Welcome to the world of realities. Your experience is not something uncommon.
Many small firms are run by the whims and fancies of the man at the helm of affairs. In general Corporates are professionally managed and have policies, systems and procedures. Still it may not be an ideal environment in all the Corporates. You can find very professionally managed small companies also, but generally less. Law of nature prevails Good and bad coexist they are not size dependent. By and large Corporates are expected to provide better working environment. Exceptions do remain.
Regarding your two questions please refer to Cite HR archives.
Please type your first query inside the box WHAT DO YOU NEED that you find in the title bar right above.
After typing in the box, press the 'research' button next to it.
You will get lot of information.
You can also refer "Related Information" and 'Download Thread'
that you find in the right side of this message.
Afterwards repeat the procedure for your second query.
Coming to your final question as to what you should be doing, it has to best answered by you only. If you have good subject knowledge, aptitude to work and sincerity, you will certainly progress, irrespective of whether the firm is small or big. Your competencies translated into performance, will take you to higher positions. So be bold and face the World. Wish you goodluck in your endeavour.