I am trying to explain the all four forms out of my understanding, Correct me if I am wrong.
CV- CV stands for Curriculum Vitae & your academic, technical & other education details are focused. You use this when applying for the first job. Particularly just after completing your curriculum studies.This is mostly used by Academicians and Educationists.
In the U.S., "C.V." is used almost exclusively within academia, and is a listing of degrees, research, publications, etc. used to establish one's credentials within an academic or scientific discipline.
Resume- ( to be Correct it should be résumé ,The word is French. The original spelling is "résumé", and this is the preferred spelling in English as well) This format can be used for experienced job seekers mostly for persons seeking jobs in Industries and Institutions. This a detailed summary of all your achievements in the academic/technical qualification area and as well your job achievements.
Profile- This can used as a part of resume- like a profile or qualification section in resume. Profile cant be treated as full resume,though it may highlight something to the employers.
Biodata- (Biological Data) Don't use this word in the place of resume any more, because it lists out the Biological profile of you, like your date of birth, Your family background etc.,. A matured job seeker not supposed to use this word biodata in the place of resume. In many countries the biodata is used to explain the pedigree of animals like Horses and Dogs
Hence using of resume is mostly accepted one.
With Warm regards,
Excellent HR Services,
21st June 2011 From India, Selam