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Dear All,

Welcome to another useful thread from CRK's desk..

This thread is for sharing our knowledge on various aspects of Human Resource Management, its administration and functioning, useful articles, definitions, theory and practical scenarios.

You are invited to visit this thread frequently for continuous and regular postings on important aspects of HR.

Helpful contributions from Experts, Seniors, Experienced and also freshers are highly invited..

Hope this thread brings in lots of knowledge, refreshing the subject.

An Introduction -

Human Resource Management (HRM), a relatively new term, that emerged during the 1930s. Many people used to refer it before by its traditional titles, such as Personnel Administration or Personnel Management. But now, the trend is changing. It is now termed as Human Resource Management (HRM). Human Resource Management is a management function that helps an organization select, recruit, train and develops..

Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining, training, developing, and compensating the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business organizations, such as education, healthcare etc. Human Resource Management is defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness

Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM.

The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc.. which will be discussed below in following posts...

Thanks & Regards


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Can also visit some other interesting threads from CRK's desk -

All your contributions are highly invited...

4th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada


Human Resources Generalists, Managers, and Directors, depending on the size of the organization, may have overlapping responsibilities. In larger organizations, the Human Resources Generalist, the Manager, and the Director have clearly defined, separated roles in HR management with progressively more authority and responsibility in the hands of the Manager, the Director, and ultimately, the Vice President who may lead several departments including administration.

HR directors, and occasionally HR managers, may head up several different departments that are each led by functional or specialized HR staff such as the training manager, the compensation manager, or the recruiting manager.

Human Resources staff members are advocates for both the company and the people who work in the company. Consequently, a good HR professional performs a constant balancing act to meet both needs successfully.

The Changing Human Resources Role

The role of the HR professional is changing. In the past, HR managers were often viewed as the systematizing, policing arm of executive management. Their role was more closely aligned with personnel and administration functions that were viewed by the organization as paperwork.
When you consider that the initial HR function, in many companies, comes out of the administration or finance department because hiring employees, paying employees, and dealing with benefits were the organization's first HR needs, this is not surprising.

In this role, the HR professional served executive agendas well, but was frequently viewed as a road block by much of the rest of the organization. While some need for this role occasionally remains — you wouldn’t want every manager putting his own spin on a sexual harassment policy, as an example — much of the HR role is transforming itself.

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New HR Role

The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, quick to change direction, and customer-centered.

Within this environment, the HR professional, who is considered necessary by line managers, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate and a change mentor. At the same time, especially the HR Generalist, still has responsibility for employee benefits administration, often payroll, and employee paperwork, especially in the absence of an HR Assistant.

Depending on the size of the organization, the HR manager has responsibility for all of the functions that deal with the needs and activities of the organization's people including these areas of responsibility.

- Recruiting
- Hiring
- Training
- Organization Development
- Communication
- Performance Management
- Coaching
- Policy Recommendation
- Salary and Benefits
- Team Building
- Employee Relations
- Leadership

With all of this in mind, in Human Resource Champions, Dave Ulrich, one of the best thinkers and writers in the HR field today, and a professor at the University of Michigan, recommends three additional roles for the HR manager.

HR Role: Business and Strategic Partner

In today’s organizations, to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute, HR managers need to think of themselves as strategic partners. In this role, the HR person contributes to the development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business plan and objectives.

The HR business objectives are established to support the attainment of the overall strategic business plan and objectives. The tactical HR representative is deeply knowledgeable about the design of work systems in which people succeed and contribute. This strategic partnership impacts HR services such as the design of work positions; hiring; reward, recognition and strategic pay; performance development and appraisal systems; career and succession planning; and employee development.

To be successful business partners, the HR staff members have to think like business people, know finance and accounting, and be accountable and responsible for cost reductions and the measurement of all HR programs and processes. It's not enough to ask for a seat at the executive table; HR people will have to prove they have the business savvy necessary to sit there.

HR Role: Employee Advocate

As an employee sponsor or advocate, the HR manager plays an integral role in organizational success via his knowledge about and advocacy of people. This advocacy includes expertise in how to create a work environment in which people will choose to be motivated, contributing, and happy.
Fostering effective methods of goal setting, communication and empowerment through responsibility, builds employee ownership of the organization. The HR professional helps establish the organizational culture and climate in which people have the competency, concern and commitment to serve customers well.

In this role, the HR manager provides employee development opportunities, employee assistance programs, gain sharing and profit-sharing strategies, organization development interventions, due process approaches to problem solving and regularly scheduled communication opportunities.

HR Role: Change Champion

The constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization results in the need for the HR professional to frequently champion change. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute successful change strategies make the HR professional exceptionally valued.

Knowing how to link change to the strategic needs of the organization will minimize employee dissatisfaction and resistance to change.

The HR professional contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of the HR function. He also sponsors change in other departments and in work practices. To promote the overall success of his organization, he champions the identification of the organizational mission, vision, values, goals and action plans. Finally, he helps determine the measures that will tell his organization how well it is succeeding in all of this.

4th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
RECRUITMENT Attached some useful collected files on recruitment.. CRK
5th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

Attached Files
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File Type: ppt recruitment.pps.ppt (277.5 KB, 1425 views)
File Type: ppt Recruitment flow chart.ppt (38.0 KB, 1359 views)

I am kartik, working as a HR-Recruiter/Executive in a CMMI LEVEL3 company in Hyderabad, Andhrapradesh.
Just now i went through your postings. These are awesome and are very helpful to the freshers who started their career as a HR.
Heaps Of Thanks
5th January 2011 From India, Hyderabad
Thankyou AVS for your response and feedback for most of my threads..... This thread goes a long way...... educating, refreshing, enhancing skills and knowledge sharing........:) CRK
5th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
HI CRK its very good article and interesting...i am regular reader of cite hr as wel as your posting too i like specially your good morning sms and pic.. keep that good posting up!!!!! Regards Reema
6th January 2011 From India, Gandhinagar


Vacancy triggers recruitment process

Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization

Recruitment process –

.. Identification of vacancy

.. Analyzing the vacant job

.. Applying the sources of recruitment (internal & external sources)

.. Screening of suitable resumes for interview

.. Initial interview with the candidates and shortlisting the suitable

.. Call candidates for further / final rounds of interviews

.. Selection of suitable candidates for the positions vacant

.. Complete the documentation process and verification

.. Issue offer letter

.. Perform the joining formalities

.. Recruit the personnel

.. Schedule induction programme for new joinees

.. Follow up of other HR activities

Sources of Recruitment –

(1) Internal sources

.. Internal job posting

.. Considering previous and current employees of the orgn.

(2) External sources

.. Employee reference

.. Application data bank

.. Advertising

.. Employment agencies

.. Schools & colleges

.. Job portals


.. Personal interview is the most universally used tool in any selection process

.. Generally, an employment interview will serve 3 purposes

Obtaining information – About prospective employees background, work history, education and interests

Giving information – About company, specific job and personnel policies

Motivation – It will also help in establishing a friendly relationship between the employer and the applicant and motivate the satisfactory applicant to want to work for the company or orgn.

.. But in reality, it is not so. It helps only in obtaining information about the candidate. The other 2 purposes are generally not served

Types of interviews –

.. Informal interviews

It is not planned and is used when labour market is tight and we need workers badly. Sometimes a friend or relative may take a candidate to the house of the employer, where this type of interview may be conducted.

.. Formal interviews

It’s a planned interview. This is held in a formal atmosphere in employment office with a well structured questions. Here the interviewer has a plan of action, time to be devoted to each candidate, modality of interview and so on.

.. Patterned interviews

A well planned interview with higher degree of accuracy and precision. A list of questions and areas is carefully prepared. The interviewer goes down the list of questions, asking them one after another.

.. Non-directive interviews

Under this type, the candidate is allowed to express his opinion freely.

Interviewer is a careful and patient listener, prodding whenever the candidate is silent. The purpose of the interview is to give the candidate, complete freedom to sell himself without encumbrances of the interviewer’s questions.

.. In-depth interviews

It is intended to mainly examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on a particular subject of special interest to the candidate.

.. Stress interview

This method will test the candidate and his conduct & behaviour by putting him under conditions of stress and strain. This is more advantageous type as it tests the behaviour of individuals under disagreeable and trying situations.

.. Group interview

The candidates response and reaction will be tested. Candidates will be given a topic for discussion and be observed as to who will lead the discussion, how reasonable their views are, how they react to other’s opinions and so on.

.. Panel interview

The members of interview board will conduct the interview. This is done usually for supervisory and managerial positions. It coordinates the collective judgement and wisdom of the members of the panel.

Suggestions for improving the effectiveness of interviews –

.. An interview should follow a definite time schedule with ample time for


.. The interview should be conducted in a calm and cool atmosphere

.. Interview should have necessary elements of privacy

.. The interview should not lead a mental tension and stress and should avoid arguments

.. Attention should be paid not only to the communication skills (if the job requirement can be satisfied with average of it), but also the managerial abilities and attitude

.. A panel should conduct the interview avoiding exhibiting their individual talent before other members, which causes inconvenience to the candidate

.. The interviewee should be informed about the method and maximum time in getting result

7th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada



According to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are:

A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected.

It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.

Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organisation so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool.

The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process.

Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.



i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy.


Anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment.


Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs


The Purpose and Importance of Recruitment are given below:

Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation.

Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation.

Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.

recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.

Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.

Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants.

Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.

Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce.

Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.

Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants


The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the recruitment strategic advantage for the organisations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows:

Identifying the vacancy:

The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain:

• Posts to be filled

• Number of persons

• Duties to be performed

• Qualifications required

Preparing the job description and person specification.

Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees (Advertising etc).

Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics.

Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates.

Conducting the interview and decision making

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The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities


Every organisation has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organisation itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of recruitment

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The recruitment function of the organisations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organisation. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organisation are:

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In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment policy is necessary for organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time. Therefore, it is important to have a clear and concise recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to recruit the best talent pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right place quickly. Creating a suitable recruitment policy is the first step in the efficient hiring process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure a sound recruitment process.

It specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed for

implementing recruitment programmes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.


The general recruitment policies and terms of the organisation

Recruitment services of consultants

Recruitment of temporary employees

Unique recruitment situations

The selection process

The job descriptions

The terms and conditions of the employment

A recruitment policy of an organisation should be such that:

It should focus on recruiting the best potential people.

To ensure that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and respect.

Unbiased policy.

To aid and encourage employees in realizing their full potential.

Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection.

Weightage during selection given to factors that suit organization needs.

Optimization of manpower at the time of selection process.

Defining the competent authority to approve each selection.

Abides by relevant public policy and legislation on hiring and employment relationship.

Integrates employee needs with the organisational needs.


Organizational objectives

Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.

Government policies on reservations.

Preferred sources of recruitment.

Need of the organization.

Recruitment costs and financial implications.


The following trends are being seen in recruitment:


In India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A company may draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help the organisation by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the organisation and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organisation. Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them and make available personnel to various companies as per their needs. In turn, the outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the organisations for their services.

Advantages of outsourcing are:

Company need not plan for human resources much in advance.

Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage

turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM

Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable resumes/candidates.

Company can save a lot of its resources and time


“Buying talent” (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the organisations today. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the organisation might be a competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better than the current employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about. Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching today. It has become a challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching, as it weakens the competitive strength of the firm.


Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E-recruitment is the use of technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.e. CV through e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.

Advantages of recruitment are:

Low cost.

No intermediaries

Reduction in time for recruitment.

Recruitment of right type of people.

Efficiency of recruitment process.


Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between the two are:

1. The recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.

2. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organisation WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to

fill the various positions in the organisation.

3. Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates.

4. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests.

5. There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee


1. Quid Pro Que

These are the people who say that “ I can do this for you, what can you give me” These people value high responsibilities, higher risks, and expect higher rewards, personal development and company profiles doesn’t matter to them.

2. I will be with you

These people like to be with big brands. Importance is given to brands. They are not bothered about work ethic, culture mission etc.

3. I will do you what you want

These people are concerned about how meaningful the job is and they define meaning parameters criteria known by previous job.

4. Where do you want me to come

These people observe things like where is your office, what atmosphere do you offer. Career prospects and exciting projects don’t entice them as much. It is the responsibility of the recruiter to decide what the employee might face in given job and thus take decision. A good decision will help cut down employee retention costs and future recruitment costs

7th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

Am back. How are you? Wow!!! another useful thread. Thanks for the sharing.

Recruitment is an important part of an organization’s human resource planning and their competitive strength. Competent human resources at the right positions in the organisation are a vital resource and can be a core competency or a strategic advantage for it.

The objective of the recruitment process is to obtain the number and quality of employees that can be selected in order to help the organisation to achieve its goals and objectives. With the same objective, recruitment helps to create a pool of prospective employees for the organisation so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool.

Recruitment acts as a link between the employers and the job seekers and ensures the placement of right candidate at the right place at the right time. Using and following the right recruitment processes can facilitate the selection of the best candidates for the organisation.

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Recruitment Management System :

Recruitment management system is the comprehensive tool to manage the entire recruitment processes of an organisation. It is one of the technological tools facilitated by the information management systems to the HR of organisations. Just like performance management, payroll and other systems, Recruitment management system helps to contour the recruitment processes and effectively managing the ROI on recruitment. The features, functions and major benefits of the recruitment management system are explained below:
  • Structure and systematically organize the entire recruitment processes.
  • Recruitment management system facilitates faster, unbiased, accurate and reliable processing of applications from various applications.

  • Helps to reduce the time-per-hire and cost-per-hire.
  • Recruitment management system helps to incorporate and integrate the various links like the application system on the official website of the company, the unsolicited applications, outsourcing recruitment, the final decision making to the main recruitment process.
  • Recruitment management system maintains an automated active database of the applicants facilitating the talent management and increasing the efficiency of the recruitment processes.
  • Recruitment management system provides and a flexible, automated and interactive interface between the online application system, the recruitment department of the company and the job seeker.
  • Offers tolls and support to enhance productivity, solutions and optimizing the recruitment processes to ensure improved ROI.
  • Recruitment management system helps to communicate and create healthy relationships with the candidates through the entire recruitment process.
The Recruitment Management System (RMS) is an innovative information system tool which helps to sane the time and costs of the recruiters and improving the recruitment processes

7th January 2011 From India, Madras


There is some ambiguity when it comes to recruiting and knowing what and what not to do. Is it right to only let the ‘ideal’ people to join your team? Or should you consider recruitment in your business to be like an adding game of numbers? The answer is simple, and the comparison of recruitment and hiring an employee is written clearly for you below. It has been a while since we’ve updated you with new content, so here it is as promised, right during the holiday season!

The Differences:

Spotting them: An employee is found using a job description and specification, usually displayed in a job advert. Recruitment on the other hand is usually done in person, over the phone or face to face. It is common for recruitment to be done online, but this has some set-backs especially if the recruit is not located near you.

Reeling them in: For hiring, an employee will respond and apply for the job. However for recruitment, it is up to the consultant (that’s you) to find the right people for your team and to get them interested about the opportunity (and to sign up).

Selection process: Whilst most businesses look for the best candidate, direct sales looks for anyone. That is because in this industry training and resources are immediately provided. In addition, it is up to the person to achieve their goals. Even some of the most coy or less experienced people, can turn into real go getters.

The Benefits: When hiring it’s all about the remuneration and pay. When being self-employed it is about discounts, commission, bonuses, extra incentives like a company car/ holiday – and naturally working from home at your own pace and hours!

Expectations: When hiring an employee you can expect the most from them. For direct sales or party plan you cannot expect anything from them. All you need to do is make sure you’re there for them. To do this supply your contact details and keep them updated on company news, even if they’re not performing. It is common for a team of consultants to do poorly in their first year.

So the idea is numbers and adding more great people to your team. Remember to select people that will grow, motivate others and become great achievers. This is when selecting the right prospects. However, if someone or anyone wants to join your team and they’re generally a good person – let them! You never know who will be your next platinum seller or a sitting duck

8th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
Hai Malini,
I am fine thankyou....
Welcome to our another useful thread.........
Glad to see your good and useful contributions in my threads.....:)
Keep visiting......... and keep posting.......

8th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
Thank you CRK and Malini for your excellent posts.
As my humble appreciation I just quote:
"Sharing a information is an Art.
But sharing an 'useful' information is Smart."
Hats-off to both of you.
8th January 2011 From India, Madras


TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.


Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.

The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results

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The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.

Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.

Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.

Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.

Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society


It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.

Training is activity leading to skilled behavior.

It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it

It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there

It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off
It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome

It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it

It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision

It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it
Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.

Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.


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Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of
human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.

Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.

Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.

Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

Healthy work environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.

Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.

Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies

Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display


Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan.

Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives,

1. Trainer
2. Trainee
3. Designer
4. Evaluator

Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.

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Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise.

Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention.

Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.

Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry.

Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.

Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants be continued

11th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
Role of HRD Professionals in Training

This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:

1. Active involvement in employee education
2. Rewards for improvement in performance
3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth
4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training
5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training


A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.

The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating.

There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below.

Organisation are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.

The three model of training are:

1. System model
2. Instructional System Development model
3. Transitional model

System model :

The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:

1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated.

2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.

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3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.

4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.

5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices

Instructional System Development model

Instructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.

The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:

1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis

2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc

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3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.

4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.

5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase

Transitional model

Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.

Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines.

Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.

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Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.

The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented.

11th January 2011 From India, Madras
Training Design

The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.

The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.

The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design

Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.

Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.

Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included.

Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:
  • From simple to complex
  • Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
  • From known to unknown
  • From specific to general
  • Dependent relationship
Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:
  • Trainees’ background
  • Time allocated
  • Style preference of trainer
  • Level of competence of trainer
  • Availability of facilities and resources, etc
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Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.

Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
(a) Time
(b) Accommodation, facilities and their availability
(c) Furnishings and equipments
(d) Budget
(e) Design of the training, etc

11th January 2011 From India, Madras



Training consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving its training and development objectives.

Estimation of Training Outsourcing

It has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customer education, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education.

The training consultancies offer various benefits such as:

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Training Courses that Consultancies Offer

The various courses that consultancies offer are:

Business Training Courses

Management Development

Conflict Management

Managing Diversity

Project Management

Stress Management

Time Management

Senior Management Workshops


Negotiation Skills

Sales Technique

Customer Care

Customer Care Training

Managing Customers

Human Resource

HR Administration

Induction Training

Recruitment & Selection

Successful Appraising

Personal Development Courses

Workshops on:

Assertive Skills

Building Confidence

Coping with Change

Interview Techniques

Maximize Potential

One to One Coaching

Focused entirely on personal objectives

Move forward at individual pace

Material used in tailor made to specific development Need

A strict code of confidentiality

Importance of Training Consultancies

It helps in enhancing company’s image

It helps in strengthening the team spirit

It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load

It helps in improving the work relations

It helps in developing focused and inspired staff

It leads to greater chances of success

Consultants can provide help on following areas:

Management Development

Team Building Leadership

Health & Safety Training

Interpersonal Skills

Sales Training

Example: T.V. Rao Learning Systems is a popular training consultancy in India.


The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now a days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization.

To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.

Role of HRD Professionals in Training

This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:

1. Active involvement in employee education

2. Rewards for improvement in performance

3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth

4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training

5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training

12th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada



Methods of training

There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.

Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.

The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:

- Lectures

- Demonstrations

- Discussions

- Computer based training

- Intelligent tutorial system

- Programmed Instruction

- Virtual reality

Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development.

The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:

- Games & Simulations

- Behaviour Modeling

- Business games

- Case studies

- Equipment Stimulators

- In-basket technique

- Role plays

Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.



The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.

Management development method is further divided into two parts:


The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on the job development are:






There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:





12th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
- M James




In the current economic climate we find ourselves in, many businesses will be looking carefully at their HR budget. With businesses needing to tighten their belts, one of the areas which may be considered dispensable is training and development. This article demonstrates that while many organisations may be asking the question, can we afford to spend on training and development, a more pertinent question would be, can we afford NOT to spend on training and development?

As we know, the workplace is a dynamic, fluid environment. On-the-job training and development needs may change with each new order, purchase or sale. Therefore, it is vital that your organisation is both pro-active and reactive to changing circumstances with in-house training and development.

Training and development in the workplace provides real time exposure to any changes, as opposed to off-site classroom or homework training. It also allows your company to have direct company oversight of the training and development methods used and immediate input into content.

In house training offers the ability to pinpoint employee developmental needs with satisfaction of those needs then interwoven into current processes and workflow. When a new issue or aspect of work is identified, training and development provides immediate development of the staff skills needed to master this procedure. In addition, training and development in the workplace gives instructional staff opportunity for immediate correction of employee errors, immediate review, and additional training as identified.

Conversely, the immediacy of training and development is the ability to change training methods or facts shown to be incorrect, and to change them before adverse work occurs. Consider employee reactions. Some workers may respond positively to change, while others, often fearing the unknown are resistant. Training and development in the workplace means familiar territory for employees and also familiar surroundings for instructors.

When training and development result in better outcomes, employees tend to display a greater sense of ownership and pride in their work. This can help lead to increased productivity and efficiency, and of course, an increase in job satisfaction. Staff who are happy in their work are more likely to work harder and be more valuable to the company, which will in turn, put the company in a stronger position.

12th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
Father of Human Resource Management in india:

Human Resource Management actually has a history dating back to the times when artisans and craftsmen would enlist the aid of one another to discuss ways to manage their laborors. However, modern HRM has its roots in the National Cash Register Company. John Patterson, the president of the company, formed a personnel department to manage the grief’s of workers after a bitter union strike in 1901

Difference between human resource management and human resource development:-

human resource management means managing and directing the people who work in organization and human resource development means to develop the people with giving the training.

Difference between Human Resource Management and Personnel Management:

Seems like nothing but a difference in name. Departments of either name within any business would be likely to handle the same tasks, and the name given to the department would be based on subjective choice. "Personnel" could be used to refer to employees only, whereas "human resources" might be considered more broadly applicable to all persons performing services for the company (meaning full-time, part-time, temps, contractors or freelancers, etc.)
12th January 2011 From India
Management help

Reasons for Employee Training and Development

Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g.,:

- When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed

- To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort

- As part of an overall professional development program

- As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization

- To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system

- To train about a specific topic

Topics of Employee Training

Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs.

Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks.

Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.

Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity

Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.

Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.

Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc.

Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.

Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors

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General Benefits from Employee Training and Development

- Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees

- Increased employee motivation

- Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain

- Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods

- Increased innovation in strategies and products

- Reduced employee turnover

- Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!)

- Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training

12th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
thank you so much Mr.CRK.
that was excellent and interesting as well and i have never come across such an informative topic .
please widen your knowledge so that we will be beneficial.
thank you once again for your hard work
12th January 2011 From India, Madras
Thankyou Ms.Harini for your feedback.........:):):)
Instead of starting different threads on different topics of same subject....... i have started posting different topics of same subject in one thread...... which would be quite easy for our members to go through, learn, share and contribute......
You can also find interesting tips on various aspects at
Thankyou ones again Harini....... Keep checking for more........

13th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada



The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines.

Purposes of Training Evaluation

The five main purposes of training evaluation are:

Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.

Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training

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Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.

Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.

Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.

Process of Training Evaluation

Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.

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During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals

After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.

Techniques of Evaluation

The various methods of training evaluation are:

- Observation

- Questionnaire

- Interview

- Self diaries

- Self recording of specific incidents

Benefits of Training Evaluation

There are a number of reasons why organizations proactively monitor the effectiveness of employee education. These are:

- Helps employees to monitor their own improvement.

- Builds morale, by demonstrating an interest in staff development.

- To maximize the training ROI (return on investment).

- Helps to determine the form of future training programs.

- Assists with identifying the effectiveness of different forms of teaching (such as classroom based or web based).

Organizations that train but do not evaluate that training cannot be certain of its value, either to themselves or their employees.

13th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Some collected files on Training have been attached, which might be useful... CRK
13th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

Attached Files
Membership is required for download. Create An Account First
File Type: xls Training Needs Identification Form.xls (30.0 KB, 350 views)
File Type: xls TrainingEffectivenessevaluationsheet.xls (24.0 KB, 237 views)
File Type: ppt Training evaluation.ppt (525.5 KB, 197 views)
File Type: pdf Training.pdf (610.6 KB, 171 views)
File Type: pdf training eval.pdf (47.6 KB, 129 views)

Dear CRK, i really like what you borught and wrote down here. I’m working as HR manager and really it is nice to read that and we are looking for more. Regards, yaqoob Oman
13th January 2011 From Oman, Muscat
Dear Yaqoob,
Keep visiting this thread frequently for more useful posts.....
Also you can find useful tips at -
Ones again thankyou for your feedback...

13th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its roots in the early 20th century can be traced to Taylor's pioneering Time and Motion studies. But this is not very helpful, for the same may be said about almost everything in the field of modern human resources management.

People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. There is always some difference between the quality and quantity of the same work on the same job being done by two different people. Performance appraisals of Employees are necessary to understand each employee’s abilities, competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization. Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their performance.

Performance appraisals are widely used in the society. The history of performance appraisal can be dated back to the 20th century and then to the second world war when the merit rating was used for the first time. An employer evaluating their employees is a very old concept. Performance appraisals are an indispensable part of performance measurement.

Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims.

The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – "get paid according to what you contribute" – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured, it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individual’s performance. It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance.

Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees.

Performance appraisal is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of an employee. The focus of the performance appraisal is measuring and improving the actual performance of the employee and also the future potential of the employee. Its aim is to measure what an employee does.

According to Flippo, a prominent personality in the field of Human resources, "performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job." Performance appraisal is a systematic way of reviewing and assessing the performance of an employee during a given period of time and planning for his future.

It is a powerful tool to calibrate, refine and reward the performance of the employee. It helps to analyze his achievements and evaluate his contribution towards the achievements of the overall organizational goals.

By focusing the attention on performance, performance appraisal goes to the heart of personnel management and reflects the management's interest in the progress of the employees.

Objectives Of Performance appraisal:

To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.

To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance.

To help the management in exercising organizational control.

Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior – subordinates and management – employees.

To diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals so as to identify the training and development needs of the future.

To provide feedback to the employees regarding their past performance.

Provide information to assist in the other personal decisions in the organization.

Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed by the employees.

To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development.

To reduce the grievances of the employees.



The first step in the process of performance appraisal is the setting up of the standards which will be used to as the base to compare the actual performance of the employees. This step requires setting the criteria to judge the performance of the employees as successful or unsuccessful and the degrees of their contribution to the organizational goals and objectives. The standards set should be clear, easily understandable and in measurable terms. In case the performance of the employee cannot be measured, great care should be taken to describe the standards.


Once set, it is the responsibility of the management to communicate the standards to all the employees of the organization.

The employees should be informed and the standards should be clearly explained to the. This will help them to understand their roles and to know what exactly is expected from them. The standards should also be communicated to the appraisers or the evaluators and if required, the standards can also be modified at this stage itself according to the relevant feedback from the employees or the evaluators.

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The most difficult part of the Performance appraisal process is measuring the actual performance of the employees that is the work done by the employees during the specified period of time. It is a continuous process which involves monitoring the performance throughout the year. This stage requires the careful selection of the appropriate techniques of measurement, taking care that personal bias does not affect the outcome of the process and providing assistance rather than interfering in an employees work.


The actual performance is compared with the desired or the standard performance. The comparison tells the deviations in the performance of the employees from the standards set. The result can show the actual performance being more than the desired performance or, the actual performance being less than the desired performance depicting a negative deviation in the organizational performance. It includes recalling, evaluating and analysis of data related to the employees’ performance.


The result of the appraisal is communicated and discussed with the employees on one-to-one basis. The focus of this discussion is on communication and listening. The results, the problems and the possible solutions are discussed with the aim of problem solving and reaching consensus. The feedback should be given with a positive attitude as this can have an effect on the employees’ future performance. The purpose of the meeting should be to solve the problems faced and motivate the employees to perform better.


The last step of the process is to take decisions which can be taken either to improve the performance of the employees, take the required corrective actions, or the related HR decisions like rewards, promotions, demotions, transfers etc.

13th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
Details about different HR Topics have been presented in a clear, understandable and comprehensive manner. First of all thanks for the contributions.
Appreciate the effort that you have taken to avoid repetition of Information.
I would request if you could throw some light of Recruitment Metrics and the method by which you can measure the Effectiveness of a Recruitment Process.
Once again Great Work!!! KUDOS!
14th January 2011 From India, Bangalore
Hey CRK i Want to knw about performance appriasal process in deep.which method is useful in software companies.
17th January 2011 From India, Ambala
Thankyou for your feedback and response Jayesh........:)
Well..... I will try to make my posts cover maximum information on all the aspects of the subject...... as per your request.....
Thankyou ones again.......:)

18th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada




This traditional form of appraisal, also known as "Free Form method" involves a description of the performance of an employee by his superior. The description is an evaluation of the performance of any individual based on the facts and often includes examples and evidences to support the information. A major drawback of the method is the inseparability of the bias of the evaluator.


This is one of the oldest and simplest techniques of performance appraisal. In this method, the appraiser ranks the employees from the best to the poorest on the basis of their overall performance. It is quite useful for a comparative evaluation.


A better technique of comparison than the straight ranking method, this method compares each employee with all others in the group, one at a time. After all the comparisons on the basis of the overall comparisons, the employees are given the final rankings.


In this method of Performance appraisal, the evaluator rates the employee on the basis of critical events and how the employee behaved during those incidents. It includes both negative and positive points. The drawback of this method is that the supervisor has to note down the critical incidents and the employee behaviour as and when they occur.


In this method, a senior member of the HR department or a training officer discusses and interviews the supervisors to evaluate and rate their respective subordinates. A major drawback of this method is that it is a very time consuming method. But this method helps to reduce the superiors’ personal bias.


The rater is given a checklist of the descriptions of the behaviour of the employees on job. The checklist contains a list of statements on the basis of which the rater describes the on the job performance of the employees.


In this method, an employee’s quality and quantity of work is assessed in a graphic scale indicating different degrees of a particular trait. The factors taken into consideration include both the personal characteristics and characteristics related to the on the job performance of the employees. For example a trait like Job Knowledge may be judged on the range of average, above average, outstanding or unsatisfactory.


To eliminate the element of bias from the rater’s ratings, the evaluator is asked to distribute the employees in some fixed categories of ratings like on a normal distribution curve. The rater chooses the appropriate fit for the categories on his own discretion.



An assessment centre typically involves the use of methods like social/informal events, tests and exercises, assignments being given to a group of employees to assess their competencies to take higher responsibilities in the future. Generally, employees are given an assignment similar to the job they would be expected to perform if promoted. The trained evaluators observe and evaluate employees as they perform the assigned jobs and are evaluated on job related characteristics.

The major competencies that are judged in assessment centres are interpersonal skills, intellectual capability, planning and organizing capabilities, motivation, career orientation etc. assessment centres are also an effective way to determine the training and development needs of the targeted employees.


Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) is a relatively new technique which combines the graphic rating scale and critical incidents method. It consists of predetermined critical areas of job performance or sets of behavioral statements describing important job performance qualities as good or bad (for eg. the qualities like inter personal relationships, adaptability and reliability, job knowledge etc). These statements are developed from critical incidents.

In this method, an employee’s actual job behaviour is judged against the desired behaviour by recording and comparing the behaviour with BARS. Developing and practicing BARS requires expert knowledge.


Human resources are valuable assets for every organization. Human resource accounting method tries to find the relative worth of these assets in the terms of money. In this method the Performance appraisal of the employees is judged in terms of cost and contribution of the employees. The cost of employees include all the expenses incurred on them like their compensation, recruitment and selection costs, induction and training costs etc whereas their contribution includes the total value added (in monetary terms). The difference between the cost and the contribution will be the performance of the employees. Ideally, the contribution of the employees should be greater than the cost incurred on them.

18th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada



360 degree feedback, also known as 'multi-rater feedback', is the most comprehensive appraisal where the feedback about the employees’ performance comes from all the sources that come in contact with the employee on his job.

360 degree respondents for an employee can be his/her peers, managers (i.e. superior), subordinates, team members, customers, suppliers/ vendors - anyone who comes into contact with the employee and can provide valuable insights and information or feedback regarding the "on-the-job" performance of the employee.

360 Degree Feedback is a system or process in which employees receive confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work around them. This typically includes the employee's manager, peers, and direct reports. A mixture of about eight to twelve people fill out an anonymous online feedback form that asks questions covering a broad range of workplace competencies. The feedback forms include questions that are measured on a rating scale and also ask raters to provide written comments. The person receiving feedback also fills out a self-rating survey that includes the same survey questions that others receive in their forms.

Managers and leaders within organizations use 360 feedback surveys to get a better understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. The 360 feedback system automatically tabulates the results and presents them in a format that helps the feedback recipient create a development plan. Individual responses are always combined with responses from other people in the same rater category (e.g. peer, direct report) in order to preserve anonymity and to give the employee a clear picture of his/her greatest overall strengths and weaknesses.

360 Feedback can also be a useful development tool for people who are not in a management role. Strictly speaking, a "non-manager" 360 assessment is not measuring feedback from 360 degrees since there are no direct reports, but the same principles still apply. 360 Feedback for non-managers is useful to help people be more effective in their current roles, and also to help them understand what areas they should focus on if they want to move into a management role.

360 degree appraisal has four integral components:

1. Self appraisal

2. Superior’s appraisal

3. Subordinate’s appraisal

4. Peer appraisal.

Self appraisal gives a chance to the employee to look at his/her strengths and weaknesses, his achievements, and judge his own performance. Superior’s appraisal forms the traditional part of the 360 degree performance appraisal where the employees’ responsibilities and actual performance is rated by the superior.

Subordinates appraisal gives a chance to judge the employee on the parameters like communication and motivating abilities, superior’s ability to delegate the work, leadership qualities etc. Also known as internal customers, the correct feedback given by peers can help to find employees’ abilities to work in a team, co-operation and sensitivity towards others.

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Self assessment is an indispensable part of 360 degree appraisals and therefore 360 degree Performance appraisal have high employee involvement and also have the strongest impact on behavior and performance. It provides a "360-degree review" of the employees’ performance and is considered to be one of the most credible performance appraisal methods.

360 degree performance appraisal is also a powerful developmental tool because when conducted at regular intervals (say yearly) it helps to keep a track of the changes others’ perceptions about the employees. A 360 degree appraisal is generally found more suitable for the managers as it helps to assess their leadership and managing styles. This technique is being effectively used across the globe for performance appraisals. Some of the organizations following it are Wipro, Infosys, and Reliance Industries etc.

Companies typically use a 360 feedback system in one of two ways:

1. 360 Feedback as a Development Tool to help employees recognize strengths and weaknesses and become more effective

When done properly, 360 is highly effective as a development tool. The feedback process gives people an opportunity to provide anonymous feedback to a coworker that they might otherwise be uncomfortable giving. Feedback recipients gain insight into how others perceive them and have an opportunity to adjust behaviors and develop skills that will enable them to excel at their jobs.

2. 360 Feedback as a Performance Appraisal Tool to measure employee performance

Using a 360 degree feedback system for Performance Appraisal is a common practice, but not always a good idea. It is difficult to properly structure a 360 feedback process that creates an atmosphere of trust when you use 360 evaluations to measure performance. Moreover, 360 feedback focuses on behaviors and competencies more than on basic skills, job requirements, and performance objectives. These things are most appropriately addressed by an employee and his/her manager as part of an annual review and performance appraisal process. It is certainly possible and can be beneficial to incorporate 360 feedback into a larger performance management process, but only with clear communication on how the 360 feedback will be used.

360 Feedback Survey Measures..

- The behaviors and competencies

- 360 assessments provide feedback on how others perceive an employee

- 360 feedback addresses skills such as listening, planning, and goal-setting

- A 360 evaluation focuses on subjective areas such as teamwork, character, and leadership effectiveness

18th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
Dear Sir, Thanks a lot for your valuable & great contribution. Also i would like to know generally which method of performance appraisal is used the most in companies.
18th January 2011 From India, Mumbai
Dear Kavita, The concept of Performance appraisal will be posted in depth in following posts, where you may get your required information.... Keep in touch with this thread... Thankyou.... CRK
18th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada



The first thing to decide is whether you want to work from an existing competency model or develop your own. Resist the temptation to re-invent the wheel. Many companies spend a great deal of time and effort creating a "unique" competency model for their 360 degree feedback program which ends up looking quite similar to our existing competency model.

If you will use 360 feedback surveys on a limited basis in your organization, consider using an existing competency model, perhaps with some minor adjustments to the evaluation form as needed.

For a company-wide 360 degree feedback program, you may want to spend some time developing a more unique competency model that incorporates your organization's leadership model and core values as well as the behaviors and performance standards that are expected of all employees.

Establishing the Core of your 360 Competency Model

Some aspects of your competency model will be the same for all employees, regardless of function or level within the organization. Call this your "core". The core of your 360 survey will include the following:

Items related to company values, mission, and vision

Competencies and expectations that apply to all employees, from the CEO down to the individual contributor.

Many competencies or behavioral categories will apply to employees at all levels, but the specific behaviors in each area will often differ. For example, "Interpersonal Skills" are important for everybody, but the expectations and requirements related to "Interpersonal Skills" will be quite different at different levels in the organization.

Other competencies will only be relevant at certain levels. For example, "Building Talent" is an important area for mid-level management and above, but not at all relevant to non-managers.

Beyond the Core

It is less important to distinguish between functional area, especially for mid-level management and above. Focus on identifying 3 or 4 distinct vertical levels within your organization. For example:

1. Senior Leaders

2. Mid-upper Managers

3. Lower-level / First-line Managers

4. Individual Contributors (Non-managers)

For each of the 3-4 levels, the competency model will start with the "core", but also include the specific behaviors needed to succeed at each level.

Remember - don't reinvent the wheel. As you develop your competency models, reference our standard competency model as it will help you fill in the gaps as you create your own. The top-level categories will be based on statistical analyses and field experience. They are:

- Knowledge/Strategic

- Character

- Interpersonal

- Innovation/Change

- Building Talent

- Leadership/Motivation

- Execution

Different Competencies for People at Different Levels

If you are developing a 360 survey that will be used by people at different levels within your organization, the mix of categories and items will vary quite a lot across the various levels. It might help to think about the different levels in terms of the requirements for success in the following three areas:

Vision, Strategy, Inspiration

- Upper levels should include a lot of detail in this area.

- Middle levels should include some items in this area, but not too many. This is an opportunity to help people see what they will need to succeed at the next level, and also an opportunity for you to identify high potentials for promotions. Some degree of inspiring and motivating is relevant for anybody in a management role.

- Lower levels, especially individual contributors, should not include items in this area.

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Teambuilding and Relationship Building

Upper levels should include a lot in this area, but some of the things that are included for mid-level might be excluded here. You do not have to be as thorough with regard to basic skills. Instead, focus more on support and relationship building at a higher conceptual level, and creating strategic alliances with other parts of the organization.

Middle levels should include a lot of detail in this area with regard to people-skills, team management, and fostering team effectiveness.

Lower levels should include a reasonable amount here, but look for areas that don't include things that are only relevant for higher levels. Include things related to working with others, cooperating, listening, and supporting team efforts.

Task Management and Execution

Upper levels should include items that are more focused on achieving results - they would not have reached the upper level if they had not been successful at the basic skills when they were at a lower level.

Middle levels should include quite a lot here, but some of the most basic items could be excluded.

Lower levels should include a lot in this area, focusing on the basic, fundamental skills of task management and job performance.

When you are finished, you will have 3-4 competency models along with a list of survey categories and items for each one. By following these steps, you will have a vertically integrated approach that uses a common core across all levels, but that also maps out a progression from the bottom of the organization to the top.

Here is an example of how a specific category might apply across all levels of the organization, but vary in its nature, depending on level:


Upper Levels

Encourages cooperation and collaboration between business units

Establishes partnerships at all levels to achieve results

Middle Levels

Resolves conflicts among team members

Sets clear, achievable goals for all team members to follow

Lower Levels

Works effectively to achieve team goals

Cooperates effectively with team members

18th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada



Despite the fact that 360 degree appraisals are being widely used throughout the world for appraising the performance of the employees at all levels, many HR experts and professionals argument against using the technique of 360 degree appraisals. The main arguments are:

360 performance rating system is not a validated or corroborated technique for Performance appraisal.

With the increase in the number of raters from one to five (commonly), it become difficult to separate, calculate and eliminate personal biasness and differences.

It is often time consuming and difficult to analyze the information gathered.

The results can be manipulated by the employees towards their desired ratings with the help of the raters.

The 360 degree appraisal mechanism can have a adversely effect the motivation and the performance of the employees.

360 degree feedback – as a process requires commitment of top management and the HR, resources(time, financial resources etc), planned implementation and follow up.

360 degree feedback can be adversely affected by the customers perception of the organisation and their incomplete knowledge about the process and the clarity of the process.

Often, the process suffers because of the lack of knowledge on the part of the participants or the raters.

19th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Contd... Find some collected important sheets attached, which might be useful... CRK
19th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

Attached Files
Membership is required for download. Create An Account First
File Type: pdf Appraisal form.pdf (61.8 KB, 95 views)
File Type: pdf appraisalformtemplate.pdf (84.3 KB, 116 views)
File Type: pdf Exit Interview Questionnaire.pdf (76.6 KB, 91 views)
File Type: pdf Performance Appraisal Form for Manager.pdf (145.5 KB, 97 views)
File Type: pdf Performance Appraisal Form for Staff.pdf (147.7 KB, 82 views)

My name is Bhavika I am MHRD graduate.I am searching for HR job In Surat If anyone know any job vacancy in hr in Surat let me know.I have 3.5 Year Exp experience in HR.Please help me.

19th January 2011 From India, Surat
I am Prof. Navale, just started taking Lectures in I.R & Lab. welfare. can anyone help me out to get the ppt's as a teaching tool for betterment.
pls do the favour. Thanks for posting such a detailed write up. In near future I will also try to post some articles relared to my subject.
19th January 2011 From India, Mumbai
Dear Bhavika,
Please don't make your posts in irrelevant threads.... Your request / post / expectations for positive responses may go waste as your post can't reach the relevant groups...
There are many threads and sections for job seekers in citehr... Do post your requirements there, to get your chances of response increase...
Hope you understand... and take it positive...:)
All the very best for your job hunt....

19th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
How r u? Thanx for your valuable contibution. I want to know that the formats that u have attached is sufficient to measure performance of employees... or we need to fill more form from employees?
19th January 2011 From India, Ambala
Hai Kavita.........:)
Very fine..... thankyou......:)
Hope the same....
The form depends on the kind of appraisal in your company, your main purpose of appraisal and the things you wish to add to extract more information on various aspects of performance of your employees.......

19th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada


To evaluate the organisational and employee performance in Performance appraisal management processes, the conventional approach measures the performance only on a few parameters like the action processes, results achieved or the financial measures etc. The Balanced scorecard – an approach given by Kaplan and Norton provides a framework of various measures to ensure the complete and balanced view of the performance of the employees. Balanced scorecard focuses on the measures that drive performance.

The balanced scorecard provides a list of measures that balance the organizations internal and process measures with results, achievements and financial measures.

The two basic features of the balanced scorecard are:

- A balanced set of measures based on. the four perspectives of balanced scorecard

- Linking the measures to Employee Performance

The four Perspectives recommended by Kaplan and Norton for the managers to collect information are:

The financial measures – The financial measures include the results like profits, increase in the market share, return on investments and other economic measures as a result of the actions taken.

The customers’ measures - These measures help to get on customer satisfaction, the customer’s perspective about the organisation, customer loyalty, acquiring new customers. The data can be collected from the frequency and number of customer complaints, the time taken to deliver the products and services, improvement in quality etc.

The internal business measures – These are the measures related to the organization’s internal processes which help to achieve the customer satisfaction. It includes the infrastructure, the long term and short term goals and objectives, organisational processes and procedures, systems and the human resources.

The innovation and learning perspective - The innovation and learning measures cover the organisation’s ability to learn, innovate and improve. They can be judged by employee skills matrix, key competencies, value added and the revenue per employee.

20th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada



The balanced scorecard focuses on the measures that drive the employee performance. The balanced scorecard provides a list of measures that balance the organizations internal and process measures with results, achievements and financial measures. The two basic features of the balanced scorecard are:

- A balanced set of measures based on. the four perspectives of balanced scorecard

- Linking the measures to Employee Performance

- A balanced set of measures

Instead of relying on just one instrument or measure, using a balanced set of measures ensures that all the aspects of the employees’ performance are covered and provide relevant support for the decisions taken.

Therefore, it is necessary that the manager should be capable of observe and note the several instruments and measures simultaneously. The four perspectives given by Kaplan and Norton are the financial measures, the customer’s perspective, the internal business perspectives and the innovation and learning perspectives.

For each perspective of the following things are measured:

Objectives: the goals and the targets to be achieved

Measures: the standards which will be used to measure the actual performance and the progress.

Action plans: the initiatives taken and the course of action to be followed to achieve the objectives

Tie-In to Employee Performance

The balanced scorecard approach can be used and applied at both the individual and the organisational level. It provides a balanced approach to evaluate the employees’ performance (for the purpose of Performance appraisal) in a comprehensive manner rather than a partial view. In most of the organisations, the common practice of measuring the employee performance refers to only the comparison of their action plans and behaviours with the standards set i.e. without actually measuring the results of their actions like profits and increase in market share. This conventional practice can lead to the appraisal of most of the employees without any or little progress towards achieving the goals and objectives of the organisation. Thus, the balanced scorecard gives the complete view of the employees and the organisational performance and helps to align the employee performance/action plans with the organisational goals.


The benefits of the balanced scorecard approach in measuring performance are:

- Gives the complete picture of the employee as well as the organisational performance.

- It guides users in determining the critical success factors and performance indicators.

- Strategic review or analysis of the organisational capabilities and performance.

- Focusing the whole organisation on the few key things needed to create breakthrough performance.

- Integrating and directing the performance and efforts from the lowest levels in the organisation to achieve excellent overall performance.

20th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

One of the most important factors that lead one to their goals is the drive. This drive is known as motivation. It is a zest and determination with a kind of excitement that leads one to persevere to reach greater heights, in no matter what avenue of their life; be it – personal or professional. The drive may come from an internal or external source. The individual determines this.

The factors that motivate an individual keep changing as one climbs the ladder of age and maturity. And also, achievement of one goal sets the ball rolling for another one to be achieved. Thus, to be motivated is a constant need. There are times when one faces a period of de-motivation and everything seems bleak. It is then that they need to find what would motivate them back into action.

For every individual there is a variable driving force. In fact, it is not just a single factor, but a combination of factors that lead people to achieve their goals. The fact is that with routine monotony steps in and then everything seems like stagnant waters. It feels like there is nothing new.

Breaking this cycle of monotony has helped many bounce back with enthusiasm. This is why human resource managers create a training calendar, which will take away employees from the routine they are stuck to, as well as enhance their skills in various areas.

Others pursue hobbies during the weekend, thus giving them something to look forward to, as each week comes to a close. There are people who redefine their goals and ambitions from time to time in order to fill them with newer levels of enthusiasm to achieve greater feats. One needs to take stalk every now and then and find the motivator required to carry them through. be contd...

22nd January 2011 From India, Vijayawada
I often go through your post often seen in the recent post as CRK'S Desk. Thanks for clubbing all the topics of HR and bringing it under one thread...its like "ALL UNDER ONE ROOF". Appreciate your initiative to act smart and club the entire HR Info.
It can take a good amount of energy and initiative to get yourself started in a new activity - but it takes far, far less to keep yourself doing it once you've started...............keep going!
22nd January 2011 From India, Madras
Thankyou GarimaSolanki............:) With pleasure......... this thread continues...... a long journey...... Thankyou for your appreciations...... Keep checking...... CRK
22nd January 2011 From India, Vijayawada


Maslow's Theory of Motivation - Hierarchy of Needs

In 1943, Dr. Abraham Maslow 's article "A Theory of Human Motivation " appeared in Psychological Review, which were further expanded upon in his book: Toward a Psychology of Being In this article, Abraham H. Maslow attempted to formulate a needs-based framework of human motivation and based upon his clinical experiences with people, rather than as did the prior psychology theories of his day from authors such as Freud and B.F. Skinner, which were largely theoretical or based upon animal behavior. From this theory of motivation, modern leaders and executive managers find means of motivation for the purposes of employee and workforce management. Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and Personality (1954), formally introduced the Hierarchy of Needs.

The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs." As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy, while preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.

As a result, for adequate workplace motivation, it is important that leadership understands the active needs active for individual employee motivation. In this manner, Maslow's model indicates that fundamental, lower-order needs like safety and physiological requirements have to be satisfied in order to pursue higher-level motivators along the lines of self-fulfillment. As depicted in the following hierarchical diagram, sometimes called 'Maslow's Needs Pyramid' or 'Maslow's Needs Triangle', after a need is satisfied it stops acting as a motivator and the next need one rank higher starts to motivate.

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Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's motivation theory. It is about the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow.

Self-actualized people tend to have motivators such as:





Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization.

Esteem Needs

After a person feels that they "belong", the urge to attain a degree of importance emerges. Esteem needs can be categorized as external motivators and internal motivators.

Internally motivating esteem needs are those such as self-esteem, accomplishment, and self respect. External esteem needs are those such as reputation and recognition.

Some examples of esteem needs are:

Recognition (external motivator)

Attention (external motivator)

Social Status (external motivator)

Accomplishment (internal motivator)

Self-respect (internal motivator)

Maslow later improved his model to add a layer in between self-actualization and esteem needs: the need for aesthetics and knowledge.

Social Needs

Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level motivators awaken. The first level of higher level needs are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with others and may include:


Belonging to a group

Giving and receiving love

Safety Needs

Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by:

Living in a safe area

Medical insurance

Job security

Financial reserves

According to the Maslow hierarchy, if a person feels threatened, needs further up the pyramid will not receive attention until that need has been resolved.

Physiological Needs

Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as:





According to this theory, if these fundamental needs are not satisfied then one will surely be motivated to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not recognized until one satisfies the needs basic to existence.

Applying Maslow's Needs Hierarchy - Business Management Implications

If Maslow's theory is true, there are some very important leadership implications to enhance workplace motivation. There are staff motivation opportunities by motivating each employee through their style of management, compensation plans, role definition, and company activities.

Physiological Motivation: Provide ample breaks for lunch and recuperation and pay salaries that allow workers to buy life's essentials.

Safety Needs: Provide a working environment which is safe, relative job security, and freedom from threats.

Social Needs: Generate a feeling of acceptance, belonging, and community by reinforcing team dynamics.

Esteem Motivators: Recognize achievements, assign important projects, and provide status to make employees feel valued and appreciated.

Self-Actualization: Offer challenging and meaningful work assignments which enable innovation, creativity, and progress according to long-term goals.

Remember, everyone is not motivated by same needs. At various points in their lives and careers, various employees will be motivated by completely different needs. It is imperative that you recognize each employee's needs currently being pursued. In order to motivate their employees, leadership must be understand the current level of needs at which the employee finds themselves, and leverage needs for workplace motivation.

Maslow's Theory - Limitations and Criticism

Though Maslow's hierarchy makes sense intuitively, little evidence supports its strict hierarchy. Actually, recent research challenges the order that the needs are imposed by Maslow's pyramid. As an example, in some cultures, social needs are placed more fundamentally than any others. Further, Maslow's hierarchy fails to explain the "starving artist" scenario, in which the aesthetic neglects their physical needs to pursuit of aesthetic or spiritual goals. Additionally, little evidence suggests that people satisfy exclusively one motivating need at a time, other than situations where needs conflict.

While scientific support fails to reinforce Maslow's hierarchy, his thery is very popular, being the introductory motivation theory for many students and managers, worldwide. To handle a number of the issues of present in the Needs Hierarchy, Clayton Alderfer devised the ERG theory, a consistent needs-based model that aligns more accurately with scientific research.
24th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

Theory X and Theory Y by Douglas McGregor

Douglas McGregor in his book, "The Human Side of Enterprise" published in 1960 has examined theories on behavior of individuals at work, and he has formulated two models which he calls Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X Assumptions

The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can.

Because of their dislike for work, most people must be controlled and threatened before they will work hard enough.

The average human prefers to be directed, dislikes responsibility, is unambiguous, and desires security above everything.

These assumptions lie behind most organizational principles today, and give rise both to "tough" management with punishments and tight controls, and "soft" management which aims at harmony at work.

Both these are "wrong" because man needs more than financial rewards at work, he also needs some deeper higher order motivation - the opportunity to fulfill himself.

Theory X managers do not give their staff this opportunity so that the employees behave in the expected fashion.

Theory Y Assumptions

The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work, man will direct himself if he is committed to the aims of the organization.

If a job is satisfying, then the result will be commitment to the organization.

The average man learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.

Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems by a large number of employees.

Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average man are only partially utilized.

Comments on Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions

These assumptions are based on social science research which has been carried out, and demonstrate the potential which is present in man and which organizations should recognize in order to become more effective.

McGregor sees these two theories as two quite separate attitudes. Theory Y is difficult to put into practice on the shop floor in large mass production operations, but it can be used initially in the managing of managers and


In "The Human Side of Enterprise" McGregor shows how Theory Y affects the management of promotions and salaries and the development of effective managers. McGregor also sees Theory Y as conducive to participative

problem solving.

It is part of the manager's job to exercise authority, and there are cases in which this is the only method of achieving the desired results because subordinates do not agree that the ends are desirable.

However, in situations where it is possible to obtain commitment to objectives, it is better to explain the matter fully so that employees grasp the purpose of an action. They will then exert self-direction and control to do better work - quite possibly by better methods - than if they had simply been carrying out an order which the y did not fully understand.

The situation in which employees can be consulted is one where the individuals are emotionally mature, and positively motivated towards their work; where the work is sufficiently responsible to allow for flexibility and where the employee can see her or his own position in the management hierarchy. If these conditions are present, managers will find that the participative approach to problem solving leads to much improved results compared with the alternative approach of handing out authoritarian orders.

Once management becomes persuaded that it is under estimating the potential of its human resources, and accepts the knowledge given by social science researchers and displayed in Theory Y assumptions, then it can invest time, money and effort in developing improved applications of the theory.

McGregor realizes that some of the theories he has put forward are unrealizable in practice, but wants managers to put into operation the basic assumption that: Staff will contribute more to the organization if they are treated as responsible and valued employees.

27th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

Employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage employees to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time. Corporate is facing a lot of problems in employee retention these days. Hiring knowledgeable people for the job is essential for an employer. But retention is even more important than hiring.

There is no dearth of opportunities for a talented person. There are many organizations which are looking for such employees. If a person is not satisfied by the job he’s doing, he may switch over to some other more suitable job. In today’s environment it becomes very important for organizations to retain their employees.

The top organizations are on the top because they value their employees and they know how to keep them glued to the organization. Employees stay and leave organizations for some reasons.

The reason may be personal or professional. These reasons should be understood by the employer and should be taken care of. The organizations are becoming aware of these reasons and adopting many strategies for employee retention.

What is employee retention

Employee retention is a process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period of time or until the completion of the project. Employee retention is beneficial for the organization as well as the employee.

Employees today are different. They are not the ones who don’t have good opportunities in hand. As soon as they feel dissatisfied with the current employer or the job, they switch over to the next job. It is the responsibility of the employer to retain their best employees. If they don’t, they

would be left with no good employees. A good employer should know how to attract and retain its employees. Retention involves five major things:

Employee retention would require a lot of efforts, energy, and resources but the results are worth it.

1) Compensation

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2) Environment

3) Growth be continued...

27th January 2011 From India, Vijayawada

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