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Dear Seniors, Could you tell me what the difference between knowledge & information is, and how we calculate that..?? Thanks in advance
Dear Sachin!
Greetings for the day!
I'm Mohan Shashank. Very Glad to see this question. These type of questions will raise not only knowledge but also Wisdom. Congratulations!
Knowledge is the one which can be raised through the information that you have collected.
There is a big difference between informatin and data. Data is the collection of raw facts where as information is the collection of processed data and the singular of Data is Datum.
Coming to our topic, when a person has sufficient information and if he go through that information and understands that, then he will become knowledgeful.
We can calculate or measure one's kowledge by an ancient measure called as IQ i.e., Intelligent Quotient.
Hope you understand this and feel free to ask any queries.
Dear Sachin,
Mohan Shashank has given you a brief answer. May we please know what you do and where (which industry) and why are you seeking the answer? What do you mean by "How we calculate that" ?
Had you only searched the web you would have found detailed answers at Intelligence Hierarchy: Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom | The Big Picture with diagrams.
found at Google
If you are a student, I suggest that you read scholarly articles (I found three at the top of the Google search page).
Have a nice day.
A retired academic in the UK
Subject - Difference between HR Management and Personal Management.
Dear Seniors,
Could you tell me what the difference between HR Management and Personal Managementis, and how we calculate that..??

Collection of facts and data are called as information.
getting conclusion from those facts and data is knowledge
It's raining out side--- This is the information.
I should take an umbrella with me to go out side-- this is knowledge.
Dear santosh,

Difference between






Personnel Management - Personnel Management is thus basically an administrative record-keeping function, at the operational level. Personnel Management attempts to maintain fair terms and conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently managing personnel activities for individual departments etc. It is assumed that the outcomes from providing justice and achieving efficiency in the management of personnel activities will result ultimately in achieving organizational success.

Human Resource Development -

Human resource management is concerned with the development and implementation of people strategies, which are integrated with corporate strategies, and ensures that the culture, values and structure of the organization, and the quality, motivation and commitment of its members contribute fully to the achievement of its goals.

HRM is concerned with carrying out the SAME functional activities traditionally performed by the personnel function, such as HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection, employee relations, performance management, employee appraisals, compensation management, training and development etc. But, the HRM approach performs these functions in a qualitatively DISTICNT way, when compared with Personnel Management.

Main Differences between Personnel Management and HRM

Personnel management is workforce centered, directed mainly at the organization's employees; such as finding and training them, arranging for them to be paid, explaining management's expectations, justifying management's actions etc. While on the other hand, HRM is resource -centered, directed mainly at management, in terms of devolving the responsibility of HRM to line management, management development etc.

Although indisputably a management function, personnel management has never totally identified with management interests, as it becomes ineffective when not able to understand and articulate the aspirations and views of the workforce, just as sales representatives have to understand and articulate the aspirations of the customers.

Personnel Management is basically an operational function, concerned primarily with carrying out the day-to day people management activities. While on the other hand, HRM is strategic in nature, that is, being concerned with directly assisting an organization to gain sustained competitive advantage.

HRM is more proactive than Personnel Management. Whereas personnel management is about the maintenance of personnel and administrative systems, HRM is about the forecasting of organizational needs, the continual monitoring and adjustment of personnel systems to meet current and future requirements, and the management of change.

Dear Mohanshashank Sir,
Thanks a lot for you valuable guidance...
Dear Nashbramhall Sir,
I am Sachin Katpale working in manufacturing company as Officer HR 3]The question came in my mind by this question, what require to do work in HR - knowledge or information..?

2. So many times in interview also interviewer looks only what information candidate has not knowledge and if he want to calculate the knowledge whatís the measurement..??
If you help itís very grateful to me.
Knowledge and information is alomost one and the same.

Information - is detail about a particular thing. When you accumulate more such information is called knowledge. For example, when we address a person "he is more knowledgeable". This means, he knows more information about something.

Someone asks you, "I am planning to purchase a car, can you please tell me which brand I should go for?" You reply, "Sorry, I have no knowledge on this".

You might have seen in the quiz program on the TV. "Who won the man of the tournament in the match, played in 1947?, "who was the first Prime Minister of India?, "How much money was spent on the first five year plan?, "name the satellite which was first sent to Mars? When you answer such questions and more, means you have collection of information, and therefore knowledeable. We have also heard people addressing others as "yeah, his General Knowledge is very good".

However, mere accumulation of information (i.e. knowledge), will not help. You need to have wisdom or skill (wisdom/ability talks more about how you apply the knowledge).

To explain this,

There was a young man going to a village to meet someone. When he got down in the village, he saw an old man (probably in his 65-70) sitting under a tree. Our young man told the old man that he arrived at this village to meet Mr.so and so and asked him how long will it take to reach his place from there? The old man did not reply. The young man asked again. The old man did not reply again. After 3-4 attempts he got vexed and scolded the old man "I have heard, in villages people will be more courteous, more helpful and respectful; but you seem to be arrogant, disrespectful and have no helping tendency?" Then the young man started walking towards the village. After a few seconds, the old man called him. The young man came to ask the old man what for. The old man replied that it would take 15 minutes for him to reach the place where he wanted to go.

Surprised by this, the young man asked, "I was asking you many times and asked you again and again, you never bothered to reply me or help me; and you never answered me". Why do you behave like this?

The old man replied, "when you asked me the question, I did not know how fast or how slow you will be walking, I never had any information about your walking speed; after watching you walking a while, I understood, with this speed, you can reach that place in 15 minutes".

This is what wisdom or intelligence. To be intelligent, you need not be knowledgeable also. It is basic common sense, right?

Knowledge is a blend of information, expereince and insights that provides a framework that can be thoughtfully applied when assessing new information or evaluating relevant situations while Information is a body of facts that are in a format suitable for decision making.

Source: Zikmund William G. (2003), Business Research methods, South West Thomson, Edn. 7, p738

However, no better way to understand the difference as what T.S. Eliot has said:

The endless cycle of ideas and action,

Endless invention, endless experiment,

Brings knowledge of motion, but not of stillness;

Knowledge of speech, but not of silence;

Knowledge of word, and ignorance of the Word.

All our knowledge brings us nearer to our ignorance,

All our ignorance brings us nearer to death,

But nearness to death no nearer to GOD.

Where is the Life was have lost in living?

Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?

Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?

The cycles of Heaven in twenty centuries Brings us farther from GOD and nearer to the Dust.

T.S. Eliot

I have not come across any generic tool for measuring knowledge, as one has to ask "knowledge of what?". However, attempts have been made to measure the knowledge bank of companies and even countries. For example, see http://worldbank.org <link updated to site home> where a Knowledge Assessment Methodology and Knowledge Economy Scorecard comparison betwen India and China is given. Found at Google
Balaji has given an excellent example of the difference between information and knowldege.
Have a nice day.
Knowledge is like river and information are two side of River.
As information increases, knowlege spread and become long and help any body to cover long distance of sucessfull life.
So it is very important to keep information udated and more so that knowledge get some distance.
Further to Mohan Shashank's reply, May I add the following explanation? If I give you a six-digit number, say, 3,62,436, you may be confused what it means! However, if you are knowledgeable about the Indian PIN codes, you will see 362436 as a PIN code of a post-office in Gujerat!
But, suppose you are told (information) that pair the digit with a hyphen - 36-24-36 - wisdom will dawn on you what this 'figure' means!
The simple and clear way of differentiating the two is; knowledge will reflect in the actions of the person and information in the words.
Now, how to calculate is as subjective as the question itself is... in my opinion there is no mathematical formula to calculate but with your experence and on working together you can make out the outcome.
An IT person told this definition of Data & Information a couple of decades ago.

Data is Unprocessed Information and Information is Processed Data

1. A Dictionary is Data of words with their meanings.

2. Putting these in meaningful way to narrate an incidence is like (giving) Information

3. Knowledge (understanding) would be required to analyse or write a critical review of or repercussions of the incidence

4. Wisdom is deep understanding (better: comprehend) to choose between right & wrong, and applying the knowledge to take (correct) decision


We see it in Share Market also.

Data: is company share behaviour (prices) over last 6 months (say)

Information: Someone would make a graphical presentation to see upword & downward trends in the share

Knowledge: The experts' comments on why the market is behaving in a particular way considering 'Share' behaviour of not only a single company but entire market.

Wisdom: Using these (and some other hidden parameters, seen by him/her), one makes the use of these things and participates in 'Share Trading', Purchasing or Offloading Shares to earn wealth.

Remember, Knowledge alone is not enough to come to a (correct) decision.

Success accrues only when execution blends with wisdom.

We see coaches having wisdom making players successful (who carry out execution to the core. Execution is important as not all players of the same coach are successful to the same level).

Dr Ulhas Ganu
I would say quite simply, knowledge is what we have now and information is what we need to increase that knowledge.
once you join an organisation at executive level your knowledge will help you performing your task but for making further strategies the main tool you required is information.
Information is the source on base of which strategies are formulated
Dear Sachin!

Greetings for the day!

Thank you very much for thanking me!

Coming to your second question, we'll have a small discussion on this now.

In traditional times we don't find anything with the name Employee relations. If the employee works, the employer pay him and vice versa. Then the importance of maintaining employee relations has come into existence and there is a need created to resolve any industrial disputes and conflicts.

So, in 1931, Royal Commission of Labour in India (British Commision) under the chairmanship of Mr.J.H.Whitely recommended to abolish some malpractices and to enhance the relations with the employees is noteiced to be important. After Independence, a labour Welfare Officer was identified as PERSONNEL MANAGER created by legislation under sec.49 of Factories Act, 1948. This led to the subject namely PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT where only some items like importance of employee relations, salary relaxations and differences between wages and salary has been discussed by a body called IIPM (Indian Institute of Personnel Management) from Kolkata, along with National Institute of LAbour Management (NILM) also from Kolkata.

After some more years, these two bodies merged to form National Institute of Personnel Managment head quartered at Kolkata again.

In 1990, several aspects has been added to this like How to maintain Employee relations, Performance appraisals, etc., etc.,had been added by a body called as Society for Human Resource Management which encountered another modification to PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AS HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.


Hope you can understand this.
Dear Reddy! Greetings for the day! Thanks for the thanks and I’m feeling very happy, by being a Corporate HR Trainer, it is my duty to make you all knowledgeful. Thanks for the co-operation.

The subject "difference between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management" has been discussed in the same forum elsewhere for a couple of times. There were views and feedback from certain people then.

I feel board moderators can coordinate with the "software Programmer" whenever such same topics are taken up for discussion by someone else again, probably, the software should be able to trace back the previous discussions and bring the comments/views of those people, so that repetition can be avoided. I have participated in the discussions earlier and once again I offer my views on this.

Personnel Management can be compared to "Maintenance Department" and Human Resource Mangement can be compared with "Production Department".

You would be aware that Maintenance department, does normal routine jobs like, cleaning the machines, taking up break down maintenance, Preventive maintenance, Zero break down maintenance, etc. They also do periodical maintenance or shut down of the plant, and clean and overhaul the machines, so that the machine down time can be kept at minimum level. These are their usual jobs.

Similarly, in Personnel management, people take up routine jobs like, daily attendance maintenance, time office control, payroll processing, periodical filing of returns, statutory compliance and maintenance of records, renewal of licenses, daily house keeping of factory / office, etc. These are normal routines they need to perform.

Whereas, Production Department on the other hand, converts raw materials into finished products. Flow is, Raw Materials ====> Process =====> Output. Raw material is sent in one side of operations, wherein activities like Centre Punching, Lathing, Surface Grinding, Drilling, Internal boring, Broaching, Reaming, internal grinding, assembling, Magnet crack checking, Quality control and then sent to Store room where the parts are kept to be used for assembling machines.

Similarly in Human Resource Department, your raw material is nothing but your employee himself. When an employee joins an organization you make him undergo orientation / induction program, teach him about the functions and technical aspects of the job, Set his KRA, administer quarterly/half yearly/annual performance review, train/ retrain him, administer his salary structure / salary review, award/reward him, do career planning and successing Planning and finally develop him as a person who can take up higher responsibilities in the organization. That is why HRD Department is known as Human Resource DEVELOPMENT department.

Hope you understood.

Knowldeg unstructured form of information. As we know while talking we say he had good knwoldege and then once we say so we can get some information from him. that the difference. knwoldge will be transfered in the form o information.
Subject - Re: Difference between Knowledge & Information
Data ,Information ,knowledge and Wisdom are four steps in learning practically anything.Data is collection of facts at random ;Arranging data ,classifying it makes it useful information ;to be able to draw certain conclusions with the help of available information ;undestanding some events or predicting some events is knoeledge;Wisdom is change in thoughts ;behaviour on gainig knowledge.for example;collecting names ;age ;season ,reasons for a particular disease is DATA ;Arranging it according to reasons ,age , etc will give us information about the causes of disease ;with application of mind and logic and with the help of the information we can draw conclusions reg causes of disease ;we can have predictions reg its spread; control etc Wisdom is in changing our food habits ;preventive measures etc This I suppose is applicable to all fields of life ;YOGESHCHANDRA
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