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M. Peer Mohamed Sardhar
10th October 2007 From India, Coimbatore
Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a particular position in an organisation, and then using it for job-evaluation, recruitment, training and development, performance management, succession planning, etc. The competency framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. As a result of competency mapping, all the HR processes like talent induction, management development, appraisals and training yield much better results. The competency movement has caught on much better in the non-IT sector than the IT sector.
Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and measure of human performance. Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and written-about vehicle for organizational applications such as:
• Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization
• Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles
• Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization
• Assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles
• Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques.
Competencies in organizations tend to fall into two broad categories:
1. Personal Functioning Competencies. These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).
2.Functional/Technical Competencies. These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry.
A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individual’s current career plan.
Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role.
Top competencies are the vital few competencies (four to seven, on average) that are the most important to an individual in their ongoing career management process. “Importance to the individual” is an intuitive decision based on a combination of three factors: past demonstrated excellence in using the competency, inner passion for using the competency, and the current or likely future demand for the competency in the individual’s current position or targeted career field.
Although the definition above for “competency mapping” refers to individual employees, organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies:
1. Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2. Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3. Position-Specific Competency Sets
4. Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)
An illustration of some competency factors in a few chosen areas are as follows:
Desire to achieve results
Strength of ambition
Concern with remuneration
Need for recognition
Need for independence
II.LEADERSHIP AND INFLUENCE
Willingness to lead from the front
Willingness to delegate
Willingness to coach others
Desire to have authority
Speed of decision making
Willingness to persuade others
Willingness to set goals
Preference for analytical thinking
Need to plan and be pro-active
Desire to be innovative and flexible
IV.CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLE
Willingness to address conflict
Willingness to be verbally competitive
Desire to collaborate with others
Willingness to compromise
Need to get along with others
Need for workplace friendships
Desire to belong in a team
Resistance to stress
Sensitive to the needs of others
Willingness to accept responsibility
Need for job security
Values helping others
Values trust and openness
Desire to conform
Competency mapping can play a significant role in recruiting and retaining people as it gives a more accurate analysis of the job requirements, the candidate's capability, of the difference between the two, and the development and training needs to bridge the gaps.
As far as meeting an individual's career aspirations are concerned, once the organisation gives an employee the perspective of what is required from him to reach a particular position, it drives him to develop the competencies for the same. Competencies enable individuals to identify and articulate what they offer so that their organisation (current or future) can see, value and utilise what capability is actually available.
competency mapping helps identify the success criteria (i.e. behavioural standards of performance excellence) required for individuals to be successful in their roles. It helps to:
•Support specific and objective assessment of their strengths, and specify targeted areas for professional development.
•Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills.
•Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or team about performance, development, and career-related issues.
If an individual is able to discuss the above with his manager, it will help him to chalk out his growth perspectives in the company.
Competency mapping demonstrates what type of knowledge and skills are required and/or found within the human capital of the organization. An organization could use these personal competency maps to build a 'yellow pages' directory, match people to jobs or positions or determine what training programs are needed to fill skill gaps.
For Balanced Score Card - You can search in CITE HR website itself.
10th October 2007 From India, Madras
Hope this would help you on Balanced Score card
The Balanced Score Card (BSC) method of Kaplan and Norton is a strategic approach and performance management system that enables organizations to translate a company's vision and strategy into implementation, working from 4 perspectives:
1. Financial perspective,
2. Customer perspective,
3. Business process perspective,
4. Learning and Growth perspective.
Ad 1: The BSC / Financial perspective: Kaplan and Norton do not disregard the traditional need for financial data. Timely and accurate funding data will always be a priority, and managers will do whatever necessary to provide it. In fact, often there is more than enough handling and processing of financial data. With the implementation of a corporate database, it is hoped that more of the processing can be centralized and automated. But the point is that the current emphasis on financials leads to the "unbalanced" situation with regard to other perspectives. There is perhaps a need to include additional financial-related data, such as risk assessment and cost-benefit data, in this category.
Ad 2: The BSC / Customer perspective: recent management philosophy has shown an increasing realization of the importance of customer focus and customer satisfaction in any business. These are leading indicators: if customers are not satisfied, they will eventually find other suppliers that will meet their needs. Poor performance from this perspective is thus a leading indicator of future decline, even though the current financial picture may look good. In developing metrics for satisfaction, customers should be analyzed in terms of kinds of customers and the kinds of processes for which we are providing a product or service to those customer groups.
Ad 3: The BSC / Business Process perspective refers to internal business processes. Metrics based on this perspective allow the managers to know how well their business is running, and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements (the mission). These metrics have to be carefully designed by those who know these processes most intimately. In addition to the strategic management process, two kinds of business processes may be identified: a) mission-oriented processes, and b) support processes. Mission-oriented processes are the special functions of government offices, and many unique problems are encountered in these processes. The support processes are more repetitive in nature, and hence easier to measure and benchmark using generic metrics.
Ad 4: The BSC / Learning and Growth perspective includes employee training and corporate cultural attitudes related to both individual and corporate self-improvement. In a knowledge-worker organization, people are the main resource. In the current climate of rapid technological change, it is becoming necessary for knowledge workers to be in a continuous learning mode. Government agencies often find themselves unable to hire new technical workers and at the same time is showing a decline in training of existing employees. Kaplan and Norton emphasize that 'learning' is more than 'training'; it also includes things like mentors and tutors within the organization, as well as that ease of communication among workers that allows them to readily get help on a problem when it is needed. It also includes technological tools such as an Intranet.
Thanks & Regards
11th October 2007 From India, Jamshedpur