All Three Terms Conciliation, Arbitration and Adjudication are method of solving any Industrial Dispute under the ID Act.
Conciliation and Arbitration may be called ADR( Alternate Dispute Resolution Method) by intervention of any third person with consent of parties.
However, Adjudication is the settlement of any dispute by Court or Tribunal.
First stage of any dispute arose between the Employer and Workmen or Trade Union is Conciliation by the person appointed by Govt to this effect i.e Labour Officer/ALC/DLC of that particular area. However in case of any faluire of Conciliation Proceeding before the conciliation officer, for any reasons, then Conciliation Officer shall send reference of faluire of conciliation officer under Section 10 to the Govt. On reciept of reference under section 10, Govt shall refere the case to Labour Court or Tribunal as the case may be for Adjudication of the dispute. After Court Proceedings, evidence, agruments etc Court shall pass Award.
If dispute is settled by the Conciliation Officer then, then both parties will enter into Settlement agreement and same shall be binding on parties to the settlement.
However if any party want to refer the dispute to Arbitration then they by an Agreement or Application shall be refere the dispute to Arbitrator, who shall be appointed by both the parties. After hearing both the parties Arbitrator can also pass an Award, but the Award shall be refer to Court.
So All these three Process is to adjudicate the industrial dispute arise between the Employer and Employees.
25th June 2012