Dear Seniors, Could you tell me what the difference between knowledge & information is, and how we calculate that..?? Thanks in advance
From India,
Learning & Teaching Fellow (retired)
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V. Balaji
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Dear Sachin!
Greetings for the day!
I'm Mohan Shashank. Very Glad to see this question. These type of questions will raise not only knowledge but also Wisdom. Congratulations!
Knowledge is the one which can be raised through the information that you have collected.
There is a big difference between informatin and data. Data is the collection of raw facts where as information is the collection of processed data and the singular of Data is Datum.
Coming to our topic, when a person has sufficient information and if he go through that information and understands that, then he will become knowledgeful.
We can calculate or measure one's kowledge by an ancient measure called as IQ i.e., Intelligent Quotient.
Hope you understand this and feel free to ask any queries.

From India, Delhi

Dear Sachin,
Mohan Shashank has given you a brief answer. May we please know what you do and where (which industry) and why are you seeking the answer? What do you mean by "How we calculate that" ?
Had you only searched the web you would have found detailed answers at Intelligence Hierarchy: Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom | The Big Picture with diagrams.
found at Google
If you are a student, I suggest that you read scholarly articles (I found three at the top of the Google search page).
Have a nice day.
A retired academic in the UK

From United Kingdom

Subject - Difference between HR Management and Personal Management.
Dear Seniors,
Could you tell me what the difference between HR Management and Personal Managementis, and how we calculate that..??

From India, Gurgaon
Collection of facts and data are called as information.
getting conclusion from those facts and data is knowledge
It's raining out side--- This is the information.
I should take an umbrella with me to go out side-- this is knowledge.

From India, New Delhi
Makaniya Bashir

Dear santosh,

Difference between






Personnel Management - Personnel Management is thus basically an administrative record-keeping function, at the operational level. Personnel Management attempts to maintain fair terms and conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently managing personnel activities for individual departments etc. It is assumed that the outcomes from providing justice and achieving efficiency in the management of personnel activities will result ultimately in achieving organizational success.

Human Resource Development -

Human resource management is concerned with the development and implementation of people strategies, which are integrated with corporate strategies, and ensures that the culture, values and structure of the organization, and the quality, motivation and commitment of its members contribute fully to the achievement of its goals.

HRM is concerned with carrying out the SAME functional activities traditionally performed by the personnel function, such as HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection, employee relations, performance management, employee appraisals, compensation management, training and development etc. But, the HRM approach performs these functions in a qualitatively DISTICNT way, when compared with Personnel Management.

Main Differences between Personnel Management and HRM

Personnel management is workforce centered, directed mainly at the organization's employees; such as finding and training them, arranging for them to be paid, explaining management's expectations, justifying management's actions etc. While on the other hand, HRM is resource -centered, directed mainly at management, in terms of devolving the responsibility of HRM to line management, management development etc.

Although indisputably a management function, personnel management has never totally identified with management interests, as it becomes ineffective when not able to understand and articulate the aspirations and views of the workforce, just as sales representatives have to understand and articulate the aspirations of the customers.

Personnel Management is basically an operational function, concerned primarily with carrying out the day-to day people management activities. While on the other hand, HRM is strategic in nature, that is, being concerned with directly assisting an organization to gain sustained competitive advantage.

HRM is more proactive than Personnel Management. Whereas personnel management is about the maintenance of personnel and administrative systems, HRM is about the forecasting of organizational needs, the continual monitoring and adjustment of personnel systems to meet current and future requirements, and the management of change.


From India, Pune
Dear Mohanshashank Sir,
Thanks a lot for you valuable guidance...
Dear Nashbramhall Sir,
I am Sachin Katpale working in manufacturing company as Officer HR 3]The question came in my mind by this question, what require to do work in HR - knowledge or information..?

2. So many times in interview also interviewer looks only what information candidate has not knowledge and if he want to calculate the knowledge what’s the measurement..??
If you help it’s very grateful to me.

From India,
V. Balaji

Knowledge and information is alomost one and the same.

Information - is detail about a particular thing. When you accumulate more such information is called knowledge. For example, when we address a person "he is more knowledgeable". This means, he knows more information about something.

Someone asks you, "I am planning to purchase a car, can you please tell me which brand I should go for?" You reply, "Sorry, I have no knowledge on this".

You might have seen in the quiz program on the TV. "Who won the man of the tournament in the match, played in 1947?, "who was the first Prime Minister of India?, "How much money was spent on the first five year plan?, "name the satellite which was first sent to Mars? When you answer such questions and more, means you have collection of information, and therefore knowledeable. We have also heard people addressing others as "yeah, his General Knowledge is very good".

However, mere accumulation of information (i.e. knowledge), will not help. You need to have wisdom or skill (wisdom/ability talks more about how you apply the knowledge).

To explain this,

There was a young man going to a village to meet someone. When he got down in the village, he saw an old man (probably in his 65-70) sitting under a tree. Our young man told the old man that he arrived at this village to meet and so and asked him how long will it take to reach his place from there? The old man did not reply. The young man asked again. The old man did not reply again. After 3-4 attempts he got vexed and scolded the old man "I have heard, in villages people will be more courteous, more helpful and respectful; but you seem to be arrogant, disrespectful and have no helping tendency?" Then the young man started walking towards the village. After a few seconds, the old man called him. The young man came to ask the old man what for. The old man replied that it would take 15 minutes for him to reach the place where he wanted to go.

Surprised by this, the young man asked, "I was asking you many times and asked you again and again, you never bothered to reply me or help me; and you never answered me". Why do you behave like this?

The old man replied, "when you asked me the question, I did not know how fast or how slow you will be walking, I never had any information about your walking speed; after watching you walking a while, I understood, with this speed, you can reach that place in 15 minutes".

This is what wisdom or intelligence. To be intelligent, you need not be knowledgeable also. It is basic common sense, right?


From India, Madras

Knowledge is a blend of information, expereince and insights that provides a framework that can be thoughtfully applied when assessing new information or evaluating relevant situations while Information is a body of facts that are in a format suitable for decision making.

Source: Zikmund William G. (2003), Business Research methods, South West Thomson, Edn. 7, p738

However, no better way to understand the difference as what T.S. Eliot has said:

The endless cycle of ideas and action,

Endless invention, endless experiment,

Brings knowledge of motion, but not of stillness;

Knowledge of speech, but not of silence;

Knowledge of word, and ignorance of the Word.

All our knowledge brings us nearer to our ignorance,

All our ignorance brings us nearer to death,

But nearness to death no nearer to GOD.

Where is the Life was have lost in living?

Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?

Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?

The cycles of Heaven in twenty centuries Brings us farther from GOD and nearer to the Dust.

T.S. Eliot

From India, Mumbai

I have not come across any generic tool for measuring knowledge, as one has to ask "knowledge of what?". However, attempts have been made to measure the knowledge bank of companies and even countries. For example, see <link updated to site home> where a Knowledge Assessment Methodology and Knowledge Economy Scorecard comparison betwen India and China is given. Found at Google
Balaji has given an excellent example of the difference between information and knowldege.
Have a nice day.

From United Kingdom

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