HR TERMINOLOGY

:arrow: 4/5ths rule: Rule stating that discrimination generally is considered to occur if the selection rate for a protected group is less than 80% (4/5ths) of the selection rate for the majority group or less than 80% of the group’s representation in the relevant labor market

:arrow: 401(k) plan:An agreement in which a percentage of an employee’s pay is withheld and invested in a tax deferred account

:arrow: Absolute standards Measuring an employee’s performance against some established standards

:arrow: Accept errors Accepting candidates who would later prove to be poor performers

:arrow: Action learning A training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving problems in other departments

:arrow: Active practice: The performance of job-related tasks and duties by trainees during training

:arrow: Adjective rating scales A performance appraisal method that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each

:arrow: Adverse impact The overall impact of employer practices that result in significantly higher percentages of members of minorities and other protected groups being rejected for employment placement, or promotion

:arrow: Adverse selection A situation in flexible benefits administration where those in greatest need of a particular benefit choose that benefit more often than the average employee

:arrow: Adverse selection: Situation in which only higher-risk employees select and use certain benefits

Affirmative action Steps that are taken for the purpose of eliminating the present effects of past discrimination

:arrow: Affirmative action plan (AAP): Formal document that an employer compiles annually for submission to enforcement agencies

:arrow: Affirmative action: Process in which employers identify problem areas, set goals, and take positive steps to enhance opportunities for protected-class members

:arrow: Agency shop A form of union security in which employees who do not belong to the union must still pay union dues on the assumption that union efforts benefit all workers

:arrow: Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody Supreme Court case in which it was ruled that the validity of job tests must be documented and that employee performance standards must be unambiguous

:arrow: Alternation ranking method Ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait

:arrow: Apathy Significant dysfunction tension resulting in no effort being made

:arrow: Applicant pool: All persons who are actually evaluated for selection

:arrow: Applicant population: A subset of the labor force population that is available for selection using a particular recruiting approach

:arrow: Application form The from that provides information on education, prior work record, and skills

:arrow: Appraisal interview An interview in which the supervisor and subordinate review the appraisal and make plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce strengths

:arrow: Apprenticeship A time – typically two to five years – when an individual is considering to be training to learn a skill

:arrow: Arbitration: Process that uses a neutral third party to make a decision

:arrow: Arbitration: Process that uses a neutral third party to make a decision

:arrow: Assessment center: A collection of instruments and exercises designed to diagnose individuals’ development needs

:arrow: Attitude survey: One that focuses on employees’ feelings and beliefs about their jobs and the organization

:arrow: Attribution theory A theory of performance evaluation based on the perception of who is in control of an employee’s performance

:arrow: Attrition A process whereby the jobs of incumbents who leave for any reason will not be filled

:arrow: Authority The right to make decisions, direct others’ work, and give orders

:arrow: Autonomy The freedom and independence involved in doing one’s job

:arrow: Autonomy: The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling

:arrow: Availability analysis: An analysis that identifies the number of protected-class members available to work in the appropriated labor markets in given jobs

:arrow: Baby boomers Those individuals born between 1946 and 1964

Baby busters Those individuals born in 1965 and years after. Often referred to as generation Xers

:arrow: Background investigation The process of verifying information job candidates provide

:arrow: Bargaining unit: Employees eligible to select a single union to represent and bargain collectively for them

:arrow: Base pay: The basic compensation an employee receives, usually as a wage or salary

:arrow: Behavior modeling A training technique in which trainees are first shown good management techniques in a film, are then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by their supervisor

:arrow: Behavior modeling: Copying someone else’s behavior

Behavioral interview: Interview in which applicants give specific examples of how they have performed a certain task or handled a problem in the past

:arrow: Behavioral rating approach: Assesses an employee’s behaviors instead of other characteristics

:arrow: Behavioral symptoms Symptoms of stress characterized by decreased productivity, increased absenteeism and turnover, and increased smoking and alcohol/substance consumption

:arrow: Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) A performance appraisal technique that generates critical incidents and develops behavioral dimensions of performance. The evaluator appraises behaviors rather than traits

:arrow: Benchmark job: Job found in many organizations and performed by several individuals who have similar duties that are relatively stable and require similar KSAs

:arrow: Benchmarking: Comparing specific measures of performance against data on those measures in other “best practice” organizations

:arrow: Benefit: An indirect reward given to an employee or group of employees as a part of organizational membership

:arrow: Benefit: Indirect compensation given to an employee or group of employees as a part of organizational membership

:arrow: Benefits needs analysis: A comprehensive look at all aspects of benefits

:arrow: Blind-box ad An advertisement in which there is no identification of the advertising organization

:arrow: Blue Cross A health insurer concerned with the hospital side of health insurance

:arrow: Blue Shield A health insurer concerned with the provider side of health insurance

:arrow: Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ): Characteristic providing a legitimate reason why an employer can exclude persons on otherwise illegal basis of consideration

:arrow: Bonus: A one-time payment that does not become part of the employee’s base pay

:arrow: Boycott The combined refusal by employees and other interested parties to by or se the employer’s products

:arrow: Broadbanding: Practice of using fewer pay grades having broader ranger than in traditional compensation systems

:arrow: Bulletin board A means a company uses to post information of interest to its employees

:arrow: Burnout The total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal

:arrow: Business agent: A fulltime union official who operates the union office and assists union members

:arrow: Business necessity: A practice necessary for safe and efficient organizational operations

:arrow: Career stages An individual’s career moves through five stages: exploration, establishment, mid-career, late-career, and decline

:arrow: Career: The series of work-related positions a person occupies throughout life

:arrow: Case study method A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve

:arrow: Central tendency A tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average

:arrow: Central tendency The tendency of a rater to give average ratings

:arrow: Central tendency error: Rating all employees in a narrow range in the middle of the rating scale

:arrow: Change agent Individuals responsible for fostering the change effort, and assisting employees in adapting to the changes

:arrow: Checklist: Performance appraisal tool that uses a list of statements or words that are checked by raters

:arrow: Citation Summons informing employers and employees of the regulations and standards that have been violated in the workplace

:arrow: Civil Service Reform Act Replace Executive Order 11491 as the basic law governing labor relations for federal employees

:arrow: Classification method Method of job evaluation that focuses on creating common job grades based on skills, knowledge, and abilities

:arrow: Clayton Act Labor legislation that attempted to limit the use of injunctions against union activities

:arrow: Closed shop: A firm that requires individuals to join a union before they can be hired

:arrow: Coaching A development activity in which a manager takes an active role in guiding another manager

:arrow: Coaching: Training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors

:arrow: Cognitive ability tests: Test that measure an individual’s thinking, memory, reasoning, and verbal and mathematical abilities

:arrow: Collective bargaining: Process whereby representatives of management and workers negotiate over wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment

:arrow: College placements An external search process focusing recruiting efforts on a college campus

:arrow: Commission: Compensation computed as a percentage of sales in units or dollars

:arrow: Communications programs HRM programs designed to provide information to employees

:arrow: Comparable worth The concept by which women who are usually paid less than men can claim that men in comparable rather than strictly equal jobs are paid more

:arrow: Compa-ratio: Pay level divided by the midpoint of the pay range

:arrow: Compensable factor: Identifies a job value commonly present throughout a group of jobs

:arrow: Compensation committee: A subgroup of the board of directors composed of directors who are not officers of the firm

:arrow: Compensatory time off: Hours given in lieu of payment for extra time worked

:arrow: Competencies: Basic characteristics that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or teams

:arrow: Competitive advantage The basis for superiority over competitors and thus for hoping to claim certain customers

:arrow: Complaint procedure A formalized procedure in an organization through which an employee seeks resolution of a work problem

:arrow: Complaint: Indication of employee dissatisfaction

:arrow: Compressed workweek: One in which a full week’s work is accomplished in fewer than five days

:arrow: Conciliation: Process by which a third party attempts to keep union and management negotiators talking so that they can reach a voluntary settlement

:arrow: Concurrent validity: Measured when an employer tests current employees and correlates the scores with their performance ratings

:arrow: Constraints on recruiting efforts Factors that can affect maximizing outcome is recruiting

:arrow: Construct validity: Validity showing a relationship between an abstract characteristic and job performance

:arrow: Constructive discharge: Occurs when an employer deliberately makes conditions intolerable in an attempt to get an employee to quit

:arrow: Content validity: Validity measured by use of a logical, nonstatistical method to identify the KSAs and other characteristics necessary to perform a job

:arrow: Continuous process improvement A total quality management concept whereby workers continue toward 100 percent effectiveness on the job

:arrow: Contract administration Implementing, interpreting, and monitoring the negotiated agreement between labor and management

:arrow: Contractual rights: Rights based on a specific contractual agreement between employer and employee

:arrow: Contrast error: Tendency to rate people relative to others rather than against performance

:arrow: Contributory plan: Pension plan in which the money for pension benefits is paid in by both employees and employers

:arrow: Controlled experimentation Formal method for testing the effectiveness of a training program, preferable with before-and-after tests and a control group

:arrow: Controlling A management function concerned with monitoring activities

:arrow: Co-payment: Employee’s payment of a portion of the cost of both insurance premiums and medical care

:arrow: Core competency: A unique capability that creates high value and that differentiates the organization from its competition

:arrow: Core-plus plans A flexible benefits program whereby employees are provided core benefit coverage and then are permitted to buy additional benefits from a menu

:arrow: Correlation coefficient: Index number giving the relationship between a predictor and a criterion variable

:arrow: Correlation coefficients A statistical procedure showing the strength of the relationship between one’s test score and job performance

:arrow: Cost-benefit analysis: Comparison of costs and benefits associated with training

:arrow: Craft union: One whose members do one type of work, often using specialized skills and training

:arrow: Criterion-related validity: Validity measured by a procedure that uses a test as the predictor of how well an individual will perform on the job

:arrow: Critical incident appraisal A performance appraisal method that focuses on the key behaviors that make the difference between doing a job effectively or ineffectively

:arrow: Critical incident method Keeping a record of uncommonly food or undesirable examples of an employee’s work-related behavior and reviewing it with the employee at predetermined times

:arrow: Cultural environments The attitudes and perspectives shared by individuals from specific countries that shape their behavior and how they view the world

:arrow: Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs): Muscle and skeletal injuries that occur when workers respectively use the same muscles to perform tasks

:arrow: Cut score A point at which applicants scoring below that point are rejected

:arrow: Davis-Bacon Act A law passed in 1931 that sets wage rates for laborers employed by contractors working for the federal government

:arrow: Decentralized work sites Work sites that exist away from an organization’s facilities

:arrow: Decertification: Process whereby a union is removed as the representative of a group of employees

:arrow: Decline phase The final stage in one’s career, usually marked by retirement

:arrow: Defined-benefit plan: One in which an employee is promised a pension amount based on age and service

:arrow: Defined-contribution plan: One in which the employer makes an annual payment to an employee’s pension account

:arrow: Delegation A management activity in which activities are assigned to individuals at lower levels in the organization

:arrow: Deprivation A state of having an unfulfilled need

:arrow: Development: Efforts to improve employees’ ability to handle a variety of assignments

:arrow: Diary method A job analysis method requiring job incumbents to record their daily activities

:arrow: Dictionary of Occupational Titles A government publication that lists more than 30,000 jobs

:arrow: Differential piece-rate system: A system in which employees are paid one piece-rate wage for units produced up to a standard output and a higher piece-rate wage for units produced over the standard

:arrow: Differential validity A special type of validation whereby a cut score is lower due to bias in the test

:arrow: Disabled person: Someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits life activities, who has record of such an impairment, or who is regarded as having such an impairment

:arrow: Discipline: Form of training that enforces organizational rules

:arrow: Disparate impact: Occurs when substantial under representation of protected-class members results from employment decisions that work to their disadvantage

:arrow: Disparate treatment: Situation that exists when protected-class members are treated differently from others

:arrow: Distributive bargaining A competitive, confrontational bargaining strategy

:arrow: Distributive justice: The perceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes

:arrow: Distributive justice: Perceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes

:arrow: Diversity: The differences among people

:arrow: Diversity: The differences among people

:arrow: Documentation Used as a record of the performance appraisal process outcomes

:arrow: Downsizing An activity in an organization aimed at creating greater efficiency by eliminating certain jobs

:arrow: Draw: An amount advanced from and repaid to future commissions earned b the employee

:arrow: Drug-free Workplace Act Requires specific government-related groups to ensure that their workplace is drug free

:arrow: Due process: Means used for individuals to explain and defend their actions against charges or discipline

:arrow: Duty: A larger work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an individual

:arrow: Dysfunctional tension Tension that leads to negative stress

:arrow: Early retirement A downsizing effort whereby employees close to retirement are given some incentive to leave the company earlier than expected

:arrow: Economic strike An impasse that results from labor and management’s ability to agree on the wages, hours, terms, and conditions of a “new” contract

:arrow: Economic value added (EVA): A firm’s net operating profit after the cost of capital is deducted

:arrow: Effort-performance relationship The likelihood that putting forth the effort will lead to successful performance on the job

:arrow: E-learning: The use of the Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line

:arrow: Employee assistance program: One that provides counseling and other help to employees having emotional, physical, or other personal problems

:arrow: Employee benefits Membership-based, nonfinancial rewards offered to attract and keep employees

:arrow: Employee counseling A process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems

:arrow: Employee development Future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee

:arrow: Employee handbook A booklet describing the important aspects of employment an employee needs to know

:arrow: Employee leasing Hiring “temporary” employees for long periods of time

:arrow: Employee monitoring An activity whereby the company is able to keep informed of its employees’ activities

:arrow: Employee referrals A recommendation from a current employee regarding a job applicant

:arrow: Employee Retirement Income Security Act Law passed in 1974 designed to protect employee retirement benefits

:arrow: Employee rights A collective term dealing with varied employee protection practices in an organization

:arrow: Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP): A plan whereby employees gain stock ownership in the organization for which they work

:arrow: Employee training Present-oriented training, focusing on individuals’ current jobs

:arrow: Employment “test”: Any employment procedure used as the basis for making an employment-related decision

:arrow: Employment contract: Agreement that formally outlines the details of employment

:arrow: Employment legislation Laws that directly affect the hiring, firing, and promotion of individuals

:arrow: Employment-at-will (EAW): A common law doctrine stating that employers have the right to hire, fire, demote, of promote whomever they choose, unless there is a law or contract to the contrary

:arrow: Encapsulated development: Situation in which an individual learns new methods and ideas in a development course and returns to a work unit that is still bound by old attitudes and methods

:arrow: Encounter stage The socialization stage where individuals confront the possible dichotomy between their organizational expectations and reality

:arrow: Environmental influences Those factors outside the organization tat directly affect HRM operations

:arrow: Environmental scanning: Process of studying the environment of the organization to pinpoint opportunities and threats

:arrow: Equal employment opportunity (EEO): Individuals should have equal treatment in all employment-related actions

:arrow: Equal Pay Act Passed in 1963, this act requires equal pay for equal work

:arrow: Equity: The perceived fairness of what the person does compared with what the person receives

:arrow: Equity: The perceived fairness between what a person does and what the person receives

:arrow: Ergonomics: The study and design of the work environment to address physiological and physical demands on individuals

:arrow: Essay appraisal A performance appraisal method whereby an appraiser writes a narrative about the employee

:arrow: Essential job functions: Fundamental duties of a job

:arrow: Essential job functions: Fundamental duties of a job

:arrow: Establishment phase A career stage in which one begins to search for work. It includes getting one’s first job

:arrow: Executive Order 10988 Affirmed the right of federal employees to join unions and granted restricted bargaining rights to these employees

:arrow: Executive Order 11491 Designed to make federal labor relations more like those in the private sector. Also established the Federal Labor Relations Council

:arrow: Exempt employees: Employees to whom employers are not required to pay overtime under the Fair Labor Standards Act

:arrow: Exit interview: An interview in which individuals are asked to identify reasons for leaving the organization

:arrow: Expatriates Individuals who work in a country in which they are not citizens of that country

:arrow: Exploration phase A career stage that usually ends in one’s mid-twenties as one makes the transition form school to work

:arrow: External dimension Te objective progression of steps through a given occupation

:arrow: Extinction The elimination of any reinforcement that maintains behavior

:arrow: Extranet: An Internet-linked network that allows employees access to information provided by external entities

:arrow: Fact-finder A neutral third-party individual who conducts a hearing to gather evidence and testimony from the parties regarding the differences between them

:arrow: Factor comparison method A method of job analysis in which job factors are compared to determine the worth of the job

:arrow: Fair Credit Reporting Act Requires an employer to notify job candidates of its intent to check into their credit

:arrow: Fair Labor Standards Act Passed in 1938, this act established laws outlining minimum wage, overtime pay, and maximum hour requirements for most U.S. workers

:arrow: Family and Medical Leave Act Federal legislation that provides employees up to twelve weeks of unpaid leave each year to care for family members, or for their own medical reasons

:arrow: Family-friendly benefits Flexible benefits that are supportive of caring for one’s family

:arrow: Family-friendly organization Organizations that provide benefits that support employees’ caring for their families

:arrow: Federal agency guidelines Guidelines issued by federal agencies charged with ensuring compliance with equal employment federal legislation explaining recommended employer procedures in detail

:arrow: Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service A government agency that assists labor and management in settling their disputes

:arrow: Federation: Group of autonomous national and international unions

:arrow: Feedback: The amount of information received about how well or how poorly one has performed

:arrow: Flexible benefits plan: One that allows employees to select the benefits the prefer from groups of benefits established by the employer

:arrow: Flexible spending account: Account that allows employees to contribute pretax dollars to by additional benefits

:arrow: Flexible spending accounts Special benefits accounts that allow the employee to set aside money on a pretax basis to pay for certain benefits

:arrow: Flexible staffing: Use of recruiting sources and workers who are not traditional employees

:arrow: Flextime: Scheduling arrangement in which employees work a set number of hours per day by vary starting and ending times

:arrow: Forced distribution method Similar to grading on a curve; predetermined percentages of ratees are place in various performance categories

:arrow: Forced distribution: Performance appraisal method in which ratings of employees’ performance are distributed along a bell-shaped curve

:arrow: Forced-choice appraisal A type of performance appraisal method in which the rater must choose between two specific statements about an employee’s work behavior

:arrow: Forecasting: Use of information from the past and present to identify expected future conditions

:arrow: Functional tension Positive tension that creates the energy for an individual to act

:arrow: Gainsharing: The sharing with employees of greater-then-expected gains in profits and/or productivity

:arrow: Garnishment: A court action in which a portion of an employee’s wages is set aside to pay a debt owed a creditor

:arrow: Glass ceiling: Discriminatory practices that have prevented women and other protected-class members from advancing to executive-level jobs

:arrow: Global village The production and marketing of goods and services worldwide

:arrow: Golden parachute: A severance benefit that provides protection and security to executives in the event that they lose their jobs or their firms are acquired by other firms

:arrow: Good faith bargaining A term that means both parties are communicating and negotiating and that proposals are being matched with counterproposals with both parties making every reasonable effort to arrive at agreements. It does not mean that either party is compelled to agree to a proposal

:arrow: Good faith effort strategy Employment strategy aimed at changing practices that have contributed in the past to excluding or underutilizing protected groups

:arrow: Graphic rating scale A scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each. The employee is then rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait

:arrow: Graphic rating scale: A scale that allows the rater to mark an employee’s performance on a continuum

:arrow: Graphology Handwriting analysis

:arrow: Green-circled employee: An incumbent who is paid below the range set for the job

:arrow: Grievance arbitration: Means by which a third party settles disputes arising from different interpretations of a labor contract

:arrow: Grievance procedures: Formal channels of communications used to resolve grievances

:arrow: Grievance: Complaint formally stated in writing

:arrow: Griggs v. The Duke Power Company Case Heard by the Supreme Court in which the plaintiff argued that his employer’s requirement that coal handlers be high school graduates was unfairly discriminatory. In finding for the plaintiff, the court ruled that discrimination need not be overt to be illegal, that employment practices must be related to job performance, and that the burden of proof is on the employer to show that hiring standards are job related

:arrow: Group interview method Meeting with a number of employees to collectively determine what their jobs entail

:arrow: Group order ranking A relative standard of performance characterized as placing employees into a particular classification, such as the “top one-fifth”

:arrow: Guaranteed fair treatment Employer programs that are aimed at ensuring that all employees are treated fairly, generally by providing formalized well-documented, and highly publicized vehicles through which employees can appeal any eligible issues

:arrow: Halo effect: Rating a person high on all items because of performance in one area

:arrow: Hawthorne studies A series of studies that provided new insights into group behavior

:arrow: Hazard communication standard Requires organizations to communicate to its employees hazardous chemicals they may encounter on the job and how to deal with them safely

:arrow: Health Maintenance Act Established the requirement that companies offering traditional health insurance to its employees must also offer alternative health-care options

:arrow: Health maintenance organization (HMO): Managed care plan that provides services for a fixed period on a prepaid basis

:arrow: Health promotion: A supportive approach to facilitate and encourage employees to enhance healthy actions and lifestyles

:arrow: Health: A general state of physical, mental, and emotional well-being

:arrow: Holland vocational preferences An individual occupational personality as it relates to vocational themes

:arrow: Honesty tests A specialized paper and pencil test designed to assess one’s honesty

:arrow: Host-country national Hiring a citizen for the host country to perform certain jobs in the global village

:arrow: Hostile environment: Sexual harassment where an individual’s work performance or psychological well-being is unreasonably affected by intimidating or offensive working conditions

:arrow: Hot-stove rule Discipline should be immediate, provide ample warning, be consistent, and impersonal

:arrow: HR audit: A formal research effort that evaluates the current state of HR management in an organization

:arrow: HR generalist: A person with responsibility for performing a variety of HR activities

:arrow: HR research: The analysis of data from HR records to determine the effectiveness of past and present HR practices

:arrow: HR specialist: A person with in-depth knowledge and expertise in a limited area of HR

:arrow: HR strategies: Means used to anticipate and manage the supply of and demand for human resources

:arrow: Human resource information system (HRIS): An integrated system designed providing information used in HR decision making

:arrow: Human resource planning: Process of analyzing and identifying the need for and availability of human resources so that the organization can meet its objectives

:arrow: Human resources inventory Describes the skills that are available within the organization

:arrow: Human Resources management: The design of formal systems in an organization to ensure effective and efficient use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals

:arrow: Illegal issues: Collective bargaining issues that would require either party to take illegal action

:arrow: Immediate confirmation: The concept that people learn best if reinforcement and feedback is given after training

:arrow: Imminent danger A condition where an accident is about to occur

:arrow: Impasse A situation where labor and management cannot reach a satisfactory agreement

:arrow: Implied employment contract Any organizational guarantee or promise about job security

:arrow: Impression management Influencing performance evaluations by portraying an image that is desired by the appraiser

:arrow: IMPROSHARE A special type of incentive plan using a specific mathematical formula for determining employee bonuses

:arrow: Incentive plan A plan in which a production standard is set for a specific work group, and its members are paid incentives if the group exceeds the production standard

:arrow: Incident rate Number of injuries, illnesses, or lost workdays as it relates to a common base of 100 fulltime employees

:arrow: Independent contractors: Workers who perform specific services on a contract basis

:arrow: Individual performance-organizational goal relationship The likelihood that successful performance on the job will lead to the attainment of organizational goals

:arrow: Individual retirement account (IRA): A special account in which an employee can set aside funds that will not be taxed until the employee retires

:arrow: Individual-centered career planning: Career planning that focuses on individuals’ careers rather than on organizational needs

:arrow: Industrial union: One that includes many persons working in the same industry or company, regardless of jobs held

:arrow: Informal training: Training that occurs through interactions and feedback among employees

:arrow: In-house development centers A company-based method for exposing prospective manager to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills

:arrow: Insubordination Willful disregard or disobedience of the boss’s authority or legitimate order; criticizing the boss in public

:arrow: Integrated disability management program: A benefit that combines disability insurance programs and efforts to reduce workers’ compensation claims

:arrow: Integrative bargaining A cooperative strategy in which a common goal is the focus of negotiations

:arrow: Interest arbitration An impasse resolution technique used to settle contract negotiation disputes

:arrow: Intranet: An organizational network that operates over the Internet

:arrow: Job analysis: Systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content, context, and the human requirements of jobs

:arrow: Job criteria: Important elements in a given job

:arrow: Job description Identification of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job

:arrow: Job design: Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of work

:arrow: Job enlargement: Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed

:arrow: Job enrichment Increasing the depth of a job by adding the responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluating

:arrow: Job evaluation: The systematic determination of the relative worth of jobs within an organization

:arrow: Job instruction training A systematic approach to OJT consisting of four basic steps

:arrow: Job posting: A system in which the employer provides notices of job openings and employees respond to apply

:arrow: Job rotation: The process of shifting a person from job to job

:arrow: Job rotation: The process of shifting an employee from job to job

:arrow: Job satisfaction: A positive emotional state resulting from evaluating one’s job experience

:arrow: Job specifications: The knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) and individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily

:arrow: Job: Grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitutes the total work assignment for employees

:arrow: Jungian personality typology Four dimensions of personality matched to work environments

:arrow: Just cause: Reasonable justification for taking employment-related action

:arrow: Karoshi A Japanese term meaning death fro overworking

:arrow: Keogh plan: A type of individualized pension plan for self-employed individuals

:arrow: Labor force population: All individuals who are available for selection if all possible recruitment strategies are used

:arrow: Labor markets: The external supply pool from which organizations attract employees

:arrow: Landrum-Griffin Act The law aimed at protecting union members from possible wrongdoing on the part of their unions

:arrow: Late-career phase A career stage in which individuals are no longer learning about their jobs, nor is it expected that they should be trying to outdo levels of performance from previous years

:arrow: Leading A management function concerned with directing the work of others

:arrow: Learning curve Depicts the rate of learning

:arrow: Learning organization An organization “skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights

:arrow: Legislating love Company guidelines on how personal relationships may exist at work

:arrow: Leniency error A means by which performance appraisal can be distorted by evaluating employees against one’s own value system

:arrow: Line manager A manager who is authorized to direct the work of subordinates and responsible for accomplishing the organization’s goals

:arrow: Lock out/tag out regulations: Requirements that locks and tags be used to make equipment inoperative for repair or adjustment

:arrow: Lockout A refusal by the employer to provide opportunities to work

:arrow: Lockout A situation in labor-management negotiations whereby management prevents union members from returning to work

:arrow: Lockout: Shutdown of company operations undertaken by management to prevent union members from working

:arrow: Lump-sum increase (LSI): A one-time payment of all or part of a yearly pay increase

:arrow: Managed care: Approaches that monitor and reduce medical costs using restrictions and market system alternatives

:arrow: Management assessment centers A situation in which management candidates are asked to make decisions in hypothetical situations and are scored on their performance. It usually also involves testing and the use of management games

:arrow: Management by objectives (MBO): Specifies the performance goals that an individual and her or his manager agree to try to attain within an appropriate length of time

:arrow: Management development Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills

:arrow: Management rights Items that are not part of contract negotiations, such as how to run the company, or how much to charge for products

:arrow: Management rights: Those rights reserved to the employer to manage, direct, and control its business

:arrow: Management thought Early theories of management that promoted today’s HRM operations

:arrow: Mandated benefits: Ones that employers in the US must provide to employees by law

:arrow: Mandatory issues: Collective bargaining issues identified specifically by labor laws or court decisions as a subject to bargaining

:arrow: Marginal functions: Duties that are part of a job but are incidental or ancillary to the purpose and nature of a job

:arrow: Market line: The line on a graph showing the relationship between job value, as determined by job evaluation points and pay survey rates

:arrow: Marshall v. Barlow, Inc Supreme Court case that stated an employer could refuse an OSHA inspection unless OSHA had a search warrant to enter the premises

:arrow: Massed practice: The performance of all of the practice at once

:arrow: Mature workers Those workers born before 1946

:arrow: Maturity curve: Curve that depicts the relationship between experience and pay rates

:arrow: McDonnell-Douglas Corp v. Green A four-part test used to determine if discrimination has occurred

:arrow: Mediation: Process by which a third party assists negotiators in reaching a settlement

:arrow: Mediation: Process by which a third party assists negotiators in reaching a settlement

:arrow: Membership-based rewards Rewards that o to all employees regardless of performance

:arrow: Mentoring: A relationship in which experienced managers aid individuals in the earlier stages of their careers

:arrow: Merit pay An increase in one’s pay, usually give on an annual basis

:arrow: Merit Pay (merit raise) Any salary increase awarded to an employee based on his or her individual performance

:arrow: Metamorphosis stage The socialization stage whereby the new employee must work out inconsistencies discovered during the encounter stage

:arrow: Mid-career phase A career stage marked by a continuous improvement in performance, leveling off in performance or the beginning of deterioration of performance

:arrow: Mission statement The reason an organization is in business

:arrow: Modular plans A flexible benefit system whereby employees choose a pre-designed package of benefits

:arrow: Motivating potential score A predictive index suggesting the motivation potential of a job

:arrow: Motivation: The desire within a person causing that person to act

:arrow: National emergency strike: A strike that would impact the notional economy significantly

:arrow: National emergency strikes Strikes that might “imperil the national health and safety”

:arrow: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) The government agency that researches and sets OSHA standards

:arrow: National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) The agency created by the Wagner Act to investigate unfair labor practice charges ad to provide for secret-ballot elections and majority rule in determining whether or not a firm’s employees want a union

:arrow: Negative reinforcement An unpleasant reward

:arrow: Nepotism: Practice of allowing relatives to work for the same employer

:arrow: NLRB v. Bildisco & Bildisco Upheld the premise that a company could file for bankruptcy to have a labor contract nullified

:arrow: Non-compete agreement: Agreement that prohibits an individual who leave the organization from competing with the employer in the same line of business for a specified period of time

:arrow: Non-contributory plan: Pension plan in which all the funds for pension benefits are provided by the employer

:arrow: Nondirective interview: Interview that uses questions that are developed from the answers to previous questions

:arrow: Non-exempt employees: Employees who must be paid overtime under the Fair Labor Standards Act

:arrow: Norms Tells group members what they ought or ought not do in certain circumstances

:arrow: Norris-LaGuardia Act This law marked the beginning of the era of strong encouragement of unions and guaranteed to each employee the right to bargain collectively “free from interference, restraint, of coercion”

:arrow: Norris-LaGuardia Act Labor law act that set the stage for permitting individuals full freedom to designate a representative of their choosing to negotiate terms and conditions of employment

:arrow: Observation method A job analysis technique in which data are gathered by watching employees work

:arrow: Occupational Safety and Health Act The law passed by Congress in 1970 “to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources

:arrow: Occupational Safety and Health Act Set standards to ensure safe and healthful working conditions and provided stiff penalties for violators

:arrow: Ombudsman: Person outside the normal chain of command who acts as a problem solver for both management and employees

:arrow: Open shop: Workers are not required to join or pay dues

:arrow: Operant conditioning A type of conditioning in which behavior lead to a reward or prevents punishment

:arrow: Opinion surveys Communication devices that use questionnaires to regularly ask employees their opinions about the company, management, and work life

:arrow: Organizational commitment: The degree to which employees believe in and accept organizational goals and desire to remain with the organization

:arrow: Organizational culture: The shared values and beliefs of a workforce

:arrow: Organizational culture: The shared values and beliefs of a workforce

:arrow: Organizational development (OD) A method aimed at changing the attitudes, values, and beliefs of employees so that employees can improve the organization

:arrow: Organization-centered career planning: Career planning that focuses on jobs and on identifying career paths that provide for the logical progression of people between jobs in an organization

:arrow: Orientation: The planned introduction of new employees to their jobs, co-workers, and the organization

:arrow: Outdoor training Specialized training that occurs outdoors that focuses on building self-confidence and teamwork

:arrow: Outplacement A process whereby an organization assists employees, especially those being severed from the organization, in obtaining employment

:arrow: Outplacement counseling A systematic process by which a terminated person is trained and counseled in the techniques of self-appraisal and securing a new position

:arrow: Paid time-off (PTO) plan: Plan that combines all sick leave, vacation time, and holidays into a total number of hours or days that employees can take off with pay

:arrow: Paired comparison Ranking individuals’ performance by counting the number of times any one individual is the preferred member when compared with all other employees

:arrow: Paired comparison method Ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait and indicating which is the better employee of the pair

:arrow: Panel interview: Interview in which several interviewers interview the candidate at the same time

:arrow: Participative management A management concept giving employees more control over the day-to-day activities on their job

:arrow: Pay compression : Situation in which pay differences among individuals with different levels of experience and performance in the organization becomes small

:arrow: Pay equity: Similarity in pay for jobs requiring comparable levels of knowledge, skill, and ability, even if actual job duties differ significantly

:arrow: Pay equity: Similarity in pay for all jobs requiring comparable levels of knowledge, skills, and abilities, even if actual duties and market rates differ significantly

:arrow: Pay grade: A grouping of individual jobs having approximately the same job worth

:arrow: Pay survey: A collection of data on compensation rates for workers performing similar jobs in other organizations

:arrow: Pay-for-performance Rewarding employees based on their performance

:arrow: Peer evaluation A performance evaluation situation in which coworkers provide input into the employee’s performance

:arrow: Peer orientation Coworker assistance in orienting new employees

:arrow: Peer review panel: A panel of employees hear appeals from disciplined employees and make recommendations or decisions

:arrow: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation The organization that lays claim to corporate assets to pay or fund inadequate pension programs

:arrow: Pension plans: Retirement benefits established and funded by employers and employees

:arrow: Performance analysis Verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training or through some other means (such as transferring the employee)

:arrow: Performance appraisal: The process of evaluating how well employees perform their jobs when compared to a set of standards, and then communicating that information to employees

:arrow: Performance consulting: A process in which a trainer and the organizational client work together to boost workplace performance in support of business goals

:arrow: Performance management systems: Processes used to identify, encourage, measure, evaluate, improve, and reward employee performance

:arrow: Performance simulation test Work sampling and assessment centers focusing on actual job activities

:arrow: Performance standards: Indicators of what the job accomplishes and how performance is measured in key areas of the job description

:arrow: Performance standards: Expected levels of performance

:arrow: Performance: What an employee does or does not do

:arrow: Permissive issues: Collective bargaining issues that are not mandatory but relate to certain jobs

:arrow: Perquisites (perks): Special benefits – usually noncash items – for executives

:arrow: Person-job fit: Matching the KSAs of people with the characteristics of jobs

:arrow: Personnel replacement charts Company records showing present performance and promotability of inside candidates for the most important positions

:arrow: Person-organization fit: The congruence between individuals and organizational factors

:arrow: Phased retirement: Approach in which employees reduce their workloads and pay

:arrow: Physical ability tests: Tests that measure individual abilities such as strength, endurance, and muscular movement

:arrow: Physiological symptoms Characteristics of stress that manifest themselves as increased heart and breathing rates, higher blood pressure, and headaches

:arrow: Placement: Fitting a person to the right job

:arrow: Plant Closing Bill Also known as WARN, requires employers to give sixty days’ advanced notice of pending plant closings or major layoff

:arrow: Plant closing law The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, which requires notifying employees in the event an employer decides to close its facility

:arrow: Plant-wide incentives An incentive system that reward all members of the plant based on how well the entire group performed

:arrow: Plateauing A condition of stagnating in one’s current job

:arrow: Point method Breaking down jobs based on identifiable criteria and the degree to which these criteria exist on the job

:arrow: Policies: General guidelines that focus organizational actions

:arrow: Portability: A pension plan feature that allows employees to move their pension benefits from one employer to another

:arrow: Position Analysis Questionnaire A job analysis technique that rates jobs on 194 elements I six activity categories

:arrow: Positive Reinforcement Providing a pleasant response to an individual’s actions

:arrow: Post-training performance method Evaluating training programs based on how ell employees can perform their jobs after they have received the training

:arrow: Prearrival stage The socialization process stage that recognizes individuals arrive in an organization with a set of organizational values, attitudes, and expectations

:arrow: Predictive validity: Measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance

:arrow: Preferred provider organization (PPO): A healthcare provider that contracts with an employer group to provide healthcare services to employees at a competitive rate

:arrow: Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) An amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits sex discrimination based on “pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions”

:arrow: Pre-post training performance method Evaluating training programs based the difference in performance before and after one receives training

:arrow: Pre-post training performance with control group Evaluating training by comparing pre- and post training results with individuals who did not receive the training

:arrow: Preretirement counseling Employer-sponsored counseling aimed at providing information to ease the passage of employees into retirement

:arrow: Primacy effect: Information received first gets the most weight

:arrow: Primary research: Research method in which data are gathered firsthand for the specific project being conducted

:arrow: Privacy Act Requires federal government agencies to make available information in an individual’s personnel file

:arrow: Procedural justice: The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make decisions about employees

:arrow: Procedural justice: Perceived fairness of the process used to make decisions about employees

:arrow: Procedures: Customary methods of handling activities

:arrow: Production cells: Groupings of workers who produce entire products or components

:arrow: Productivity: A measure of the quantity and quality of work done, considering the cost of the resources used

:arrow: Profit sharing: A system to distribute a portion of the profits of the organization to employees

:arrow: Programmed instruction Material is learned in highly organized, logical sequence, that requires the individual to respond

:arrow: Protected class: Individuals within a group identified for protection under equal employment laws and regulation

:arrow: Psychological contract: The unwritten expectations employees and employers have about the nature of their work relationships

:arrow: Psychological symptoms Characteristics of stress that manifest themselves as tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination

:arrow: Psychomotor tests: Test that measure dexterity hand-eye coordination, arm-hand steadiness, and other factors

:arrow: Public policy violation Prohibiting the termination of an employee for refusing to obey an order the employee considered illegal

:arrow: Qualifications inventories Manual or computerized systematic records listing employees’ education, career and development interests, languages, special skills, and so on to be used in forecasting inside candidates for promotion

:arrow: Quality circle: Small group of employees who monitor productivity and quality and suggest solutions to problems

:arrow: Quid pro quo: Sexual harassment in which employment outcomes are linked to the individual granting sexual favors

:arrow: Quota strategy Employment strategy aimed at mandating the same results as the food faith effort strategy through specific hiring and promotion restrictions

:arrow: Railway Labor Act Provided the initial impetus to widespread collective bargaining

:arrow: Ranking method The simplest method of job evaluation that involves ranking each job relative to all other jobs, usually based on overall difficulty

:arrow: Ranking method Rating employees from highest to lowest

:arrow: Ranking: Listing of all employees from highest to lowest in performance

:arrow: Rater bias: Error that occurs when a rater’s values or prejudices distort the rating

:arrow: Ratification: Process by which union member vote to accept the terms of a negotiated labor agreement

:arrow: Realistic job preview A selection device that allows job candidate to learn negative as well as positive information about the job and organization

:arrow: Realistic job preview (RJP): The process through which a job applicant receives an accurate picture of a job

:arrow: Reasonable accommodation: A modification or adjustment to a job or work environment for a qualified individual with a disability

:arrow: Recruiting: The process of generating a pool of qualified applicants for organizational jobs

:arrow: Red-circled employee: An incumbent who is paid above the range set for the job

:arrow: Reduced work hours A downsizing concept whereby employees work fewer than forty hours and are paid accordingly

:arrow: Reengineering Radical, quantum change in an organization

:arrow: Regency effect: Error in which the rater gives greater weight to recent events when appraising an individual’s performance

:arrow: Reinforcement: People tend to repeat responses that give them some type of positive reward and avoid actions associated with negative consequences

:arrow: Reject errors Rejecting candidates who would later perform successfully

:arrow: Relative standards Evaluating an employee’s performance by comparing the employee with other employees

:arrow: Reliability: Consistency with which a test measures an item

:arrow: Replacement charts HRM organizational charts indicating positions that may become vacant in the near future and the individuals who may fill the vacancy

:arrow: Representation certification The election process whereby union members vote in an union as their representative

:arrow: Representation decertification The election process whereby union members vote in a union as their representative

:arrow: Responsibilities: Obligations to perform certain tasks and duties

:arrow: Responsibilities: Obligations to be accountable for actions

:arrow: Restricted policy An HRM policy that results in the exclusion of a class of individuals

:arrow: Retaliation: Punitive actions taken by employers against individuals who exercise their legal rights

:arrow: Return on investment (ROI): Calculation showing the value of expenditures for HR activities

:arrow: Reverse discrimination: When a person is denied an opportunity because of preferences given to protected-class individuals who may be less qualified

:arrow: Right to privacy: Defined for individuals as the freedom from unauthorized and unreasonable intrusion into personal affairs

:arrow: Rights: That which belongs to a person by law, nature, or tradition

:arrow: Rightsizing Linking employee needs to organizational strategy

:arrow: Right-to-sue letter: A letter issued by the EEOC that notifies a complainant that he or she has 90 days in which to file a personal suit in federal court

:arrow: Right-to-work laws: State laws that prohibit requiring employees to join unions as a condition of obtaining or continuing employment

:arrow: Roles Behaviors that job incumbents are expected to display

:arrow: Rules: Specific guidelines that regulate and restrict the behavior of individuals

:arrow: Sabbatical leave: Paid time off the job to develop and rejuvenate oneself

:arrow: Safety: Condition in which the physical well-being of people is protected

:arrow: Salaries: Consistent payments made each period regardless of number of hours worked

:arrow: Salary survey A survey aimed at determining prevailing wage rates. A good salary survey provides specific wage rates for specific jobs. Formal written questionnaire surveys are the most comprehensive, but telephone surveys and newspaper ads are also sources of information

:arrow: Salting: Practice in which unions hire and pay people to apply for jobs at certain companies

:arrow: Scanlon plan An incentive plan developed in 1937 by Joseph Scanlon and designed to encourage cooperation, involvement and sharing of benefits

:arrow: Scanlon plan An organization-wide incentive program focusing on cooperation between management and employees through sharing problems, goals and ideas

:arrow: Scientific management A set of principles designed to enhance worker productivity

:arrow: Secondary research: Research method using data already gathered by others and reported in books, articles in professional journals, or other sources

:arrow: Security audit: A comprehensive review of organizational security

:arrow: Security: Protection of employees and organizational facilities

:arrow: Selection criteria: Characteristic that a person must have to do a job successfully

:arrow: Selection rate: The percentage hire from a given group of candidates

:arrow: Selection: Process of choosing individuals who have needed qualifications to fill jobs in an organization

:arrow: Self-directed work team: One composed of individuals assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished

:arrow: Self-efficacy: A person’s belief that he/she can successfully learn the training program content

:arrow: Seniority: Time spent in the organization or on a particular job

:arrow: Sensitivity training A method for increasing employees’ insights into their own behavior by candid discussions in groups led y special trainer

:arrow: Separation agreement: Agreement in which a terminated employee agrees not to sue the employer in exchange for specified benefits

:arrow: Serious health condition: A heath condition requiring inpatient, hospital, hospice, or residential medical care or continuing physician care

:arrow: Severance pay: A security benefit voluntarily offered by employers to employees who lose their jobs

:arrow: Sexual harassment: Action that are sexually directed, are unwanted, and subject the worker to adverse employment conditions or crate a hostile work environment

:arrow: Shamrock team: One composed of a core of members, resource experts who join the team as appropriate, and part-time/temporary members as needed

:arrow: Shared services Sharing HRM activities among geographically dispersed divisions

:arrow: Sick building An unhealthy work environment

:arrow: Similarity error Evaluating employees based on the way an evaluator perceives himself or herself

:arrow: Simulated training Training employees on special off-the-job equipment, and in airplane pilot training, whereby training costs and hazards can be reduced

:arrow: Simulation: A development technique that requires participants to analyze a situation and decide the best course of action based on the data given

:arrow: Simulations Any artificial environment that attempts to closely mirror and actual condition

:arrow: Situational interview Structured interview were questions related directly to actual work activities

:arrow: Situational interview: A structured interview composed of questions about how applicants might handle specific job situations

:arrow: Skill deficiencies The lacking of basic abilities to perform many of today’s jobs

:arrow: Skill variety A situation in which jobs require a number of skills

:arrow: Skill variety: The extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion

:arrow: Social learning theory Theory of learning that views learning occurring through observation and direct experience

:arrow: Socialization A process of adaptation that takes place as individuals attempt to learn the values and norms of work roles

:arrow: Spa of control The number of employees a supervisor con effectively and efficiently direct

:arrow: Spaced practice: Several practice sessions spaced over a period of hours or days

:arrow: Speak up! programs Communications programs that allow employees to register questions, concerns, ad complaints about work-related matters

:arrow: Special-purpose team: Organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance product and service quality

:arrow: Staff manager A manager who assists and advises line mangers

:arrow: Statutory rights: Rights based on laws

:arrow: Stock option: A plan that gives an individual the right to buy stock in a company, usually at a fixed price for a period of time

:arrow: Straight piece-rate system: A pay system in which wages are determined by multiplying the number of units produced by the piece rate for one unit

:arrow: Strategic goals Organization-wide goals setting direction for the next five to twenty years

:arrow: Strategic human resource management: Organizational use of employees to gain or keep a competitive advantage against competitors

:arrow: Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important

:arrow: Stress interview An interview designed to see how the applicants handle themselves under pressure

:arrow: Stress interview: Interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on an applicant to see how the person responds

:arrow: Stressors Something that causes stress in an individual

:arrow: Strike: Work stoppage in which union members refuse to work in order to put pressure on an employer

:arrow: Structured interview: Interview tat uses a set of standardized questions asked of all job applicants

:arrow: Structured interviews An interview in which there are fixed questions that are presented to every applicant

:arrow: Structured questionnaire method A specifically designed questionnaire on which employees rate tasks they perform on their jobs

:arrow: Substance abuse: The use of illicit substances or the misuse of controlled substances, alcohol, or other drugs

:arrow: Succession planning: Process of identifying a longer-term plan for the orderly replacement of key employees

:arrow: Suggestion system: A formal method of obtaining employee input and upward communication

:arrow: Summary plan description An ERISA requirement of explaining to employees their pension program and rights

:arrow: Sunshine Laws Laws tat exist in some states that mandate that labor-management negotiations be open to the public

:arrow: Survey feedback A method that involves surveying employees’ attitudes and providing feedback to department managers so that problems can be solved by the managers and employees

:arrow: Sympathy strike A strike that takes place when one union strikes in support of the strike of another

:arrow: Taft-Hartley Act Also known as the Labor Management Relations Act, this law prohibited union unfair labor practices and enumerated the rights of employees as union members. It also enumerated the rights of employers

:arrow: Task identity A situation in which a worker completes all phases of a job

:arrow: Task identity: The extent to which the job includes a “whole” identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome

:arrow: Task signif
17th November 2004 From India, Nizamabad
hi
i am appearing for an entrance exam.. for TISS and they ask qts realted to hr terminologies.... i found this link n was relieved.... thanks a ton...
this a fantastic info....
i also wanted to know are there any books which one can refer to know more about Hr...
also wnated to know wo are the modern GURU's of HR.
i my exames r approaching... some please help ...
thanks Tehsin
28th September 2009 From India, Mumbai
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