I am sorry to know that the situation has been really hard for you here. It would be good to consult a labour lawyer so that a case can be filed in the labour court with all evidence you have.
From what I see, the college management seems quite confident of getting away with what they are doing, perhaps due to political or bureaucratic hold in the area.
Instead of you directly dealing with the authorities, a specialised lawyer could help out. To consider the possibility of legal fees eating up a significant portion, you could also check with the lawyer on whether any hardship related compensation can be claimed as well. For this a civil lawyer may have to be consulted.
My opinion is that you cannot seek redress under any labor law since you belonged to the teaching faculty of the college. To get all your dues from the college, the only option before you is filing a civil suit. Better, engage the services of a lawyer.
Kindly check the relevant documents to verify your joiining date, Salary, last day of working.
If it is available to you then you can claim the amount by consulting Labour Inspector.
In every district there is Labour Commisioner. You meet with him and provide them written complaint. Keep a copy of complaint with a receiving with you.
Further, Labour Inspector guide you for the process.