The purpose of a policy statement is to serve as a guide to practice now and in future; so it should be stated in the broadest possible terms.

(iii) Policy is Long Lasting. A policy is enduring in nature as it is formulated after taking into account the long range plans and needs of the organization.

(iv) Policy is developed with the Active Participation of all Executives. Policy formulation calls for serious thinking and participation of all executives. Policies live longer than people who frame them. Basic organizational policies are framed in such a manner that they apply to all members of the organization alike from top to bottom. The policies should also get approval of the highest authority in the organization.

(v) Policy is in Writing. Policies take concrete shape when they are put into writing. This will ensure uniformity in application. In case of disagreement at lower levels, written policy serves as the final reference point. Written policies ensure continuity and greater conformity.

(vi) Policy is linked with Objectives. A policy is derived from specific objectives and it facilitates their achievement.

Types of Policies

A business enterprise may have the following kinds of policies.

(i) Functional Policies. Policies may be set up in the key areas of the enterprise like personnel, finance, purchase, production, marketing and quality. Such policies are known as functional policies.

(ii) Internal Policies. Internal policies include those initiated by managers at various level to guide the subordinates. Such policies are closely related to organizational objectives. They differ in their nature and scope depending upon the level of management where they have been formulated. They can be sub-classified into three categories :

(a) Basic Policy. It is used primarily by the top managers and is very broad scope. It is applicable to the organization as a whole.

(b) General Policy. It affects the middle level managers and is more specific than a basic policy. It is used mainly by the middle level managers.

(c) Departmental Policy. It is highly specific in nature and is applicable at the lowest level of the management to provide a guide in the day-to-day activities.

(iii) External Policies. External or imposed policies include those policies arising to meet the various pressures and requests of forces outside the enterprise such as government, trade unions and trade associations.

(iv) Appealed Policies. Such policies are formulated on the basis of the suggestions and complaints received from the employees. This happens when the subject-matter of a suggestion or complaint is exceptional in nature and is not covered by the existing policies. Such policies are sometimes incomplete. So it is better to replace them by the originated policies.

(v) Stated or Explicit Policies. Such policies are usually in writing and form a part of enterprise manual. They are definite and generally rigid.

(vi) Unstated or Implied Policies. These policies are not recorded in writing even though they are followed at every level. Sometimes they are not stated orally but are inferred from the behavior of the managers. That is why they are known as implied policies. An implied policy is generally flexible in nature.

Need and Benefits of Policies

A policy is a guide for repetitive action in major areas of business. It is a statement of commonly accepted understanding of decision-making criteria. Policies are set up to achieve several benefits. By taking policy decisions on frequently recurring problems, the top management provides the guidelines at lower level managers. It will permit decisions to be made in similar situations without repeating the reasons and expensive analysis required initially to state the policy or make the decision. Policies help managers at various level to act with confidence with out the need of consulting the superiors every time. This will also ensure promptness of action.

The benefits of policies are as follows :

(i) By making policy decisions on frequently recurring problems, the top management provides guidelines to the lower level managers.

(ii) Policies help managers at various levels to act with confidence without the need for consulting the superiors every time. This also ensures promptness of action.

(iii) Policies facilitate better administrative control as they provide the rational basis for evaluating the results.

(iv) By setting up policies, the management ensures that decisions made will be consistent and in tune with the objectives and interests of the enterprise.

(v) Policies secure coordination and integration of efforts in accomplishing the organizational objectives.

(vi) Policies save time and effort by pre-deciding problems in repetitive situations. They save the management from the botheration of repeating the expensive analysis required to take the policy decision every time.

Limitations of Policies

Policies may suffer from some limitations which are as follows :

(i) Policies are repeatedly used plans. They bring about rigidity in operations as they leave no room for initiative by the subordinates.

(ii) Policies may not cover all the problems. Sometimes, unforeseen situations arise which are not covered by the existing policies.

(iii) Policies are no substitute for human judgement. Policies only delimit the area within which decisions are to be made.

(iv) Policies may not be ever lasting as they lose their utility with the changes in the internal and external environment of the business.

Formulation of personnel Policies

Personnel policy reflects the needs and aspirations of employees. If the values that policy represents are short of employees’ expectation, it will be difficult to put such policy into action. Therefore, the top management should obtain advice of the human resource or personnel manager to develop policies and objectives on all important matters affecting personnel activities. The personnel policies should be flexible enough to offer sufficient scope for various departments to meet different situations. A company operating in various parts of the country or a company having global operations must adjust its policies in such a way so as to enable the regional managers to develop specific guidelines that are compatible with the cultural ethos of the local community.

In formulating personnel policies, the first step is to specify clearly the areas needing policies. The policies are needed in various areas of personnel management such as recruitment, employment, training, placement, transfer and promotion, compensation, performance appraisal, welfare, etc. In order to formulate policies in these areas, a committee may be set up. The committee will undergo the following steps to formulate personnel policies :

1. Preliminary Investigation. Fact finding is usually delegated to a specialist who collects data from inside and outside the organization through questionnaires, interviews and other methods. The facts or data should be adequate, dependable and qualitatively superb. When the data collection stage is over, the policy committee should have a sound ground to proceed further in this matter. The committee should also be aware about the following factors :

(a) Labour Legislation. The laws of the land in general and labour legislation in particular govern the several aspects of personnel matters. Policies should be in conformity with the laws of the country.

(b) Social values and customs. These are the accepted codes of behavior of any community which a policy should take into account.

(c) Employees’ aspirations. Personnel policies reflect the intentions of the top management of the company as regards management of human resources. These intentions should aim at satisfying the hopes and aspirations of the people who work in the organization.

2. Environment Scanning. The policy committee should carefully analyse the information available with it. The whole information may be divided into internal environment and external environment. Internal environment deals with physical resources, human resources, organizational structure, workers-management relations, organizational, values and beliefs etc. External environment relates to social, political, economic and technological conditions in the country. Monitoring and predicting the environmental changes are important for policy formulation. This will help in identifying alternative policies.

3. Identification of Policy Area. In formulating policies, it is essential to specify clearly the areas needing policies. We can classify policies into two broad groups. The first group deals with policy formulation in various managerial functions, namely, planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. The second group involves policy formulation in functional areas of business namely, production, marketing, finance, personnel, etc. Whatever may be the area, the process of policy formulation is the same. The benefit of specifying are needing policies is that It will help in collecting right type of information. The information may be collected from company’s manual and other publications, key executives and the publications of government, trade associations, trade unions and other sources.

4. Analysis of Alternative Policies. This stage in policy formulation deals with examination of alternative policies in the light of their contribution to the organizational goals. That policy alternative should be selected which is likely to yield the best possible results for the organization. The policy must be tested before it is given a final shape. Comments and suggestions should be received from the personnel at the lower levels.

5. Participation of Lower Levels. The ultimate choice of the policy should be made with the active participation of those who use and live with the result it gives. Those who have put in their contribution at the suggestion and fact finding stage will feel committed to it. Opportunity for upward communication should be given to employees to respond constructively to the policy. This will offer an opportunity to gauge their thinking. The management can reasonably expect that those who have not testified against the proposed policy will abide by it. If group of employees is not convinced, the management should examine their views in detail.

There are two major benefits of participation of people at the lower levels in policy formulation. Firstly, It will ensure that policies are realistic because they possess the first hand knowledge of organizational culture and climate. Secondly, since policies are to be used by the people at the lower levels, their participation in the formulation process would encourage ready acceptance by them.

6. Approval of Top Management. Policy formulation committee should report to the top management its considered opinion integrating the members’ judgements and findings. The human resource manager has a key role to play in this matter. He may be the principal spokesman of the committee, he should take adequate precaution to ensure correct timing and presentation of the report so that the top management finds it acceptable.

7. Implementation of Policy. The authority required to adopt and launch a policy definitely rests with the top management. Top management alone can decide whether the policy adequately represents the organizational objectives or not. Many managements hesitate to release the policy accepted by them for fear of making commitments. Release of policy is essential unless the management does not mean what it pretends to mean. Failure to release a policy statement would create not only confusion but also lack of confidence in management’s pronounced commitments.

8. Policy Appraisal. The representatives of management who are guided by organisation’s policy and other employees affected by a given policy can develop the experience needed to appraise its appropriateness and usefulness. Any serious difficulty with a new or revised policy should be reported to the top management along with constructive suggestions. The upward communication will take place if employees have learnt that they can receive attention and get action from higher management by participating in this way.

Tests of a Sound Personnel Policy

The best evidence of a sound policy is its past record of performance. According to Dale Yoder, the following tests can be applied to judge whether a policy is good or otherwise :

(a) Is it stated clearly?

(b) Is it consistent with public policy?

(c) Is it uniform throughout the organization?

(d) Is it having high level of acceptability among the members of the organization?

(e) Is it having a sound base in appropriate theory?

(f) Is it frequently reviewed and evaluated ?

The positive answers to the above questions would mean that the personnel policy is good.


Hi, Could anybody pls help me in to give information regarding scope of hrmanger manufacturing sector.kindly if any acn help me in this regard. Thanks pallavi
From India, Mumbai
Could anybody pls help me in finding some written policy to describe the social responsibilities via, child labour, forced labour, discrimination, working hours, working condition, compensation etc.
Thnks / Br

From India, Kanpur
Praveena Priya M
its g8....................It would be great to hear your opinions on the various this i

From India, Hyderabad
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