So far we all have been been talking about performance management and strategic HR, but nothing has been talked abour strategic performance management, i would request my friends of citehr, to plz help in this topic of HOW STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IS PLAYING A VITAL ROLE IN COMPANIES.

From India, Pune
The Balanced Scorecard is a strategic performance management methodology that translates strategy into action throughout every level of an organization

The Balanced Scorecard is a performance management approach that focuses on various overall performance indicators, often including customer perspective, internal-business processes, learning and growth and financials, to monitor progress toward organization's strategic goals. Each major unit throughout the organization often establishes its own scorecard which, in turn, is integrated with the scorecards of other units to achieve the scorecard of the overall organization

In 1992, an article by Robert Kaplan and David Norton entitled "The

Balanced Scorecard - Measures that Drive Performance" in the Harvard Business Review caused a lot of attention for their method, and led to their business bestseller, "The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategyinto Action", published in 1996.

The financial performance of an organization is essential for its success. Even non-profit organizations must deal in a sensible way with funds theyreceive. However, a pure financial approach for managing organizationssuffers from two drawbacks:

It is historical. Whilst it tells us what has happened to the

organization, it may not tell us what is currently happening. Nor it is

a good indicator of future performance.

It is too low. It is common for the current market value of an

organization to exceed the market value of its assets. Tobin's-q

measures the ratio of the value of a company's assets to its market

value. The excess value is resulting from intangible assets. This kind

of value is not measured by normal financial reporting.

The 4 perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard

The Balanced Scorecard method of Kaplan and Norton is a strategic

approach, and performance management system, that enables organizations to translate a company's vision and strategy into implementation, working from 4 perspectives:

Financial perspective.

Customer perspective.

Business process perspective.

Learning and growth perspective.

This allows the monitoring of present performance, but the method also tries to capture information about how well the organization is positioned to perform in the future.

Benefits of the Balanced Scorecard

Kaplan and Norton cite the following benefits of the usage of the BalancedScorecard:

Focusing the whole organization on the few key things needed to create breakthrough performance.

Helps to integrate various corporate programs. Such as: quality,

re-engineering, and customer service initiatives.

Breaking down strategic measures towards lower levels, so that unit

managers, operators, and employees can see what's required at their level to achieve excellent overall performance.

1. The Financial Perspective

Kaplan and Norton do not disregard the traditional need for financial

data. Timely and accurate funding data will always be a priority, and

managers will make sure to provide it. In fact, there is often more than sufficient handling and processing of financial data. With the

implementation of a corporate database, it is hoped that more of the

processing can be centralized and automated. But the point is that the

current emphasis on financial issues leads to an unbalanced situation with regard to other perspectives. There is perhaps a need to include

additional financial related data, such as risk assessment and

cost-benefit data, in this category.

2. The customer perspective

Recent management philosophy has shown an increasing realization of the importance of customer focus and customer satisfaction in any company.

These are called leading indicators: if customers are not satisfied, they will eventually find other suppliers that will meet their needs. Poor

performance from this perspective is thus a leading indicator of future

decline. Even though the current financial picture may seem (still) good.

In developing metrics for satisfaction, customers should be analyzed. In terms of kinds of customers, and of the kinds of processes for which we are providing a product or service to those customer groups.

3. The Business Process perspective

This perspective refers to internal business processes. Measurements based on this perspective will show the managers how well their business is running, and whether its products and services conform to customer

requirements. These metrics have to be carefully designed by those that know these processes most intimately. In addition to the strategic

management processes, two kinds of business processes may be identified:

Mission-oriented processes. Many unique problems are encountered in these processes.

Support processes. The support processes are more repetitive in nature, and hence easier to measure and to benchmark. Generic measurement methods can be used.

4. Learning and Growth perspective

This perspective includes employee training and corporate cultural

attitudes related to both individual and corporate self-improvement. In a knowledge worker organization, people are the main resource. In the

current climate of rapid technological change, it is becoming necessary for knowledge workers to learn continuously. Government agencies often find themselves unable to hire new technical workers and at the same time is showing a decline in training of existing employees. Kaplan and Norton emphasize that 'learning' is something more than 'training'; it also includes things like mentors and tutors within the organization, as well as that ease of communication among workers that allows them to readily get help on a problem when it is needed. It also includes technological tools such as an Intranet.

The integration of these four perspectives into a one graphical appealing picture, has made the Balanced Scorecard method very successful as a management methodology.

Objectives, Measures, Targets, and Initiatives

For each perspective of the Balanced Scorecard four things are monitored (scored):

Objectives: major objectives to be achieved, for example, profitable


Measures: the observable parameters that will be used to measure

progress toward reaching the objective. For example, the objective of profitable growth might be measured by growth in net margin.

Targets: the specific target values for the measures, for example, 7% annual decline in manufacturing disruptions.

Initiatives: projects or programs to be initiated in order to meet the


Double-Loop Feedback

In traditional industrial activity, "quality control" and "zero defects"

were important words. To shield the customer from receiving poor quality products, aggressive efforts were focused on inspection and testing at the

end of the production line. A problem with these approaches - as pointed

out by Deming - is that the true causes of defects could never be

identified, and there would always be inefficiencies because products with

a defect are rejected. Deming understood that variation is created at

every step in a production process, and the causes of variation need to be

identified and repaired. If this can be done, then there is a way to

reduce the defects and improve product quality indefinitely. To establish

such a process, Deming emphasized that all business processes should be

part of a system, with feedback loops. The feedback data should be

examined by managers to determine the causes of variation, and what are

the processes with significant problems. Then they can focus their

attention on repairing that subset of processes.

The balanced scorecard method includes feedbacks around internal business

process outputs. As in TQM. Additionally, the Balanced Scorecard provides

a feedback for the outcomes of business strategies. This creates a

"double-loop feedback" process in the balanced scorecard.

Outcome Metrics

You can't improve what you can't measure. Therefore metrics must be

developed based on the priorities of the strategic plan, which provides

the key business drivers and criteria for metrics managers most desire to

watch. Processes are then designed to collect information relevant to

these metrics and reduce it to numerical form for storage, display, and

analysis. Decision makers examine the outcomes of various measured

processes and strategies and track the results to guide the company and

provide feedback.

So the value of metrics is in their ability to provide a factual basis for


Strategic feedback to show the present status of the organization from

many perspectives for decision makers.

Diagnostic feedback into various processes to guide improvements on a

continuous basis.

Trends in performance over time.

Feedback around the measurement methods themselves. Which measurements

should be tracked?

Quantitative inputs for forecast methods and for decision support


Management by Fact

The goal of measuring is to permit managers to see their company more

clearly - from many perspectives - and hence to make wiser long-term

decisions. A 1997 booklet on the Baldrige Criteria summarizes this concept

of fact-based management:

"Modern businesses depend upon measurement and analysis of performance.

Measurements must derive from the company's strategy and provide critical

data and information about key processes, outputs and results. Data and

information needed for performance measurement and improvement are of many

types, including: customer, product and service performance, operations,

market, competitive comparisons, supplier, employee-related, and cost and

financial. Analysis entails using data to determine trends, projections,

and cause and effect - that might not be evident without analysis. Data

and analysis support a variety of company purposes, such as planning,

reviewing company performance, improving operations, and comparing company

performance with competitors' or with 'best practices' benchmarks."

"A major consideration in performance improvement involves the creation

and use of performance measures or indicators. Performance measures or

indicators are measurable characteristics of products, services,

processes, and operations the company uses to track and improve

performance. The measures or indicators should be selected to best

represent the factors that lead to improved customer, operational, and

financial performance. A comprehensive set of measures or indicators tied

to customer and/or company performance requirements represents a clear

basis for aligning all activities with the company's goals. Through the

analysis of data from the tracking processes, the measures or indicators

themselves may be evaluated and changed to better support such goals."

Cautionary note on using the Balanced Scorecard

You tend to get what you measure. People will work to achieve the explicit

targets which are set. For example, emphasizing traditional financial

measures may encourage short-term thinking. The Core Group Theory by

Kleiner provides further clues on the mechanisms behind this. Kaplan and

Norton recognize this, and urge for a more balanced set of measurements.

But still, people will work to achieve their scorecard goals, and may

ignore important things which have no place on their scorecard.

Evolution of the Balanced Scorecard

In 2002, Cobbold and Lawrie developed a classification of Balanced

Scorecard designs based upon the intended method of use within an

organization. They describe how the Balanced Scorecard can be used to

support three distinct management activities, the first two being

management control and strategic control. They assert that due to

differences in the performance data requirements of these applications,

planned use should influence the type of BSC design adopted. Later that

year the same authors reviewed the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard as

shown through the use of Strategy Maps as a strategic management tool,

recognizing three distinct generations of Balanced Scorecard design.

From India, Bangalore
hi, thanks for replyn and providing a deep inside about this topic would you please tell me that apart from balanced scorecard what else plays an important role in companies any example of company who follows strategic performance measurement.
From India, Pune

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