Hello Everybody,
I am Pratik Agarwal, a first year student of St. Xaviers College(B.Com), Kolkata. A few friends of mine and me are inclined to use this puja holidays of one month to do a project(through our college)....though we are not very sure on what. We have planned to discuss this matter on saturday...I have thought of one plan...I thought of going to a few respected Cos.(aproaching won't be a problem), and see what are their marketing strategies related to this holiday season, collect sample surveys on their effectiveness etc.......
PLZ help me by providing new ideas....PLEASE....

From India, Calcutta

I have covered most of the elements.

Subject to your requirements, you can pick / modify/ play with it.



First determine,

-What are the marketing objectives?

*market share

*sales objectives [ units]

*sales objectives in rupees.



-What are the marketing strategies?

Second, determine the details of the marketing strategies.

Use the checklist below, to determine the exact nature

of the marketing strategy in use.

Marketing Strategies are plans designed to reach marketing goals.

Marketing strategies are partially derived from a broader corporate

strategies, corporate missions, and corporate objectives.

Marketing strategies are also influenced by a range of macro/

micro environmental factors.

Various marketing strategies available for the organizations are


-marketing strategy based on dominance - LEADER

marketing strategy based on dominance - CHALLENGER

marketing strategy based on dominance - FOLLOWER

marketing strategy based on dominance - NICHER



marketing strategy based on scope/strength- COST LEADERSHIP

marketing strategy based on scope/strength- PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION

marketing strategy based on scope/strength-MARKET SEGMENTATION

================================================== ==


marketing strategy based on innovations-PIONEERS

marketing strategy based on innovations-CLOSE FOLLOWERS

marketing strategy based on innovations-LATE FOLLOWERS



marketing strategy based on growth- HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION

marketing strategy based on growth-VERTICAL INTEGRATION

marketing strategy based on growth-DIVERSIFICATION

marketing strategy based on growth-INTENSIFICATION

marketing strategy based on growth- MARKET COVERAGE

marketing strategy based on growth- PRODUCT COVERAGE



marketing strategy based on agressiveness-BUILDING

marketing strategy based on aggressiveness=HOLDING

marketing strategy based on aggressiveness-HARVESTING



marketing strategy based on OFFENSIVE MARKETING

marketing strategy based on DEFENSIVE MARKETING

marketing strategy based on FLANKING MARKETING

marketing strategy based on GUERRILLA MARKETING


Once the marketing strategy is defined, the next items are

-what is the product[ s] plan[s].

-what are the sales target for each product?

-what is the total sales target?

what are the sales objectives , like

*increase sales in customers

*obtain new customers

*new market segments

*new end use applications

*competitive push

*niche market attack

etc etc


Once the sales strategy is defined, the next items are

-distribution plan

what are objectives/strategies/ plans for distribution?


Once the distribution strategy is defined, the next items are

-channel plans

what are objectives/strategies/ plans for channel ?


Once the channel strategy is defined, the next items are

-sales organization plans/ sales training.

what are objectives/strategies/ plans for sales organization?


Once the sales organization strategy is defined, the next items are

-product promotions plans

what are objectives/strategies/ plans for product promotions plans?

This should include

-advertising in media

-sales promotions

-consumer promotions

-sales aids


-trade promotions

etc etc


Once the product promotions strategy is defined, the next items are

-customer service plans

what are objectives/strategies/ plans for customer service?


Once the Customer service strategy is defined, the next items are

-marketing research plans

what are objectives/strategies/ plans for marketing research?



what are objectives/strategies/ plans for evaluation?

-market share to target

-sales units to target

-sales rupees to target

-gross profit to sales ratio

-net profit to sales ratio

-return on investment for this campaign

-customer satisfaction

etc etc





From India, Mumbai
THANKS a lot Leo, this has been a very useful information...........
Could you also give me a few ideas as to what are the different options that I have for doing a research......few different topics. It would certainly be very useful.

From India, Calcutta
AS A B.COM student first year, you should look at a
number of projects like
-how the company conducts corporate planning
-how the company conducts strategic planning
how the company conducts corporate budgeting
how the company conducts corporate management control system
how the company conducts corporate management information system
how the company conducts corporate supply chain management
how the company conducts HUMAN resource management
how the company conducts corporate procurement management
how the company conducts distribution
etc etc

From India, Mumbai
Thanks.....a lot, it will surely help me a lot..... and when we have decided on the topic....i hope,you will be there to guide us..... Thanks a lot, Pratik
From India, Calcutta
Thanks for replies Leo.......
We have decided to do a project on 'workers participation in management'
I know its a huge topic....but I hope u will be helping us in this project.....please do send me your prestigious opinions on this topic. We plan to go to some reputed Cos. and see the employees' participation in decision making and its effect on the effectiveness of the Co. Please help me out as how to proceed on this topic. I will be waiting for your reply. Thanking you in anticipation.

From India, Calcutta

There are few points , you need to clarify before you

start the survey.

1.IS it worker participation in management or worker

participation in decision making in managing the business.

2. State the objectives of the project upfront and

very clearly.

3.Read some materials / books, so the terminalogy used

are common and understood by all.

4. Also, I suggest use the term " EMPLOYEE participation"

as this will cover all types of office/ production/other staff.


Here are some areas, where you may want to dig in

and see what are the current practices/benefits

achieved and the pitfalls.

1.IS the program based on union demand or

employer initiatives.

2.What is the company philosphy on employee

involvement in decision making.

3.Is it an isolated events or part of organization


4.Is it a process used for reshaping the labor relations.

5.Is it part of decentralized organization system

6. IS Employer participation a component of general business

and / or organization reconfiguration.

7.Is it necessary for implementation of such systems as




-due to increased usage of computer technology.





*Improved overall working conditions

*Resulted in greater reliance on employee skill and intelligence

*Resulted in less regimentation and more worker autonomy

*Resulted in greater respect and dignity for employees

* Improved job security

*Increased job satisfaction

*Resulted in greater emphasis on education and retraining

* Have reduced health safety violations and workers’ compensation claims

*Resulted in labor management equality in the workplace

*Empowered employees and participating unions

* Increased management flexibility in managing the workforce

*Improved product/service quality

* Improved productivity

*Resulted in greater employee identification with employer concerns, competition costs, etc.

*Reduced absenteeism

*Been used in conjunction with the introduction of new production/service systems *Been used in conjunction with introduction of new technology

*Been used in conjunction with increased outside subcontracting

* Been used in conjunction with concessionary bargaining

*Resulted in speedups

*Resulted in fewer job classifications

*Undermined the seniority system

*Resulted in layoffs (RIF)

*Reduced the need for the union grievance procedure

*Undermined employee identification with the union ================================================== =============

Necessary Elements for Effective Worker Participation in

Decision Making

six necessary components for successful programs on worker participation in decision making:


*Workers must have an increased degree of power vis-a-vis management regarding various levels of decision making in the company.

*Workers must have access to and sharing of management level information. If employees are to make decisions on the issues that go on in areas outside their normal jobs, they will need information such as engineering reports and company economic information that was previously only available to accounting or finance departments. A corollary to this component is that workers must be trained to understand and use this information in a correct and effective manner.

*A guaranteed right of protection from reprisal for employees who voice criticisms of management.

*An independent board of appeals to settle disputes between labor and management (grievance procedure).

*A participatory/democratic consciousness or a set of beliefs and traits among the work force and among management that tends to worker participation in decision making. The belief that workers have the ability to make good decisions or a strong feeling of self-reliance are two such traits.

*A guaranteed economic return on cost savings or surplus produced above the employee's regular salary. This sometimes is labeled as "gainsharing."

================================================== ==========

Levels of Worker Influence on

Company Decision Making

Below are the various systems used .

What system or combination exist in your organization

*Workers' Council or Assembly SUPERIOR to managers (and if outside constituencies have representatives on this body, they must be approved by the workers). Known as FULL WORKER CONTROL or "SELF MANAGEMENT" (WORKERS AUTONOMY)

*Joint power or PARTNERSHIP (workers and managers co-decide on joint board). This has many different voting proportions in existence and is considered JOINT MANAGEMENT or CODETERMINATION.

*Workers wait until management has decided; then may VETO or APPROVE: if veto, then management submits modifications. Also known as "collective bargaining."

*MANAGER DELEGATES some decisions generally to workers, reserving ultimate veto which is rarely used.

*Workers initiate CRITICISMS AND SUGGESTIONS and discuss them face-to-face with managers. Latter still have sole power to decide, but usually adopt workers' proposals.

*Same as immediately above but managers usually reject workers proposals.

*Managers give PRIOR NOTICE of a change, workers have a chance to voice their views, and perhaps stimulate reconsideration.

*Impersonal SUGGESTION BOX system; managers accept or reject without giving reasons.


Three Structural Components of

Empowering Model of Employee Participation

Which of these structures are used


What issues can the STF deal with that traditional participation teams cannot?

What information did the STAFF have that was not normally available to individual workers and why was this information important?

How long was the life of the STF? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Who was on the STF? What was management's role?



What prevents management from implementing the ideas of one AWG to a traditional work crew?

Why were AWGs able to increase their quality without increasing their workload?

What changes had to be made in the contract?

Would the AWG make it harder or easier for management to discipline the workers? Why?

How would an AWG identify and solve a company-wide problem?



How was the structure of the AWC similar to an autonomous work group? How was it dissimilar?

Who were the AWC members? How did the rank and file participate in the program?

What role did the traditional union structure play in the success of the program?

Could an AWC generate change in areas other than their own work area? How?






Topic #1 - Joint and Equal Representation

List all the major parts and areas of decision-making of a employee-management participation program. Which aspects of the program should be joint? Which should not? Why?


Topic #2 - Job Protection

If workers develop better and more efficient ways to operate the enterprise could these innovations pose any threat to their job security or working conditions? How?

List all the possible ways jobs could be affected.


Topic #3 - Gainsharing

When workers are truly able to participate in decision making, cost savings and productivity gains can be huge. What percentage of the gains do you feel should be reverted to the employees?

How? Can they be distributed in a manner that would unite the work force? How?


Topic #4 - Contract Protection and Expanding Collective Bargaining

List the types of decisions the company makes that the union has no influence over. If the employee partiicipation had influence in these areas how would it benefit the members?


Topic #5 - Company Commitment

Can a joint process survive if it only has the active support of middle management?

What should top management’s role be? Why?


Topic #6 - Goals and purposes of Union Participation

Why does the company want this program? What do you think their goals are? Which of these goals does the union share with the company? Even though the union may share these goals, is it for a different reason? Explain.


Topic #7 - Work Organization and Authority of Joint Program

If workers had the ability to say how their work should be organized do you feel any of the company’s goals would be achieved? Which personal goals of the work force would be assisted?

How much power should the joint employee-management program have to implement decisions? Is there a problem with the program only being advisory to management?


Topic #8 - Company and Union Interests

Do you feel that a union-management program should be neutral towards the union? Explain.

Is it legitimate for the union to want to become stronger because of its participation in the joint program? Explain. Do you think management wants the company to be strengthened because of the program?


Topic #9 - Joint Programs and the Grievance Procedure

Do you feel it is a good idea for individual workers to tell their grievances to the joint programs? Why?

Do you think there are some issues that the union may win easier in the joint program than through the grievance procedure? Explain.


Topic #10 - Program Expenses

Who monetarily benefits the most from the joint employee-management process? Explain. Who has access to more resources: labor or management?

What is employees contribution to the program?


Topic #11 - Program Assessment

How can the employees make sure that management is living up to its part of the negotiated agreement over the joint employee-management program? Will management make a periodic assessment of the program? Why?

Is it important for the employees to evaluate the program separate from management? If the employees does not conduct its own assessment of the program what are the risks?


Topic #12 - Communications to Workers

Some employees fear that employee involvement programs can be used as a way for management to brainwash employees and to form shop floor and office floor groups of workers that compete with unions. How could one prevent this from happening?

In a joint employee-management program who should have the final say over what gets communicated to the employees? -- To management? Who should have final say over joint communications? Why?


Topic #13 - Control and Access to Shop Floor/Office Floor Knowledge

Let’s assume that management’s primary purpose for wanting an employee involvement program is to make the work process more efficient by gaining the insight and knowledge of line employees. What are the risks to the employees of having management know these insights?

How can the employees make sure that the ideas and insights of the work place only be accessed by management by first going through the employees?


Topic #14 - Program Emphasis

What types of issues do you feel management will want the program to emphasize? What types of issues do you feel the union and its members want to emphasize?

How can you assure a balance between these different objectives?


Topic #15 - Duration of Program

Once the employees agrees to participate should it be allowed to decide to withdraw? Under what circumstances?

If the union withdraws from the program should management be allowed to implement the program without the union’s participation?


Topic #16 - Scope of Participation

List the areas of the company where the employees do not have the influence over decision making? Do the decisions that are made in these areas have an effect on the workers’ daily lives?

Which area and levels of the company should be subject to the joint employees-management program? Which should be excluded?


Topic #17 - Training

Who should decide what training takes place in the joint program? Who should conduct the training?

Is it important that workers be taught the employee’s legitimate role in society and in the company? Is it important that management be taught the legitimate role of the employees in society and in the company? Has management ever had this training before? Who should conduct this training?


Topic #18 - Information

What kinds of information does management posses that the employees will need to participate fully in the joint program?

Does the employees now have timely access to all management information? How could such information be of value to the employees? How is it important to the success of the joint program?

How effectively can the employees participate in the program without this information?


Topic #19 - Staffing and Consultants

Is it possible for staff to be neutral in a joint employees-management program? Is it desirable for staff to be neutral? Explain.







From India, Mumbai





Worker Participation: Current Research and Future Trends, Volume 16

(Research in the Sociology of Work) (Hardcover)

by VICKI SMITH (Editor)

Editorial Reviews

Book Description

Worker Participation: Current Research and Future Trends, Volume 16 of Research in the Sociology of Work, offers cutting edge research on the character and implications of workplace participation. Written by some of the leading scholars in the sociology of workplace transformation and alternative organizations, the chapters here examine various outcomes, causes, and consequences related to participation programs and worker democracy today. Topics include ways in which participation schemes are socially constructed and negotiated; the meanings that workers attach to opportunities for involvement in the workplace; practice, participation, and consent in alternative organizations such as cooperatives and collectives; and theoretical treatments that call for new ways of thinking about workplace participation. Methodologically pluralist and concerned less with specific productivity effects of worker participation, this volume highlights the social structural, social constructionist, and meta theoretical dimensions of worker participation and democratic organizations in the twenty-first century.

The global, 24/7 economy and the organizational changes it has generated have enormous implications for the organization, experience and use of time in (and out of) the workplace. In addition to eroding the boundary between home and work, creating time pressures both within and outside of the workplace, the need for businesses to compete in a 24/7 global economy has re-problematized time in the workplace. Drawing on sociology, labor economics, organizational behavior and social history, the papers in this volume examine either empirically or theoretically, a variety of aspects of time in the workplace. Contributors to this volume examine issues surrounding the distribution of and struggle over work hours and how these vary across a number of factors including race, class, occupation and other structural components of work. They examine temporal structures within organizations including inequities in flexible scheduling, entrainment and work teams, polychronicity, and how changing temporal structures affect professionalism and expertise. They also consider the way in which changing uses and organization of work time, in the context of economic instability and globalization, affect the difficulties of reconciling work and family. At the more micro-level, the papers consider individuals' perceptions and constructions and intersubjective constructions of time. To varying degrees, the authors speak to the policy implications or strategies for managing new times. Taken as a whole, these papers shed light on the way in which globalization and the emergence of a 24/7 economy have altered the ways, times, and meanings of time at work.

*Examines various worker participation models and evaluates the success of their outcomes

*Adopts a variety of methods and highlights the different dimensions of worker participation






www.eclac.org/id.asp?id=20228 - 25k


www.etuc.org/a/2841 - 14k


digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cahrswp/196/ - 12k




From India, Mumbai

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