Deputy Manager Hr
Sreenidhi S K
Help People With Their Attitudes To Improve
B K BHATIA
Director Of Company
Please Note that my view are about most of the Indian Companies and not all
I know that now a days some of the organizations have broaden their point of view regarding this context and have opted for multi rater appraisal.
The first organization which implemented 360 degree was MARUTI - 2007
Pz refer to following att. which consists an article about it.
Maruti adopts `360 degree' appraisal system.doc
19th June 2008 From India, Mumbai
You have started a debate on a topic where very few will even read and reply. How many of us want our subordinates to appraise us??? doubtful!!! - I personally feel that the best remarks will always be rendered by them.
19th June 2008 From India, Bangalore
What Col Jude is saying is true to an extrent. Its very difficult to take feedback especially from the ones working under you. As a sociaty also ( as in our families/ culture/ upbringing ), Indians find it very difficult to accept that someone younger than them should give advise. We are not very open to this bottom- up approach which reflects in Indian Organisations.
The problem exists at the top - An open and flexible approach at the senior level can change this. A 360 degree system if implimented in its true essence can drastically reduce modern day HR challanges.
But who will bell the CAT!!!
19th June 2008 From India, Delhi
Thank you for your valuable reply for the thread which you thought would remain unattended.
but let me clear my side. . .
This is not a controversial tread(Topic), as now a days is been given in our Community.
This is just what i felt about the most interesting techniques in PMS, which is whole hearted been taught in our B-Schools, but is actually avoided in the organizations.
I Just wanted to Alert the freshers in HR(same like me) about the current situation in our field
as, being just Theoretical may further hurt them.
20th June 2008 From India, Mumbai
HERE ARE SOME USEFUL INFORMATIONS.
WHY INDIAN COS. HESITATE TO IMPLEMENT 360 degrees appraisal.
WHY - THERE ARE FEW REASONS.
-performance appraisal-in general- is not a popular concept in indian management scene.
-few indian cos. use it as an effective management tool.
-few indian cos. use 360 degree system.
-of that only an handful use it effectively.
you can almost name them --WIPRO/ INFOSYS/TCS etc.
THERE ARE PROBLEMS IN THE USAGE OF
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ITSELF.
-IN THE INDIAN SCENE,it is used for multiple uses
like -performance appraisal/salary review/ potential assessment etc
WHICH CREATES CONFUSION FOR THE EMPLOYEES.
-often the PA is used as a checklist on the employee.
-PERFORMANCE is not linked often to the CORPORATE OBJECTIVES.
-there are no individual development plan for the individual employee.
THE MANAGERS TEND TO MAKE VERBAL PROMISES.
-in the real world of management, the PA is used
*improving the performance of the employee on the job.
PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF THE EMPLOYEE
IS THE NAME OF THE GAME.
WHICH CALLS FOR
-training / education/development/coaching/mentoring.
MOST OF THE PROBLEMS EXIST, BECAUSE OF
POOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 360 DEGREE SYSTEM.
-THE INTRODUCTION / IMPLEMENTATION OF 360 DEGREE
IS A CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM.
*HENCE, INITIALLY, TIME MUST SPENT IN THE CHANGE
*ORGANIZATION CULTURE CHANGE SHOULD BE
DRIVEN THROUGH THE ORGANIZATION.
-lack of poor communication upfront.
-the managers tend to critcise the performance and
not critique the performance.
-the managers tend pass value judgement on the performance,
instead of using descriptive words of the performance.
-lack of poor documentation online or off-line.
-lack of effective training [ managers/ employees/ peers/ customers]
-lack of orientation of the system.
-the managers , who implement this system need more training
in technical aspects / softskills.
*good interpersonal skills to handle employees of different types.
*good negotiation skills to handle the negotiation of the improvement areas.
OTHER NOTED Problems
It is the most costly and time consuming type of appraisal.
These programs tend to be somewhat shocking to managers at first. "reaction: Shock, Anger, Rejection, Acceptance, Help".
The problems may arise with subordinate assessments where employees desire to "get the boss" or may alternatively "scratch the back" of a manager for expected future favors.
The organization implementing this type of performance appraisal must clearly define the mission and the scope of the appraisal. Otherwise it might prove counter productive.
One of the reason for which 360 degree appraisal system might fail is because the organizations attempt to assimilate the 360-degree method within a traditional survey research scheme. In traditional survey research, investigators attempt to maximize data collection with as many items/questions as possible and with large sample sizes. In the case of 360-degree appraisal, creating measurement instruments with many items will substantially increase non-response errors. In addition, large sample sizes are not typically possible considering that perhaps 4 or 5 sources will rate an employee’s performance. As such, statistical procedures that rely on large sample sizes in order to ensure statistical validity might not be appropriate.
Organizations must consider other issues like safeguarding the process from unintentional respondent rating errors.
The culture shock that occurs with any system that creates "change." And especially with a modern system like 360 degree performance appraisal; must be taken care of.
The design and implementation of the 360 degree feedback system requires thoughtful planning. Are the employees accepting the system? Are the goals, procedures and benefits of the system clearly defined? Is the rating instrument relevant, valid and reliable? Please carefully review the recommendations made in this article that have been derived from extensive research on how to ensure the success of the 360 degree feedback system.
Critical Factors for Success
In order for the 360 degree feedback system to be successful there must be employee acceptance of the system. Both perceived accuracy and justice are considered critical factors for system acceptance. If the system is unjust or has errors, it will be dismissed for obvious reasons. Fortunately, reputable providers of 360 degree feedback have often delivered hundreds of thousands of ratings, and are experienced in maximizing the likelihood of system acceptance. There are three key steps to using the 360 degree feedback system successfully:
1. make it fit into the organization;
2.make it psychometrically sound;
3.use with care.
Make it Fit
Try to make the 360 feedback fit into the culture of the organization. In doing so it will appear less threatening and more fair.
Increase Employee Participation
To increase the perception of justice, employees should be encouraged to be active participants in the evaluation. A multiple source feedback works best in an environment that is team-oriented and cooperative. Giving individuals the opportunity to voice their opinions about the system's construction, process, and results will increase employee buy-in, acceptance, and will yield useful suggestions.
Train Feedback Providers
It is also important to train the feedback providers to be sensitive, respectful and polite. Treating employees in a friendly and respectful manner, and offering constructive advice will make them more open to accepting the performance appraisal system.
Communication is Key
People tend to be suspicious of things they do not understand. Thus, it is important to communicate to the employees the precise way in which ratings are to be combined, as well as the purpose, benefits and procedures of the 360 degree feedback system. It is particularly important to communicate the intended uses of the information.
Make it Psychometrically Sound
Ensure that the Instrument is Applicable
A good assessment should be reliable and valid. It must measure what it proposes to measure, consistently and accurately. The 360 degree feedback system only works effectively if it measures the relevant job performance, knowledge, skills, abilities and personality characteristics necessary for high levels of job performance. Thus, the first step is to identify, define, and incorporate these job performance behaviors, knowledge, and skills into the appraisal system.
Increase Rater Familiarity
Select raters who are well acquainted with the employee. Rater familiarity is linked to accuracy and fairness in performance ratings. To evaluate rater familiarity, some 360 degree feedback systems include a rating for familiarity and provide the option of indicating "inadequate opportunity to observe" for performance characteristics. To increase reliability and decrease the impact of individual biases a large sample of raters should be selected. Reliability continues to increase when up to twenty raters are included, but adequate reliability can be obtained using 6 or more raters.
Promote Rater Accuracy
Both 'self' and 'other' appraisal accuracy should be promoted and rewarded. The nature of the 360 degree feedback system should reduce the problem of rater accuracy, as the use of multiple raters will average out individual biases. Furthermore, there is an apparent tradeoff when using either 'self' or 'other' ratings. Other-ratings are perceived to be more accurate, however, they may also be perceived by the employee to be less fair. The inverse is true for self-ratings. Clearly, both rating methods have advantages and disadvantages; thus, a performance appraisal system that combines both 'self' and 'other' ratings will be the most beneficial.
Use with Care
When implementing the 360 degree feedback system it is important to be consistent across employees (all of the employees should have an equal opportunity to participate in the system), and administered frequently. A consistent system will be perceived as more accurate and fair. A one-time 360 feedback exercise is not recommended — they are best when at least a three to five term is planned. Furthermore, evaluating performance over time provides employees with benchmarks for development.
When implementing the 360 degree feedback system it is imperative to gain employee acceptance at the outset. The following guidelines will help make the system fair and accurate:
1. ensure that the 360 degree feedback system is consistent with the culture of the organization and the expectations of the employees;
2.conduct an information campaign that highlights the benefits and fairness of 360 feedback, and outline the process in some detail.
3.ensure that the rating instruments are relevant, valid, and reliable;
4.emphasize the importance of the raters being familiar with the employee's performance and provide raters the opportunity of "opting out" if they are not;
5.encourage and train raters on how to provide accurate ratings;
6.promote a participative environment where individual feedback is rewarded;
7.administer the performance appraisal system regularly and consistently;
8.continue to communicate information about the 360 degree feedback system;
9.treat employees with sensitivity and respect;
10.ensure that offensive or actionable coworker feedback is not returned to an employee.
Strategies for Success
Don't force it on people
Explain what it is, what it does, how it's used, and its' benefits to all concerned, continually
Disconnect it from any compensation decisions (raises, bonuses, etc.) - make it developmental
Provide information on its purpose and process to assessors
Conduct structured feedback workshops for feedback recipients
Spend time with those people having difficulty with their feedback
Know the instrument you're using thoroughly
Provide seamless coordination and support for distributing and collecting the assessment instruments
Make sure your vendor provides back-up support in case problems occur with the instruments or the process
Be trained in how to facilitate a 360° process. There's more to it than meets the eye.
Align your 360° process with the organization's culture, procedures, and practices. Support and reinforce it.
Guaranteed Strategies For 360° Disaster
*Use it inappropriately: Take an instrument designed for developmental purposes and use it to reward or punish performance (Performance Appraisal).
*Use 360° feedback without systemic support in place. Examples include:
*No facilitated workshops to support the receiving of feedback
*No institutionalized process or procedures are put in place to support, safeguard, and reinforce its benefit to the organization
*Lower levels of the organization use it but not the upper levels
*No up front explanation of the process to assessors or assesses
*Insufficient administrative support to distribute, collect, and process assessment instruments
*Failure to provide support for feedback recipients. More examples:
*Data "dumped" on users; no framing or context provided. ("Here, read this and get back to me.")
*When contradictory or negative feedback is received, no trained facilitator is on hand to help the assessee work through it.
*When feedback is rejected, no facilitator or coach is available to probe the assessee's resistance, or search for ways to allow them to "hear" the feedback
*Unethical behavior within the organization:
*Breach of confidentiality by report processor or facilitator (leaking or talking about a person's results).
*"Hammering" recipients with their results after they've shared it with facilitator or boss
*Threatening assessors to reveal how they assessed someone
*Recriminations against those who provided (or didn't provide) feedback to the assessee
Feedback is almost always a sensitive subject. People are often cautious, sometimes fearful, and occasionally emotional about it. A good facilitator or administrator recognizes and appreciates the sensitive nature surrounding 360° feedback and takes serious steps to insure the integrity of the process and support of the individual. Once the process has been breached by any of the above actions, it will be difficult to recover. Spend the time up front doing the homework necessary to make the process successful. The results will be more than worth it.
21st June 2008 From India, Mumbai
25th June 2008 From India, Bangalore
Let 360 degrees appraisal be utilized as a development tool for Senior Managers, rather than considering it as a 'Performance Evaluation' tool for all employees.
Reason: Senior Managers are mature enough to appreciate & manage this multi-rater feed back and utilize it for generating 'Self Development Plans' which improve their acceptability in the environment.
This 360 degrees feed back constitutes a restricted survey. Using the survey results to evaluate individual performance can utmost be considered as one of the inputs to the succession planning process in an organization.
Views of the readers on the above issues are welcome to have a more comprehensive understanding of 360 degree appraisal process.
B K Bhatia
25th June 2008 From India, Delhi
1. Indian companies are generally large in size feel it is of more number of ppl more paper work, more diversifications in Ideas hence more complexities
2. Smaller companies cannot afford the cost
3.It needs lot of efforts to train the sub ordinates/lower grade employees (plz do consider MFG industries).
These are very few limitations of 360 degree appraisal.And there are more
26th June 2008 From India, Hyderabad
than wht about 360 degree been implemented after introducing eAppraisal system
than may be the Problem faced by mfg large industry may be solved and may be if thay genuinely are interested can implement the system
after all it is for improvement & development
pz dont take it as a evalution tool
17th July 2008 From India, Mumbai
Comparatively a battery of psychometric assessments fills a better void. Not just one psychometric but a battery since a human being is a bundle of both heredity and environmental influences. He also has his own learning styles and core competencies. All these diverse information including emotional competencies could be obtained about any individual by administering a set of psychometric test battery for a near accurate information in terms of strengths and areas of improvement.
It is almost like a psychometric horoscope and purely developmental in its application.
If you need more information please feel free to contact
Sreenidhi S K
Behavioural Master Trainer & Coach
22nd July 2008 From India, Bangalore