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vinodmuscianoR is just as valid today as it was ten years ago. He added, however, that in light of experience gained, re-engineering on its own is not nearly sufficient. It has to be complemented by a range of other changes, for example, to performance measures and pay systems that encourage a focus on corporate, rather than departmental, objectives, to putting customers at the centre of all processes, to shared responsibility and empowerment, and to moving away from confrontation towards building collaborative partnerships with suppliers and even competitors.
In any change programme the human issues are as critical as the changes to the processes themselves.
The improvements in process quality to be gained from BPR lie in three dimensions--process efficiency (e.g. cost, cycle time), product quality (e.g. customer satisfaction, scope and quality of product) and reduced product development time.
Advantages of BPR
* Puts the customer at the centre of the organisation.
* Helps identify core activities and processes as well as inefficient or obsolote ones.
* Encourages greater staff involvement and helps them focus on overall corporate objectives.
* Can dramatically reduce customer response, new product developnment and process activity times.
* Can lead to `quantum leap' improvements in business results--if planned and implemented carefully.
Disadvantages of BPR
* It is more suited to products and services that involve logical sequences in production. It may be less suitable for highly variable processes.
* May require a high level of investment in IT.
* Requires good teamwork and a high degree of planning and implementation expertise.
* Can be seen as a real threat to jobs.
* Success is not automatically guaranteed.
BPR comprises a sequence of successive, integrated activities.
1. Develop the vision
Create a grand, clear vision. Thinking big and bold is the essence of BPR. This must, however, be rooted in the real world. Questions to ponder are--What are we in business for? Where are we now? Where do we want to be in, say, five years? How do we get there? Who and where are our customers?
Draw up an outline strategy with ambitious but achievable goals for the organisation. Use appropriate survey techniques to listen to customers, benchmark the competition and analyse existing skills and competences throughout the organisation. Identify gaps between what is currently available and what will be needed in terms of skills, investment, IT and other resources.
2. Map or model existing processes
Map or model and document current processes and workflows in detail if necessary. An understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of existing processes and systems, eg, bottlenecks or discontinuity, will be of immense benefit when planning new ones. This should also reduce the possibility of past inefficient practices being perpetuated. The views of the owners of existing processes will help in this analysis.
The map or model should identify what new or revised IT systems are required, and the skills, competences and knowledge required by the end users of each process.
3. Redesign the new processes
Using the vision, mission and strategy as a guiding framework, start with the needs of the customer and re-design the processes from outside-in. Apply the following guidelines to the redesign process:
* Identify the business processes required to produce key business outcomes and show clearly how processes interrelate.
* Identify all the inputs required for each process--raw materials, staff, skills and competences, IT support, equipment.
* Lay out the infrastructure required to support the changes by describing the:
--management strategy, measurement systems and reward programmes
--organisational values and individual belief systems that need to be adopted by all.
* Improve customer service through genuine empowerment, trust and delegation of responsibility, allowing partnerships to develop with customers and suppliers.
* Ensure that processes transcend, and are not hindered by, departmental boundaries.
* Involve all staff, especially those at the sharp end--the users of the processes.
* Involve key external partners, such as suppliers, if their operations will be affected.
* Schedules, budgets, completion criteria and economic justifications all need to be specified.
* New control systems need to be established.
* Contingencies are needed to allow for delays or unforeseen problems.
* Allow for changes in physical location or layout, work flows and organisation structures, plant and IT systems, testing and pilot projects and a redefinition of roles and responsibilities that will result from the process.
4. IT support systems
Most changes of any significance are likely to be underpinned by changes in IT systems. Research indicates that one of the prime causes of failure of new IT systems to deliver the expected results is ignoring the human element. In the same way that processes should be built around the customer, IT should be built around the end users--the internal customers. The following need to be considered:
* The new IT systems should be designed to support all the new processes, which should not have to be shoe-horned into ill-fitting programmes.
* IT procedures should be easily understood, mastered and exploited by end users: hence the need to involve them in the design process at the earliest stages. Much thought needs to be given to the skills, competences and training needed to operate the new systems.
* IT should help to facilitate the achievement of individual, departmental and corporate goals.
* The new system may need to be tested in parallel with the existing, possibly for many months. This creates extra pressure on the whole organisation.
5. Establish performance indicators
Improvements in performance can only be identified if you know where you are starting from.
Select a balanced mix of traditional hard financial and other measures and some softer measures, such as attitudes to customers, levels of staff morale, job satisfaction, new skills learned and so on. Make sure that the three dimensions of process efficiency, product quality and product development times are carefully measured. Reward systems may need to be re-aligned to corporate objectives as well.
6. Plan the implementation
* Appoint a project co-ordinator or team.
* Decide if implementation will be carried out in one major effort or in two or more phases.
* Decide on a start and finish date. If possible choose slack periods.
* Decide which existing and new processes and systems will be run in parallel before old ones are dropped.
* Prepare a detailed, prioritised day-by-day schedule for key staff, and an outline plan for everyone else.
* Ensure that key staff are fully briefed and that training has been given where appropriate.
* Ensure that key external partners, such as suppliers, are fully briefed as to how, and from when, the changes will affect their operations.
* Notify key customers, and other key partners that normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Put details on the corporate web site (if one), with contact names and details.
* Allow sufficient time for testing, settling in, tweaking, trouble-shooting and general "hand-holding". This is likely to be a particularly stressful time to those at the sharp edge.
* Issue regular progress reports.
7. Review and maintenance
The performance indicators should provide a comprehensive overview of how well the new organisation is doing, and may identify areas or activities for further development, particularly those not meeting strategic objectives. Allocate adequate resources for continuous maintenance.
8. The human element
Redundancies may result from the planned changes. Keeping staff informed at all stages reduces the risk of rumours with their inevitable long-term negative effects on morale, fear of further job losses, resistance to change, and general uncertainty. Clear policies should be in place for the two groups of staff affected--those being made redundant (if any) and the "survivors". Issues to consider include:
* The fair and equitable selection of those who may be made redundant and associated support programmes, including redeployment within or outside the company, counselling, job hunting, and redundancy packages.
* The need to demonstrate strong commitment to survivors by rebuilding their confidence, commitment and loyalty through retraining programmes covering the new shape of the organisation, new processes and new IT procedures, and new performance and pay systems. Indicate what further training and development, counselling and other forms of support. Are available. Reassure staff on a regular basis.
Dos and don'ts for BPR
* Question all assumptions. Identify the organisation's `sacred cows' and study them carefully.
* Choose your new consultants model carefully.
* Go for BPR simply because everyone else is doing it.
* Confuse BPR with downsizing.
* Assume you are on the right BPR track merely by introducing the latest IT.
* Embark on change projects without resources and support to complete--and maintain--them.
* Total quality: mapping a TQM strategy
* Total quality: getting TQM to work
* Mapping an effective change programme
* Implementing the Balanced Scorecard
* A programme for benchmarking
* Do you know what are the existing core processes in your organisation?
* The chief causes of failure of BRP projects are neglect of the human factor, the poor selection of consultants and inadequate commitment from senior management.
* If you are considering BPR, examine your reasons very carefully--they will probably indicate your probable success.
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