Hi all, I wanted to know everything about "HRD Interventions". How it is used, why it is used. I also wanted an Employee morale survey questionnaire or Employee satisfaction survey questionnaire. Kindly throw some light on the above two topics.
From India, Mumbai

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hi!! howz life ....... here is some thing for i think this is some thing u may find useful.. wishes n regards, EAFIL
From India, Delhi

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As per my knowledge The best practices in HR, which developed the organization called HRD interventions. Regarding employee satisfaciton survery questionnaire i do have and i will forward later on . recently we did in our organization.
From Qatar, Doha
Dear Eafil,
Thanks for the reply, i had already downloaded your OD intervention doc. Neways i just wanted to tell you that u have everytime posted some valuable information on the site, so i appreciate your contribution.

From India, Mumbai
One of the main areas in which HRD interventions are needed relate to organizational role stresses. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the stresses of the top management executives and to suggest HRD interventions accordingly. The sample consists of 221 Top Managers. ‘organizational Role Stress Scale’ developed by Pareek (1981) has been used to obtain scores on different type of role stresses one encounters in his job.

OD-HRD Interventions for Creating A Learning Organization: My
Experiences and Reflections as A Change-Agent
Narendra M Agrawal
1. Introduction:
Organizations operate in changing environments and learn by interacting with their
environments by observing the results of their actions. Learning at the organizational
level should include both the adoptive and innovative responses to their environment
(Hedberg, 1981). Organizations, which do not learn, may not cope with the changes in
their environment and will find it difficult to survive and grow. In fact, the purpose of
learning is to improve performance and to master the environment (Katona, 1940 quoted
in Hedberg, 1981). Globalization and liberalization of Indian economy has led to Indian
business environment becoming more turbulent and uncertain However, the Indian
organizations such as Infosys, ICICI Bank, Tata Steel and Bharat Forge that have
superior learning processes have not only grown very fast in India but have also captured
the world market.
Watkins and Golembiewski (1995) argue that organization development philosophy, and
tools and techniques are in congruence with the conceptualization of creating learning
organization. Watkins and Marsick (1993, quoted in Watkins and Golembiewski, 1995),
define “the learning organization as one that learns continuously and transform itself.
Learning takes place in individuals, teams, the organizations, and even the communities
with which the organizations interacts… Learning results in changes in knowledge,
beliefs, and behaviors. Learning also enhances organizational capacity for innovation and
growth. The learning Organization has embedded systems or mechanisms to capture and
share learning”. Based on this definition, they argue that OD for creating a learning
organization requires a shift from focus on change to learning and change. Organizational
level learning systems facilitate knowledge generation, knowledge sharing and
empowerment for transformation on a continuous basis.
Page 2
It is in this context that we describe and examine some of the OD and learning
interventions that we have been using as an internal and external change-agent for the last
twenty years. We describe following four interventions which we have intensively used
to help individuals, teams and organizations to learn and behave differently which can
enhances their effectiveness and facilitate them to adopt and be innovative in context of
the environment:
• Transfer of learning from classroom to work situations
• Development-cum-assessment center as a part of nurturing leadership learning
• Image sharing process to enhance awareness about the context and behavior of
virtual team members
• Building A model for organization-wide training effectiveness
In the next four sections, we describe each of these four interventions and analyze these
interventions in terms of how they facilitate learning, behavioral change and performance
2. Interventions for Transfer of Learning from Classroom to Work Situation
During 1988, on a British Council Scholarship, I got an opportunity to attend a twelve-
week training programme, “Sharing British Training Experiences” conducted by
Industrial Training Systems, UK. As a part of the programme, I got exposed to the
concept of ‘Learning Diary’, ‘Learning Review’ and ‘Action-Planning’. As a participant
in the programme, I had experienced that ‘Learning Diary’ and ‘Learning Review’ are
excellent mechanism to consolidate one’s learning from a programme. I had also
prepared an action-plan as a part of the programme. After coming back from UK, I was
able to successfully implement my action-plan.
The above experience resulted in our management academy adopting the mechanism of
‘Learning Diary’, ‘Learning Review’ and ‘Action-Planning’. Prior to the introduction of
these mechanisms, we have been conducting a ‘Diagnostics’ exercise for all long
duration programmes on the first day of the programme. The Diagnostics exercise was
modified and is incorporated along with the above three mechanisms.
Page 3
As a part of the diagnostics, the participants are encouraged to get in touch with their
learning need. In a short-session, we usually spend the first 10-15 minutes to help
participants get in touch with what they already know about the subject and what else
they would like to know. In long duration programme coordinated by us, the participants
are asked to spend about forty-five minutes to answer the following three questions:
• In my opinion, what are the organization’s expectations from me as a professional
• What difficulties do I face in meeting these expectations?
• What do I look forward to learn in this programme to over come the above-mentioned
difficulties in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes?
Subsequently, the participants are distributed in 4-5 groups consisting of about five
members per group. In small groups, the participants are expected to share their
individual responses and develop a common group response. After the small group
discussion, the groups share their concerns as well as learning needs with the whole
Diagnostics facilitates the participants to think through their roles, responsibilities and
organization’s expectations from them at the beginning of the training programme. The
participants get in touch with their learning needs and become active seekers of the
Learning Diary
After creating awareness about the problems and challenges in the work setting of the
participants through the Diagnostics, the participants are made aware that they are the
only one in the class who are aware of their work-context and they only can change the
situation and work on the problems and challenges after the programme. But for that to
happen, they must empower themselves with contextual and relevant learning. For
acquiring relevant and contextual learning, they must visit their work situations as often
as possible during the programme, discuss their problems in the class and more
Page 4
importantly capture their learning on a regular basis in their ‘learning diary’. ‘Learning
Diary’ format includes the topic covered, significant learning points, and how one
proposes to use the learning in one’s work setting.
We brief the participants about how to write learning diary and suggest to them that they
should not try to summarize what was taught by the faculty in the learning diary. The
participants should recapitulate what is that they have learnt from a session. They are
advised that they should write their diary in first person, starting sentences with ‘I’. This
facilitates the participants to keep the focus on self and how they can transfer learning
from the classroom setting to the respective work situations. The participants are
encouraged that they should invest about 30-40 minutes per day writing their learning. It
is emphasized that some time they might experience difficulty getting in touch with their
learning and would feel uncomfortable capturing their learning. It is highlighted to them
that the discomfort may be because of the reluctance to change at the level of self and
hence they must learn to live with it for a while. We emphasize time and again that the
most important document they would carry along with them back home, would be their
learning diary. The time spent in writing learning diary, would help them to ensure that
the time and money spent in attending the programme, become an investment and which
would keep giving them returns in future.
During the subsequent days of the programme, the first thing in the class, I ask the
participants whether they have written the learning diary for the previous day. Typically,
many of the participants would not have written the diary. Without getting annoyed about
not writing the learning diary, I provide about twenty minutes to write their learning
diary. After every body completes capturing their learning, I ask few participants on
voluntary basis to share their ‘Learning Diary’ with the class. It helps the faculty to get
feedback whether the participants have understood correctly the concept of ‘Learning
Diary’. It also facilitates to revise the significant learning from the previous day. Most
importantly, it institutionalizes learning diary as an important and integral part of the
learning process in the programme.
Page 5
Learning Review
In the programme of more than one-week duration, at the end of each week, participants
in small groups carry out a ‘Learning Review’. The participants, who had worked
together during ‘Diagnostics’ exercise, again work together for ‘Learning Review’.
During the review, each member of the small group shares one’s learning from the
sessions conducted and how one proposes to implement them in one’s respective work
setting. The group summarizes the learning and how it can be used back home in the
work situations. The participants are encouraged to examine whether some of the issues
identified by them as part of the diagnostics have been answered or not. The process of
learning review and diagnostics facilitate the small groups to experience the processes of
team learning (Senge, 1990).
Action Plan
The ‘Diagnostics’, ‘Learning Diary’ and ‘Learning Review’ become the basis for the
participants to prepare an action-plan to be implemented back home. The participants are
given following briefing for the preparation of their action-plan:
a) Please read through your “Diagnostics” exercise and ‘Learning Diary’ before starting
work on your ‘Action-Plan’.
b) Your ‘Action-Plan’ should necessarily be in your area of responsibility and should
improve your own and your team’s performance and effectiveness.
c) Your ‘Action-Plan’ should be well thought out and a feasible one, not requiring
resources beyond your reach. Secondly it should not depend upon excessive
assistance from others. In case it does, the difficulties involved must be foreseen and
action plan in terms of activities to remove obstacles must be fully worked out.
d) Your ‘Action-Plan’ should be specific and should result in bringing about change.
You should be able to evaluate the impact of your ‘Action-Plan’ on pre-post basis
either quantitatively or qualitatively.
e) Your ‘Action-Plan’ should be time bound.
f) Please remember it is your ‘Action-Plan’ and you have complete freedom to decide
what you want to plan and do.
Page 6
As a part of the action-plan, the participants specify objectives to be achieved, activities
required to achieve a given objective, criteria to assess achievements and expected date of
completion. After being back to their respective work places, participants are expected to
share their action-plans with their superiors and after getting their consent, start
implementing them. After completion of the action-plans, the participants make a
presentation to the senior executives of the company.
Learning Diary and Action-Planning in the Process of Planned change
The classical model of planned change suggested by Kurt Lewin (1947) has three stages,
namely, unfreezing, change, refreezing. In the present study, the model of planned
change has been extended to 5 stages as given below:
1. Awareness about the need for and direction of change.
2. Empowering for change through learning relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes.
3. Planning for change.
4. Implementation of change.
5. Refreezing of change.
The four mechanisms, namely, ‘Diagnostics’, ‘Leaning Diary’, ’Learning Review’, and
‘Action-Planning’ described in this paper, can be conceptualized as initial 3 stages of
process of planned change as depicted in Figure-1. The ‘Diagnostics’ exercise makes the
participants aware about the need for and direction of change with respect to their role
responsibilities. In addition, the participants also become aware about their learning
needs in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes. The ‘ Learning Diary’ and ‘Learning
Review’ exercises empower the participants to plan and manage the change. In this
model of change, empowering through learning takes precedence over planning for
change. The ‘Action-Planning’ exercise focuses on planning for change. Participants, as
a part of the exercise, plan for objectives, activities and time period for a planned change
in their respective area of influence. While these three stages of planned change get
completed in a classroom, the remaining two stages are carried out in the work situation
of a participant. The process meets the requirement of a learning organization as
Page 7
suggested by Watkins and Golembiewski (1995) in terms of helping the participants to
learn and plan and implement change.
A Model of Planned Change for Transfer of Learning
1. Organization’s
from me as a
2. Difficulties
experienced in
meeting those
3. Identification of
learning needs in
terms of
skills and
Learning Diary
1. Daily review of
learning points.
2. Daily review of
how learning
can be applied
back home in
the work setting.
Learning Review
1. Weekly review
of significant
2. Sharing and
clarifying in a
small group
about significant
learning and its
Action Planning
Preparation of
specific work-
related action-
plans based on
Learning Diary
and Learning
Implementation of an
Action-Plan after
discussion and
approval by one’s
to Divisional
Feedback to
the Academy
on Action-
Page 8
3. Development-cum-Assessment Center:
An organization that aspire to grow much faster as compared to other organizations in the
environment usually rely on superior learning processes to help the organization to
acquire new competencies and capabilities. In addition, a fast growing organization needs
to ensure that people at the first level itself learn superior leadership competencies and
handle leadership challenges early in the career. HR systems and processes should be
used to help employees experience fairness, growth and credibility for the top
management and HR department; and in turn it helps in attracting and retaining talent
(Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1998). Development and assessment centers are powerful
mechanisms to help people experience these processes in an organization.
Development and assessment centers being highly resource intensive are more often used
for senior level executives. A pharmaceutical organization, a subsidiary of a
multinational corporation has been losing market share for few years. In the year 2002, it
got a new chief executive, internally promoted and posted from another location. He
realized the need for capturing the lost market share and developed a new strategy. As a
part of the new strategy, it planned to substantially enhance its presence in the market and
increase the manpower at the first level, namely, at the level of marketing executives.
This in turn led to substantial increase in the fresh induction at the entry level. During the
first year itself the impact was felt and the company recaptured its market share in many
of its territories. For sustaining the strategy of intensive presence in the market, it was
realized that people need to be groomed to handle higher responsibilities. Secondly, the
organization wanted to meet the growth aspiration of the employees and at the same time
give them a sense of fairness and growth. Accordingly, the organization decided to
conduct development-cum-assessment center for the first-line marketing executives as
well as for middle level managers in collaboration with IIM Bangalore. The performance
in the existing role was used as a criterion for deciding eligibility to participate in the
development center. Identification of an individual to participate in development-cum-
assessment center (DCAC) was considered by the participants as recognition of their
existing competencies and performance. Thus the participants attended development
Page 9
centers with a positive frame of mind that enhanced their energy to learn from different
interventions in the development center.
Role-analysis questionnaire and repertory grid method were used to define the
competencies required for the two levels, namely, business manager and regional
manager for which the assessment centers were designed. Managing Director, Director
(Sales), Head of HR and learning managers actively participated in designing in-basket
exercise, coaching situations and situations for handling problem and important
customers along with IIM B faculty. In addition, they have been equal partners for
conducting the development-cum-assessment centers. This has been helpful in showing
the commitment of the top management to the organizational learning and development
processes in the organization. As a part of the development process, all the participants
are given detailed feedback by Managing Director, Director (Sales) and the faculty on
their behavior and performance in the development center. Many of those who could not
get promoted first time, got promoted in the subsequent development centers. However,
no concessions were made for the people appearing second time in an assessment center.
Thus the process gives a very clear message to all the employees that organization wants
to be fair to them, provides them equal opportunities for growth and, values their growth
and development at the highest level. While the assessment center is used for making
promotion decisions, it has also become a part of annual learning system for high
performers. The feedback from the organization suggests that the intervention has led to
reduction in attrition. Bartlett and Ghoshal (1998) argue that a learning organization after
recruiting talent should develop systems and processes to retain talent. In addition,
analysis of assessment center data at aggregate level facilitates analyzing the group
strength and learning needs at the team level. The analysis of data from assessment
centers of marketing executives as well as business managers suggested that organization
was weak in conceptual and analytical skills and need to acquire these competencies. The
findings are used by the organization to develop organization-wide plans to acquire these
Page 10
Thus a development center combines at least three elements of a learning organization,
namely, personal mastery, mental models and team learning from the five disciplines of
learning organization as suggested by Senge (1990). It helps the participants to acquire
personal mastery by becoming aware of one’s strengths and development needs in
context of their growth plans and the roles they aspire to play. It helps them to change
their mental model by making them realize that they cannot equate their success in the
current role with the readiness to get promoted in the new role. Awareness of one’s
limitations may cause pain to an individual but it also facilitates accepting the reality and
changes one’s mental models. Finally, it facilitates the team to learn together about each
other as well as about the competencies required for the new role.
4. Image Sharing
Image sharing is a powerful OD technique
. The intervention is similar to
organizational mirroring discussed in OD literature (Fordyce & Weil, 1971). It is
premised that behaviour of a person or a group is a function of one’s understanding of
one’s role. When two or more groups of people work with each other, based on their
experiences of each other, they develop images about each other. While some aspects of
the images may be positive, many aspects of the images may not be desirable. By helping
organizational groups to learn about the images that exist about them within the
organization and its environment, they can be motivated to change their behaviour and to
redefine those images. The intervention usually requires a day and is most effective when
the teams, which interact with each other on a regular basis, participate in this OD
Recently, I used it to create awareness in a group of software professional about the
conflicts and causes of those conflicts amongst onsite and offshore team members who
are essentially part of the same team and work for common customers. All the members
were participants of a part-time executive MBA programme (PGSEM Programme at IIM
Bangalore). All the participants belonged to software industry and used to work for
different organizations. Most of them were part of onsite-offshore teams and many of
them had worked onsite. Those who had extensive and recent experience of working
Page 11
onsite were asked to be part of the onsite team and others became part of offshore team.
In each team, we had approximately 30-35 participants. Each team was told to come
prepared with the answer to the following three questions:
1. What we think about ourselves?
2. What we think about the other group?
3. What we think the other group thinks of us?
In the class, each group, namely, onsite and offshore team answered each of the above
three questions with about 8-10 adjectives. Table-1 describes what onsite and offshore
team think about them. The adjectives in this table are self-perception of both the teams
and it consists of mostly positive adjectives. Table-2 describes what offshore team thinks
of onsite team and what onsite team thinks offshore team thinks about them. Two
interesting aspects are noticed about these two lists. Firstly, though these two lists of
adjectives about onsite team were prepared by two different teams, namely, offshore team
and onsite team; they have lot of common adjectives. Secondly, many of these adjectives
can be considered as negative. Thus, it emerges that there are lot of negative images
which exists about onsite team and which are pervasive across offshore as well as onsite
the following process for building the model:
Table-5: List of Activities for Building A Model For Evaluating Training
Sl. No.
Discussion of the approach for consultancy
Change Agent
Creation of Corporate HR Steering Committee Chairman
Defining the organizational learning priorities
Defining the broad programme objectives and
contents of the training programme.
Corporate HR Steering
Identifying the project topics to be handled as
a part of the training programme.
Identification of Champions for project work.
Corporate HR Steering
Identification of participants for the
Corporate HR Steering
Conduct of half-day organizational and role
diagnostics workshops at two plants and
corporate office for the participants who were
nominated to participate in the programme.
Plant level HR Steering
Conduct of 6-8 weekly one-day project
meetings before the start of the programme.
Project Champion
Change Agent
Conduct of half-day project management
workshops for the participants.
Conduct of training programme
IIM Bangalore
Conduct of an experiment to capture learning
from the programme (Pre-Test, Post-Test
Experiment) and its relevance.
Visit to other organizations for benchmarking
and learning related to project work.
Plant level HR Steering
Head of Corporate HR
Finalization of Project Work
Project Champion
External Change Agent
Head of Corporate HR
Presentation of the Training Evaluation Model
to Board Members.
The feedback from the organization suggests that they are satisfied with the emerging
model for evaluating training effectiveness. The oral and written feed back from the
participants suggested that the programme was a success. The pre- and post-programme
data analysis revealed that learning was significant and relevant as perceived by the
Page 16
participants. The project work is relevant and applicable for the organization.
Organization is working towards implementing projects. The regression data suggested
that relevance and utility had significant impact on the amount of learning from the
programme. Thus based on a number of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria, it is
observed that it was a successful intervention. The following learning emerges from this
change initiative:
• Identification of project sponsor.
• Shared-ownership of change project at multiple levels during different phases of a
change project.
• Involvement of people responsible for change implementation.
• Empowerment for change.
• Share the responsibility of guiding the change project with internal change agent.
• Systematic planning for change using project management framework
• Developing mechanisms to assess the impact of change.
Conclusion: OD interventions have been in existence for almost last fifty years. The
stated philosophy and purpose of OD interventions have been to facilitate organization
wide planned change. Evaluation studies of OD interventions suggest about their success.
Integrating it with the concepts of creating learning organizations enhances the
understanding of linkages between OD interventions and their role in enhancing
individual, group and organizational learning and change management. Watkins and
Golembiewski (1995) have argued that for OD to facilitate learning organization, change-
agents should ensure that everybody is trained in OD.

thank u

From India, Delhi

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