hansa vyas

Dear all, i am curious to know about the background or chemistry that happens during Giving CPR.what happens inside the body when we blow air from mouth & press heart?? Regards, Hansa vyas
From India, Udaipur
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Raghuvaran Chakkaravarthy
Environmental, Health And Safety
Kesava Pillai
Occupational Safety & Health
Hansa Vyas
A Good Learner Always
Medical Care, Emergency Trauma Care, First

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raghuvaran chakkaravarthy

Dear Hansa,

The air we breathe in travels to our lungs where oxygen is picked up by our blood and then pumped by the heart to our tissue and organs. When a person experiences cardiac arrest - whether due to heart failure in adults and the elderly or an injury such as near drowning, electrocution or severe trauma in a child - the heart goes from a normal beat to an arrhythmic pattern called ventricular fibrillation, and eventually ceases to beat altogether.

This prevents oxygen from circulating throughout the body, rapidly killing cells and tissue. In essence, Cardio (heart) Pulmonary (lung) Resuscitation (revive, revitalize) serves as an artificial heartbeat and an artificial respirator.

CPR may not save the victim even when performed properly, but if started within 4 minutes of cardiac arrest and defibrillation is provided within 10 minutes, a person has a 40% chance of survival.

Invented in 1960, CPR is a simple but effective procedure that allows almost anyone to sustain life in the first critical minutes of cardiac arrest. CPR provides oxygenated blood to the brain and the heart long enough to keep vital organs alive until emergency equipment arrives.

To make learning CPR easier, a system was devised that makes remembering it as simple as A-B-C:





It is critical to remember that dialing 1-0-8 may be the most important step you can take to save a life.

If someone besides you is present, they should dial 1-0-8 immediately. If you’re alone with the victim, try to call for help prior to starting CPR on an adult and after a minute on a child. Before we learn what to do in an emergency, we must first emphasize what NOT to do:

DO NOT leave the victim alone.

DO NOT try make the victim drink water.

DO NOT throw water on the victim's face.

DO NOT prompt the victim into a sitting position.

DO NOT try to revive the victim by slapping his face.

Provide 1-0-8 operator with:

Location & phone number

Type of emergency

Victim's condition and age

Always remember to exercise solid common sense. When faced with an emergency situation we may act impulsively and place ourselves in harm's way. Although time should not be wasted, only approach the victim after determining that the scene is safe: always check for cars, fire, gas, downed electrical lines, and any other potential hazards before attempting to perform CPR. . .

Thanks & Besafe


From United States, Fpo

Dear Hansa
Just go through the following link. It's a great one deals with CPR...
Discovery Health "How CPR Works"
I hope this will clear all your doubt...
Dear Raghu: Nice write up...
Keep on sharing...

From India

Dear Mr. Raghu and Dipil Thank you for your valuable input and link. We must learn some basics on First Aid also, which will come in help at any time. With warm regards. S. Bhaskar 9099024667
From India, Kumbakonam
raghuvaran chakkaravarthy

Dear bhaskar, Please see the attached basic first aid files its help at anytime/anyplace. . . Hope its helps. . . Thanks & Besafe Raghu
From United States, Fpo

Attached Files (Download Requires Membership)
File Type: pdf Basic first aid.pdf (454.2 KB, 958 views)
File Type: pdf BASIC%20FIRST%20AID%20PROCEDURES.pdf (72.2 KB, 532 views)


Thank you dear
Wish you all members a happy healthy and prosperous New Year Year 2011
Wishing to expect more knowledge sharing postings from our members during 2011.
With warm regards
S. Bhaskar

From India, Kumbakonam

Dear Mr Hansa

As I will elaborate a bit to what mr Raghu has already posted here.

Air we breathe containing roughly 21 % oxygen reaches to lungs where there are fine micro vascular structure of blood vessels called capillaries found, simultaneously blood from the whole body ( called deoxygenated blood) comes to heart in the right upper chamber of heart called Right Atrium and from Right Atrium it is pushed down to right Ventricle( lower right side of heart) and from Right ventricle it is sent to lungs via four Pulmonary arteries.It means now lungs contain bad or deoxygenated blood. Now gaseous exchange takes place into lungs. Deoxygenated blood contain around 16-17 % oxygen and 4-5 % of CO2 it is eliminated during exhaling process. Thus its a cycle of fresh Air with 21% O2 taken in and Air with 16-17% O2 is thrown out by exhalation.

This process is a continuous process and its rate is decreased or increased depending upon body actions. If Heart is not functioning then it will not be able to pump the blood to all the part of bodies which are dependent on oxygen and in the absence of oxygen vital organs starts deteriorating and thus all the vital functions come to stand still. If this situation persists then there can be irreparable damage to brain tissue and it will lead to death.

Any injury or incidence which causes respiratory distress or prevents oxygen to enter the lungs or exchange of gases in the lungs if prevented can lead to heart attack.

There can be a situation where a person is not breathing but his heart beat is found because heart has a built in separate power house to run its functions in addition to provided by brain. Thus in the event of brain death heart can still be found functioning because of its own power house, and this situation can persist for more then 10 minutes and after this heart tissue too will start deteriorate and it will lead to ventricular fibrillation( Flutter) and further stoppage of heart.

Now It will be difficult for a non medical person to understand the concept of Defibrillators or Automated external defibrillators thus it is pertinent to know about what to do and how to do so that the chances of survival for the person can be increased,

And here comes CPR-

As it is already explained hence i will say that it is the process of revival of heart and lungs( because if assessment of a cardiac arrest patient is done then there will be no breathing and no pulse because both the organs responsible for the pulse and breathe are not working so we have to revive them)

CPR is a combination of Artificial Respiration and Chest compression.

Assess the victim if no breathe then give two mouth to mouth breathe called rescue breaths.

After this check for the carotid pulse and if no pulse give 30 chest compression by pressing the centre of chest at sternum ( chest bone) at the rate of 100 per min and press 2-2.5 inch

Soon after compression give two breaths and then 30 cc give total 5 cycle of 2( resp) and 30( comp) and during this do not check pulse or breath.

After this check pulse if no pulse start with 30 cc and then 2 resp again give 5 cycles its better to seek help since it is a very tiring process and bystanders can help also call 108 and during the transportation continue the CPR till the patient is handed over to doctors or is revived.

Now this process of CPR has to be learned and it comes only by trainings and practice

The process which i have mentioned is latest and of standard guidelines.

will continue the same in by write ups provided people responds

Thanx and regards

RP Singh( Ravi)

Trainer ACLS


From India, Bangalore
Kesava Pillai

Dear friends,
In your life so far; have you ever heard of some one being saved by applying CPR ?
Now one question remains: We inhale air containing nearly 21% of Oxygen.
We take up about 4 % of it and quite often more depending up on our activity and exhale air containing less than 17 % oxygen. While conducting CPR we are trying to pump in our exhaled air with poor oxygen content. How we could justify this action ?
Please ....
Kesava Pillai

From India, Kollam

Dear Pillai Sir

I think now i will enjoy more on this platform since people are coming with very good queries and specially if a person of your caliber is putting such queries then it becomes a bound duty of me to clarify. I have come across to one of your post pertaining to your appeal for getting right utilization of experience of veteran like you. ( I am sure i am addressing to right person).

Now let us come to the question.

Yes I have been involved into this process since last 18 years and i have participate in almost majority of natural calamities occurred in this country as a member of medical care team. So its not a taboo for the persons who are meant for this cause to provide CPR or revive a person, it has happened many a times and if i say that a process of CPR is a common situation in operation theaters where surgeries are conducted and more often it is common with young children and we do bring them back to life. In developed countries it is more widely practiced because there is a very fine system employed there and they follow the system. I am sure i am able to clear your first question.

Now comes about whether is it feasible to give a patient exhaled air containing roughly 17-18% of oxygen- I will say with authority YES.

Since a person who is a case of cardiac arrest; there will be no oxygen going to their brains and in such condition he or she will receive irreversible brain damage beyond recovery and may lead to death or may be brain dead, if we provide this so called 17-18% oxygen by virtue of mouth to mouth respiration then we can temporarily maintain the oxygen saturation and brain tissue perfusion also by chest compression. CPR may not be a final remedy but at least if a patient brought to casualty room with CPR on there are far more chances of his or her survival because we have somewhat maintained the oxygenation of brain tissue.

So at last i will say here again that success of survival of a patient depends upon timely process of CPR and effective methods used for providing it.

This all mentioned above is based on my own research and also researches conducted by top most organizations in the world involved in this cause.

Thanx & Regards

RP Singh( Ravi)

American heart Association Certified

ACLS, BLS Trainer, Health Educator

From India, Bangalore
Kesava Pillai

Dear Ravi,

Thanks a lot.

Medical professionals, even para medics have to often perform CPR. It is part of their job. They are trained and tuned to perform it. The question I posed is not to any medical practitioners like you.

Even if one is just trained in CPR will he be able to perform it in the middle of today’s public? If there is such a casualty and the one trained in CPR comes forward to perform will he be permitted? No one will heed him. The one with shouting capability will take the situation in to his command and shout “take him to hospital’ and on the way since the critical minutes are lost the casuality dies.

Even if one is just trained; with his own child he will not dare to perform for he is not tuned to do so. The immediate thought is to quickly take the child to hospital. Why many famous doctors will not perform surgery on own spouses and keep out while they entrust the cases to someone else.

First issue: You are perfectly correct. The immediate requirement is to save the casualty.

Our exhaled air contains 17% + oxygen while not exerting much. In case of CPR we do nothing else and take deep breath every time to contain more air than required by us. This will give enough oxygen to revive the casualty. Many who attend CPR classes will have doubt on this point though mostly they keep silent. After the training they will keep on wondering about it. Because of this I always suggest that this point is explained at first hand.

CPR experience: AT Cochin, exactly at Piravom a bridegroom about to go to church for

his marriage just took his bath and came out of bath room. Suddenly current failed. He had arranged for a generator. He tried to insert bare wires into the generator socket. His long gold chain touched the wire and was electrocuted. He was pushed into the decorated car and driven to the hospital where he was declared dead. The doctor only said “if CPR was applied he would have been alive.”

In another case girls’ foot ball game was gong on. Suddenly lightening struck and the goalie was thrown to a distance of about 10 feet unconscious. No breathing, no pulse. The trainer lady started CPR on the girl and continued all the way through the hospital and till a doctor took over. The girl was saved. The doctor pronounced “the lady’s CPR saved her not I”. The funny part of it is as the girl gained consciousness first thing she asked was “who won the game”

Both the paper cuttings are in my collections.

What we need is popularizing the importance of this essential skill.


Kesava Pillai.

From India, Kollam

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