Dear All,

I'am starting this thread to creat a one-stop-shop for all those who are struggling with this concept. You will find a detailed description in the attached document.

Information about jobs is obtained through a process called job analysis. The goal of this process is to secure whatever job data are needed. Job analysis has many uses. Organizations use information obtained by job analysis for such personnel programs as recruitment, selection, and placement; organization planning and job design; training; grievance settlement; as well as job evaluation and other compensation programs.

The job evaluation process begins with securing information about jobs. Failure to secure complete job facts has been cited as a primary reason for job evaluation failure. Later steps in job evaluation become virtually impossible without adequate job information.

Job evaluation represents the major use of job analysis. It is also our focus in this chapter. Because the job information needed for various uses may differ, some organizations make a specialized study for each specific use. Another approach is to obtain all the needed job information at once. A 1983 review of job analysis defines it as a procedure for gathering, documenting, and analyzing information about three basic aspects of a job: content, requirements, and context.

But the different uses of job information may require specialized job descriptions. Job evaluation requires information that permits distinguishing jobs from one another, usually on the basis of work activities and/or job required worker characteristics. Recruitment and selection require information on the human attributes a successful jobholder must bring to the job. Training requires information on the knowledge and skills that the successful jobholder must evidence. Job design may require identifying employee perceptions of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Although there is overlap among these different requirements, arguments for separate job analysis for separate purposes are understandable.


After deciding on descriptors and the level of analysis, the organization must determine which method is to be used to collect job information. Although there are a number of methods of obtaining job information (observation, interviews with job incumbents or experienced personnel and supervisors, structured and non-structured questionnaires, diaries kept by workers, data on critical incidents, and work sampling), they are perhaps best understood if we classify them as (1) conventional procedures, (2) standardized instruments, (3) task inventories, and (4) structured methods.

This classification is only marginally satisfactory. It will be seen that these job analysis methods differ in descriptors, levels of analysis, and methods of collecting, analyzing, and presenting data. We will evaluate these approaches in terms of purpose, descriptor applicability, cost, reliability, and validity.Conventional Procedures

Conventional job analysis programs typically involve collecting job information by observing and/or interviewing job incumbents. Then job descriptions are prepared in essay form. Much of the conventional approach comes from the long experience of the United States Employment Service in analyzing jobs. As mentioned in our discussion of models, the original job analysis formula of the DOL provided for obtaining work activities. The DOL's 1972 revision of this schedule requires the job title, job summary, and description of tasks (these were referred to as work performed in the 1946 formula), as well as other data.

Conventional job analysis treats work activities as the primary job descriptor. As a consequence, the use of the conventional approach by private organizations focuses largely on work activities rather than on the five types of descriptors used in the DOL job analysis schedule.

Because job evaluation purports to distinguish jobs on the importance of work activities to the employing organization, this descriptor seems primary. As we noted, in fact, using the DOL's original job analysis formula (what the worker does, how the worker does it, and why the worker does it) may provide reasonable assurance that all the work activities are covered. One of the functions of this model is to require the analyst to seek out the purpose of the work.

In some private use of the conventional approach, worker attributes required by the job are also sought. Ratings of education, training, and experience required may be obtained, as well as information on contacts required, report writing, decisions, and supervision. In part, these categories represent worker attributes, and in part they represent a search for specific work activities.

Some conventional job analysis programs ask job incumbents to complete a preliminary questionnaire describing their jobs. The purpose is to provide the analyst with a first draft of the job information needed. It is also meant to be a first step in obtaining incumbent and supervisor approval of the final job description. Of course, not all employees enjoy filling out questionnaires. Also, employees vary in verbal skills and may overstate or understate their work activities. Usually, the job analyst follows up the questionnaire by interviewing the employee and observing his or her job.

Please see the attachment for further details.

Warm Regards,


From India

Attached Files
File Type: doc je__notebook_310.doc (313.5 KB, 1983 views)

Dear All,

A little more on JE below. Also,please see the attachment for Hay's Method:

Job Evaluation - What is it ?

Job evaluation is a practical technique, designed to enable trained and experienced staff to judge the size of one job relative to others. It does not directly determine pay levels, but will establish the basis for an internal ranking of jobs.

The two most common methods of job evaluation that have been used are first, whole job ranking, where jobs are taken as a whole and ranked against each other. The second method is one of awarding points for various aspects of the job. In the points system various aspects or parts of the job such as education and experience required to perform the job are assessed and a points value awarded - the higher the educational requirements of the job the higher the points scored. The most well known points scheme was introduced by Hay management consultants in 1951. This scheme evaluates job responsibilities in the light of three major factors - know how, problem solving and accountability.

Some Principles of Job Evaluation

• Clearly defined and identifiable jobs must exist. These jobs will be accurately described in an agreed job description.

• All jobs in an organisation will be evaluated using an agreed job evaluation scheme.

• Job evaluators will need to gain a thorough understanding of the job

• Job evaluation is concerned with jobs, not people. It is not the person that is being evaluated.

• The job is assessed as if it were being carried out in a fully competent and acceptable manner.

• Job evaluation is based on judgement and is not scientific. However if applied correctly it can enable objective judgements to be made.

• It is possible to make a judgement about a job's contribution relative to other jobs in an organisation.

• The real test of the evaluation results is their acceptability to all participants.

• Job evaluation can aid organisational problem solving as it highlights duplication of tasks and gaps between jobs and functions.

Job Evaluation - The Future

As organisations constantly evolve and new organisations emerge there will be challenges to existing principles of job evaluation. Whether existing job evaluation techniques and accompanying schemes remain relevant in a faster moving and constantly changing world, where new jobs and roles are invented on a regular basis, remains to be seen. The formal points systems, used by so many organisations is often already seen to be inflexible. Sticking rigidly to an existing scheme may impose barriers to change. Constantly updating and writing new jobs together with the time that has to be spent administering the job evaluation schemes may become too cumbersome and time consuming for the benefits that are derived.

Does this mean that we will see existing schemes abandoned or left to fall into disrepute ? Will providers of job evaluation schemes examine and, where necessary, modify them to ensure they are up to date and relevant ? Simply sticking rigidly to what is already in place may not be enough to ensure their survival.

Job Evaluation - More

Job evaluation is essentially one part of a tripartite subject, which is collectively referred to as Job Study (other names exist). The three parts are Job Analysis; Job Evaluation - the information collected is evaluated using a numerical scale or ranking and rating methodology; and Merit Rating - BSI definition (32542).

BSI definition - 32529 – “Any method ranking the relative worth of jobs which can then be used as a basis for a remuneration system”

It is essentially a comparative process.

Job evaluation evaluates selected job factors, which are regarded as important for the effective performance of the job, according to one of several alternative methods. The resulting numerical gradings can form the basis of an equitable structure of job gradings. The job grades may or may not be used for status or payment purposes.


Job Evaluation is concerned with measuring the demands the job places on its holder. Most factors that contribute to this job pressure, e.g. physical strength required, knowledge of mathematics required, are assessed and the result is a numerical estimate of the total job pressure. When evaluations are carried out on all hourly paid personnel the technique’s uses include establishing relative wage rates for different tasks. It is possible to use it for all grades of personnel, even senior management.


The Time Span of Discretion is an interesting and unusual method of job evaluation developed by Elliot Jaques for the Glacier Metal Company. In this method the job pressure is assessed according to the length of time over which managers decisions commit the company. A machine operative, for example, is at any moment committing the company only for the period needed to make one product unit or component. The manager who buys the machine is committing the company for ten years.

Warm Regards,


From India

Attached Files
File Type: doc job_evaluation__basics_202.doc (321.5 KB, 2576 views)

Dear Ambarish
Lots of information related to job analysis and evaluation.. very nice and useful one.. thank you very much.. Will you be able to let me know where shall i get the information about review of literatures for Employee Potential Appraisal System..

From India, Coimbatore
Boss its all cut - paste stuff. Would be easier if you could just include link on your topic.
From United Arab Emirates, Dubai
Hi You I read some opinion in this topic. I agree with some but I recommend that we can find out some articles at by searching. Rgs
From Vietnam,
Hello, I thank you for sharing such type of methods, but i would really appreciate if you could let us the the link to get in more details. best regards, Md. Shuja Uddin Shanfari Group of Companies
From Oman, Muscat
Dear Ambarish
Good Afternoon
YOu have posted very nice information onJob evaluation. Every point is very precisely is mentioned.
I have couple of queries in this ..
1) What is meant by BSI
2) What those nos indicate which are mentioned against the BSI defination.
I ll be very thankful to you if you will provide me answer for same.
Thanking you,
Kalyani ( )

From India, Virar
Thanks for the information. I am currently studying for my Masters and this is very helpful, even if it was cut and paste job. I too would love to get the links for such well put together information, so if I need to quote in any paper, I have it.
Thanks again nevertheless.

From Bermuda, Hamilton

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