In answer to your questions
1) According to the company's policy, if 3 months is the Probation period then it is valid
2) There is no law stating that employers can retain original degree certificate of employees. Please follow up with your HR and see if you can submit self attested xerox copies of your certificates
3) Generally, every company will send you the job description before taking an interview. Since, you have already received an offer, you can just contact the company to give you the day to day responsibilities of your role
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law there is nothing called as probation it is all the MNC culture that has brought in from Day one you are an confirmed employee of the Company.
None of the company can retain your original document it is a form of Forced labour practice and Criminal offence.
There are some companies where there are no JDs which are available however you can approach to the HR or to your reporting authority.
2.Asking the candidate to produce the original certificate and retaining them for a considerable period for verification is acceptable. But retaining them should not be prolonged or indefinite. They should be returned to the concerned atleast in a month of joining duty.
3.There is no mention of JD in the format of Offer. For clarity sake, on either side, JD, especially Duties & Responsibilities of every employee should be provided. Only explaining at the interview or during discussion give room for ambiguity.