Every decision will involve an element of risk. You have taken a decision to leave the present organisation and join another organisation. There is a risk in it. It may be after joining the new company that you will find that the company is not okay for you, for your career growth, financial growth etc. The company which has hired you may also find that you do not meet the expectations. It is for this reason that there is put a probation clause in the contract of employment. During the probation period, you can decide whether to continue or not, or, the company can decide whether you should be confirmed or not. If the back ground verification fails after you joined, then also you will lose the job.
There are plenty of instances where an employee who has accepted the offer has not joined. The employer cannot do anything. Like every employee has the right to join the employer of his choice, every employer has the right to allow the employee of his choice to join.
You may approach the HR of the present company and withdraw your resignation. If the company has not initiated appointing a new person, they may permit, but on one condition that you will not do it again. But try to find out where your background verification has failed so that you can correct it and have get through such verification in future.