Job design and job analysis have different purposes. Job design is about designing or re-designing a new job profile and setting the correct organizational structure. Job design is about using several theoretical approaches to bring the balance between creative and routine part of the job.
Job design is carved using many approaches and they may include:
1. Exploration of tasks and the tasks are sorted, evaluated and optimized.
2. Based on tasks, the right set of responsibilities is defined for the job as the employee can perform the job smoothly and the organization can still keep the control over the employee.
3. Based on the analysis of the tasks, the right order of the jobs is determined and the employees are asked to follow the right procedure as the organization runs at the minimum possible costs.
4. The job design is always accompanied but the job enlargement and job enrichment as the employees are not bored by the job and they have a chance to bring new ideas and innovations into their daily tasks.
Job design is done as the organization needs to keep the number of employees at the affordable level and the result of the job design can result in many savings in FTEs and costs. The correct job design can bring the elimination of many process steps and it can help the organization to bring in customer delight.
Job analysis is about the analysis of the current jobs and it is can be used as the input to the job design. The job analysis is about sorting the jobs of the current employees and looking for the similarities.
Job analysis is used for the evaluation of the jobs, not for designing new job profiles. Job analysis can help to compare the jobs of employees and to bring a new systematic approach to restructure the hierarchy of jobs in the organization.
The input to the job analysis should not be theoretical, it has to be based on the real employees and real duties.
So which one is first and which is second is perhaps a wrong question, at least in perspective.