The main tool that governments use to control inflation is interest rates, but this tool can lose its power if rates are already so low that there is hardly any room left to cut further before the cost of borrowing falls to zero. Another terrorist shock, a war in Iraq that goes badly wrong, or some other national calamity... it is not hard to imagine a scenario where further rate cuts become necessary.
Think about it from the ordinary man or woman in the street's point of view. If interest rates are zero, I can go out and get a huge loan and it costs me nothing at all. Of course the loan must one day be repaid, but when? The bank soon realises I am over extended and cannot repay, but is in no hurry because the loan repayments will be worth more to them in the future, if they give me longer to find the money. They are not losing a penny in interest because the interest rate is zero. In fact every day the bank waits, the more they make, because the price of money is rising as the price of everything else falls - that is the reality of deflation.
Old economics relied on inflation running at a safe modest level - not too high and not too low. It taught us that raising the cost of borrowing also raises the returns to savers, and sucks money out of the economy so less is around to be spent by consumers, goods hang around before being sold and market prices are constrained. Lowering interest rates encourages people to spend without worrying, more cash chases goods for sale, prices rise.
Unfortunately there are a number of drivers of deflation, so it will be easy for governments to find rates lower turn out lower than they expected. That's why banks try to keep a margin for error and will take radical steps to prevent inflation falling from - say - an absolute minimum of 2.5% or even 3% a year.
1. Globalization: every time a job moves from a high income country to a low income country, the price of production falls, and the potential for price cutting increases, while maintaining profits and market share. We are currently witnessing rapid and accelerating changes in industry and services. Even less developed countries like Mexico are finding large chunks of their manufacturing capacity moving to places such as China. India is taking a significant share of software development, with entire teams being made redundant in the UK and the US, replaced by teams twice the size at a fraction of the cost in places like Hyderabad and Bangalore. And as prices rise in places like coastal China, jobs will shift to other less developed regions.
2. Technology innovation: every time a new production process is developed, using less people and less resources, prices fall. In the past, technology purchases formed only a small part of our lives, but the techno-economy continues to grow dramatically, despite the hype and gloom of investors. And the indirect spin-offs are becoming greater every day. Take for example food technology and processing, where new automated packaging and distribution systems have contributed to falling food prices for over a decade, or new farming methods with increased yields, or the impact of online business to business relationships and just-in-time delivery systems.
3. Economic cycles and global shocks. Every economy goes through ups and downs and events outside any government's control also have impact. Take for example major terror attacks or turmoils in the Middle East affecting oil prices, which have recently fluctuated widely and may continue to do so. When oil prices rise, there is inflationary pressure. Governments respond by factoring this into decisions to raise interest rates and inflation falls towards a base level. But if that minimum is too low, what happens if there is another major downwards correction and for a while oil prices fall very significantly? The answer is an added risk of undershooting and causing deflation
So then, as we have seen, sectors in many economies are already deflating. What can governments do of they are worried about deflation, or to correct national deflation once it starts?
Firstly they can cut interest rates more aggressively while they are still able.
Secondly they can suspend or revoke tax rises for a limited period. Thirdly they can increase expenditure. Both these options of course affect government debt and are sustainable only in the short term without profound consequencies.
In summary then, both inflation and deflation pressures can worry governments, with potential risks to stability in countries where inflation has been allowed to fall too low. Governments should be expected to act from time to time, aiming to maintain around 2.5% to 3.0% inflation throughout economic cycles, giving room for adjustments and economic shocks in both directions.
Thanks for sharing article on Deflation. I do not think Govt. will take immidiate steps for a drastic cut in Interest rates. They should look at all the factors leading to the inflation near zero and take steps one by one. Also we should not be worried about deflation much as
Inflation aret is not down below zero for a long period
There are still many opportunities to pump up the demand as a large population is still poor and there are ample opportunities for pumping demand not just by cutting prices.
Cutting prices are not the solution. Solution is to increase the purchasing power of the people, this can be done by the Government by spending more money on infrastrure development of the country (ie.by constructing more roads and bridges in underdeveloped areas)
More valuable views please.
views are welcome.