Dear Sirs,
There was an ample response from you all for my thread regarding Safety Shoes.
Now I am landing in same situation for safety helmet, Safety belts and Harness.
Pls explain what should I look at when selecting those items and tell me what standards they should meet.
Thanks in advance.
Regards,
SSM

From India, Madras
dipil
705

Dear SSM
Glass fiber reinforced plastic helmets are best. It must conform to the IS: 2925-1984.
Safety Harness must be CE APPROVED or Cohirms to EN 361 or IS 3521 - 1991.
You may buy two types:
1. Full Body Harness & Certified Kinetic Energy Absorber with Forked Twin Rope Lanyards With two Scaffold Hooks, Rope : Nylon, 11mm Dia Length : 1.5m. = Use above 6meter
2. Full Body Harness & Certified Forked Twin Rope Lanyards With two Scaffold Hooks, Rope : Nylon, 11mm Dia Length : 1.8m. = Use from 1.8 to 6meter.

From India
OSHA Safety Harness Requirement

Safety harnesses are part of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) fall protection program. The construction industry alone sees between 150 to 200 fatalities and more than 100,000 injuries per year due to falls at construction sites. OSHA has recognized this problem and has created standards that will better protect workers from falling hazards.

Function

The full-body harness, the most commonly used personal fall protection device, is designed to arrest the fall of a person. They are rigged to prevent a worker from free falling a distance further than 6 feet and hitting the ground or lower platform. They are designed to be tied off or anchored to a fixed structure that is above the worker's body and capable of supporting 5,000 lbs of dead weight. Do not tie-off to electrical conduit or similar smaller piping.

Features

Safety harnesses consist of anchorage (D-ring), connectors, and a body harness. The body harness consists of straps that are worn snugly around the worker's body, including leg straps. The D-ring on a sliding-back D-ring harness should be centered on the back, between the shoulder blades. This allows for the person to stay in the upright position after a fall. The body harness is designed to absorb the force of a fall through the shoulders, buttocks, legs and torso.

Harnesses are designed to be used with safety lanyards. Many companies and job sites require an increased element of safety by requiring the harness to have a dual lanyard incorporated, commonly referred to as 100% tie-off. Ensure that you calculate the length of the lanyard in any fall distance calculations.

OSHA Fall Protection Requirements

A personal fall arrest system/safety harness is required by OSHA whenever the employee is 6 feet above ground and is not protected by a guardrail or safety net, during the assembly or removal of scaffolding with incomplete handrails systems and more than 10 feet above the ground, and when using any aerial equipment that raises the employee higher than 6 feet.

The use of a personal safety harness is also required when working around floor openings and on any roof without handrails when the worker is less than 6 feet from the edge. Companies can make OSHA's requirement more strict; check with the safety department of your company for any more stringent policies prior to engaging in overhead work.

Calculate Falling Distance

Calculating the fall distance to ensure that the proper length lanyard is used is very important to the employee's safety. To calculate fall distance, you must know the length of your lanyard and its shock absorber's maximum length. You also need to know the height of the work surface.

The manufacturer may state that the lanyard length is 6 feet and the shock absorber will expand an additional 3 feet. Add 6 feet (the average height of an employee), add another 3 feet as a safety factor, giving you a total of 18 feet. This is the height at which it would be safe to work.

Employer Duty

Employers are required to inspect the work site for potential surfaces that employees are required to work on that creates a potential fall hazard. If there is a potential fall hazard, the employer must select a fall arrest system to protect the worker. This includes systems that include the safety harness. It is the employer's responsibility to provide the fall protection and the proper training for its use for the employee.

Employee Duty

It is the employee/user's responsibility to wear a harness properly when required. If an employee is not familiar with the proper donning and use of a personal safety harness, it is his responsibility to make that fact known to his supervisor so proper training can be completed. It is the user's responsibility to inspect the harness prior to each use and to calculate fall distances for the current task. If the harness is shock-tested or it has been used in a fall, OSHA requires that the harness be inspected by a competent person

From United States, Fpo
Legal Requirements and Standards

The Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 1992 require employers to maintain fall arrest equipment in good repair, including appropriate replacement. In addition, the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 require that equipment which is exposed to conditions causing significant deterioration should be inspected at suitable intervals and each time circumstances which might jeopardise safety have occurred.

British Standard BS EN 365: 1993 Personal Protective Equipment against falls from a height. General requirements for instructions for use and for marking gives general requirements for periodic inspection, instructions for use and marking of PPE against falls from a height. To counter the causes of degradation listed in the introduction, the British Standard states that components should be examined 'at least twelve-monthly'. This is sometimes taken to be 'annually', although manufacturers of textile products usually recommend inspection more frequently than this.

Inspection Regime

Employers should establish a regime for the inspection of lanyards that is drawn up by a competent person.

The regime should include:

• The lanyards to be inspected (including their unique identification).

• The frequency and type of inspection (pre-use checks, detailed inspection and, where appropriate, interim inspection).

• Designated competent persons to carry out the inspections.

• Action to be taken on finding defective lanyards.

• Means of recording the inspections.

• Training of users.

• A means of monitoring the inspection regime to verify inspections are carried out accordingly.

It is essential that the person carrying out any inspection is sufficiently independent and impartial to allow them to make objective decisions, and has appropriate and genuine authority to discard defective lanyards. This does not mean that competent persons must necessarily be employed from an external company, although many manufacturers and/or suppliers offer inspection services and training in the inspection of their products.

Employers may wish to provide additional lanyards to use as replacements in the event that defective lanyards have to be taken out of use. Lanyards that are on-hire may need special consideration, to ensure that they are subject to detailed inspections (and interim inspections if appropriate) within the period specified in the regime. Hirers should be informed of any use or damage that may affect the safety of the equipment (e.g. use with chemicals).

Scope of the Inspection Regime

Lanyards should be subject to:

• Pre-use checks.

• Detailed inspections.

• (As appropriate) interim inspections.

These should be carried out by competent persons, to identify defects or damage that may affect safety.

Examples of Defects and Damage

The following defects and damage have the potential to result in the degradation and/or weakening of the lanyard:

• Cuts of 1mm or more at the edges of webbing lanyards (e.g. where the lanyard may have been choke-hitched around steelwork).

• Surface abrasion across the face of the webbing and at the webbing loops, particularly if localised.

• Abrasion at the edges, particularly if localised.

• Damage to stitching (e.g. cuts or abrasion).

• A knot in the lanyard, other than those intended by the manufacturer.

• Chemical attack which can result in local weakening and softening - often indicated by flaking of the surface. There may also be a change to the colour of the fibres.

• Heat or friction damage indicated by fibres with a glazed appearance which may feel harder than surrounding fibres.

• UV-degradation which is difficult to identify, particularly visually, but there may be some loss of colour (if dyed) and a powdery surface.

• Partially deployed energy absorber (e.g. short pull-out of tear webbing).

• Contamination (e.g. with dirt, grit, sand, etc.) which may result in internal or external abrasion.

• Damaged or deformed fittings (e.g. karabiners, screwlink connectors, scaffold hooks).

• Damage to the sheath and core of a kernmantel rope (e.g. rucking of the core detected during tactile inspection).

• Internal damage to a cable-laid rope.

Withdrawing Lanyards from Use

Lanyards should be withdrawn from use and passed to a competent person for a detailed inspection to decide whether they should continue to be used, destroyed or returned to the manufacturer for testing* to enable a product performance history to be determined, if:

• There is no evidence that a lanyard has been inspected by a competent person within the last six months.

• Identification is not evident (lanyards should be indelibly and permanently marked in accordance with BS EN 365: 1993. They should be uniquely identifiable so that they can be easily associated with their respective inspection documentation).

• A lanyard is still in use and marked to the old British Standard, BS 1397: 1979 Specification for industrial safety belts, harnesses and safety lanyards (i.e. pre CE-marking).

• A lanyard is thought to be defective, or if there is any doubt about its safety after a pre-use check or interim inspection.

* The manufacturers can advise on this issue.

A lanyard that has been used to arrest a fall should never be reused. It should be withdrawn from service immediately and destroyed or returned to the manufacturer.

From United States, Fpo
Safety Harness Inspection



The use of a safety harness while climbing is the most important component to ensure a safe climb. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires the proper visual inspection of all safety harnesses before each use. OSHA prohibits the use of any damaged or excessively worn pieces of equipment under any circumstance.

Webbing

The webbing is a fabric material, commonly nylon, woven into a flat or tubular strip that serves as the basis of the safety harness. These are the straps that will be bound around the climber's waist and legs and in some instances around the shoulders.

When inspecting the webbing, grab the strip about six inches apart and slide your hands across every part of the harness. While doing so, inspect the top, bottom, and sides of the webbing to check for any damage. A webbing is unsafe for use if any of the following are present:

---frayed edges

---broken or pulled stitches

---any additional damage such as cuts, burns, or chemical damage

D-Rings/Back Pads

The D-ring, or back pad, is a metal ring looped into the webbing to attach to a carabiner, the metal loop in which the climbing rope is fed through as a climber makes his climb or descent. They are typically located on the front-middle and back-middle of the safety harness.

When inspecting the D-ring, check to see if it pivots without tension of any kind. In addition, check for any clear damages that will cause a problem. Do the same for the carabiner. A D-ring should not be used if any of the following are present:

---any bends or other kinds of distortions

---worn or sharp edges

---any sign of a crack or break

Attaching and Inspecting Buckles

The buckles on a safety harness are the metal parts on a safety harness where the webbing is fed through. A climber may tighten or loosen the webbing by using the buckles.

When attaching and inspecting buckles onto a safety harness, one must use extreme caution and pay close attention that all pieces of equipment are correctly installed. A buckle should not be used if any of the following are present:

---unusual wear

---any bends or other kinds of distortion

---damaged fibers to the webbing when fed through the buckles such as fraying or cutting

---if slots where webbing is fed through are not straight

Grommets

The grommets are holes supported by inner metal rings on the leg harnesses. These loops are found on the outside of each leg harness and can be used to adjust the tightness of the harness straps.

When inspecting grommets, pay attention to any heavy wear on this area. As with any piece of equipment, it's important to point out any signs of damage that may interfere with a climber's safety in any way. Grommets should be not be used if any of the following are present:

---looseness

---any kind of broken or distorted metal frames

---additional punched holes in the webbing in this area

Tongue Buckle

The tongue buckle is usually used for leg harnesses and closely resembles a metal belt buckle. The main advantage of using a tongue buckle is that a climber will be able to tighten the webbing straps more than when using a mating buckle. A tongue buckle can be used on the waist on some safety harnesses as well.

When inspecting a tongue buckle, be sure that the buckle tongues overlap the buckle frames. The tongue should be able to move smoothly along the webbing to check that it is working properly. Tongue buckles should not be used if any of the following are present:

---any kind of distortion in the shape and motion of the tongue

---sharp edges on the roller (the part on the tongue where the webbing is looped around to tighten)

What to Do With a Damaged Harness

If a part of a safety harness is damaged due to any of the listed problems, the inspector is required to fill out a form indicating their observations. Each safety harness is identified with a unique serial number. This number should be included on the form when sent in for repair. Inspection forms need to be filled out regardless of whether the harness is ready for use

From United States, Fpo
Safety helmet is according to ansi z 89 standard and should have ce warking which means it is tested by european union authorised testing centr.
Safety harness is according to ansi 359 standard and also pocess ce marking
both ppe will be according to osha 29 cfr 1926 subpart e
but as you mentioned safety belt is banned since 1997 januvary by osha and now it is not in use.

From India, Thrissur





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