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Managing your career has never been as important as it is today. The individual must be responsible for creating and managing his or her own career. And, in today’s job marketplace employee ability replaces job security.

The first step in planning a career for yourself or someone else is to learn as much as possible about your interests, aptitudes and skills.

Making Career Choices

Identify your Career stages

Each person’s career goes through stages, and the stage you are in will influence your knowledge of and preference for various occupation .The main stages of this career cycle follows

From India, Mumbai

There is at least one more exercise that can prove enlightening. On a sheet of paper answer the question: If you could have any kind of job, what would it be? Invent your own job if need be, and don’t worry about what you can do – just what you want to do.

Identify High Potential occupations

Learning about your self is only half the job of choosing an occupation. You also have to identify those occupations that are right (given your occupational orientation, skills career anchors and occupational preferences) as well as those that will be in high demand in the years to come.

Not surprisingly the most efficient way to learn about and compare and contrast occupations is through the Internet.

From India, Mumbai
When a given response to a stimulus has been learned, it will tend to be elicited not only by the original stimulus involved in the learning situation but also by stimuli that are similar to it. This process called stimulus generalization appears to occur automatically unless stopped by discrimination learning. Stimulus generalization simplifies the consumer’s life, because it means that leaning a unique response to every stimulus is not necessary. One response can be sued for similar stimuli unless there is some important reason to learn to discriminate between them.

The gradient of generalization relates the degree of similarity between two stimuli to the likelihood that both will generate the same responses. It has been found that the greater resemblance between a given stimulus and another that already causes a response, the greater the chance that it will also generate the same response. Conversely the more dissimilar two stimuli are, the smaller the likelihood of stimulus generalization occurring. Some producers of private brands make use of the gradient concept by packaging products to closely resemble national brands in appearance. In other cases, firms ride the coattails of success of pioneering companies by offering highly similar products. The sudden appearance of various caffeine free soft drinks and sugarless gums are cases in point.

The generalization gradient also helps us understand the marketing approach of introducing new products that often bear a considerable resemblance to their predecessors. This encourages consumers to generalize learned attitudes and preferences from the old product to the new model. The family brand strategy employs similar methods. Here, the family brand name is prominently associated with the new product, as in the case of a General Motors car, a Wilson football, or a Panasonic radio. The intension is that consumers’ favorable perceptions and attitudes about the family name will be generalized to the new product. Of course the danger of such a strategy is that unfavorable experiences on the part of consumers with one product in the family line may lead to generalizing poor impressions toward the entire group of products.

From India, Mumbai
Compensating Expatriate employees
How should employers compensate expatriate employees – those it sends overseas? Two basic international compensation policies are popular; home based and host based plans.

With a home based salary plan, an international transferee’s base salary reflects his or her home country’s salary. The employer then adds allowances or cost of living differences – housing and schooling costs, for instance. This is a reasonable approach or short term assignments and avoids the problem of having to change the employee’s base salary every time he or she moves.

In the host based plan, the firm ties the international transferee’s base salary to the host country’s salary structure. In other words the manager for New York who is sent to France would have his or her bas salary changed to the prevailing base salary for that position in France, rather than keep the New York base salary. The firm usually tacks on cost of living, housing, schooling and other allowances here as well.

Most multinational enterprises set expatriates’ salaries according to their home country base pay. (Thus a French manager assigned to Kiev by a US multinational will generally have a base salary that reflects the salary structure in the manager’s home country in this case France). In addition the person typically gets allowances including cost of living, relocation, housing, education, and hardship allowances (the latter for countries with a relatively hard quality of life, such as China). The employer also usually pays any extra tax burdens resulting from taxes the manager is liable for over and above those he or she would have to pay on the home country.

From India, Mumbai
Whether the person is an employer or an independent contractor is a continuing issue for employers.

The problem is that many so called independent contractor relationships are not really independent contractor relationships. The US department of labor says there is no single rule or test for determining whether an individual is an independent contractor or a bona fide employee. Instead it is the total activity or situation at which the courts will look. The major consideration is this: The more the employer controls what the worker does, the more likely it is that the courts will find the worker is actually an employee.

For employers there are advantages to claiming that someone doing work for them is an independent contractor (basically a person like a consultant who is his or her own boss). For one thing the FLSA’s requirements do not apply. For another, the employer does not have to pay unemployment compensation payroll taxes, Social Security taxes, or city state and federal income taxes or compulsory workers’ compensation for that worker. If the person is truly an independent contractor, the relationship can also be advantageous to him or her. For example, it gives the worker more flexibility regarding things like when and where he or she works and often gives the person more options, for instance in terms of deducting business expenses.

Penalties for the employer who misclassifies an employee as an independent contractor can be severe. For example the employer can be retroactively liable for the IRS taxes that it did not withhold (plus penalties) as well as for overtime pay, unemployment compensation taxes, and back Social Security taxes plus interest. Even major firms allegedly misclassify some employees. Microsoft paid almost $ 97 million to settle one such suit for instance.

From India, Mumbai
Making the offer

The manager needs to exercise care in how he or she words the letter of offer. Some employers quote an annual salary (often because a modest hourly pay rate may look more impressive when annualized -- $20,000 per year sounds better than $ 10 per hour for instance) The problem with making offers in terms of annual salaries is that in some jurisdictions dong so can create an implied (one year) contract between employer and new employee. Not many courts have taken that position but as one labor lawyer points out the problem in the use of annual salary. It’s therefore usually safer to describe prospective pay in terms of hourly pay rate or monthly salary.

The Workday

Employers should be vigilant about employees who arrive early or leave late, lest the extra time spent on the employer’s property obligate the employer to compensate the employees for that time. For example a diligent employee may get dropped at work early and spend say 20 minutes before his or her day actually starts doing work related chores such as compiling a list of clients to call that day. While there is no hard and fast rule, some courts follow the rule that employees who arrive 15 or more minutes early are presumed to be working unless the employer can prove otherwise. If using time clocks, employers should always instruct employees not to clock in more than 5 – 10 minutes early (or out 5-10 minutes late).

From India, Mumbai
Specific categories of employees are exempt from the act or certain provisions of the act and particularly from the act’s overtime provisions – they are exempt employees. A person’s exemption depends on his or her responsibilities, duties and salary. Bona fide executive, administrative like office managers) and professional employees (like architects) are generally exempt from the minimum wage and overtime requirements of the act. A white collar worker earning more than $100,000 and performing any one exempt administrative, executive or management duty is automatically ineligible for overtime pay. Other employees can generally earn up to $ 23,660 per year and still automatically get overtime pay, so most employees earning less than $ 455 per week are non-exempt and earn overtime. Up until a few years ago, only workers earning up to $ 8,060 per year automatically received overtime pay.

If an employees is exempt from the FLSA’s minimum wage provisions then he or she is also exempt its overtime pay provisions. However, certain employees are always exempt form overtime pay provisions. This includes among others; agricultural employees: live in household employee taxicab drivers; and motion picture theater employees. Figure summarizes important guidelines governing white collar exemptions.


Primary Duties of White collar exempt positions

Executive (Three Duties are required)

1) Management of the enterprise in which the employee or of a permanent department or subdivision; and
2) Who customarily and regularly directs the work of two or more other employees?
3) Who has the authority to hire or fire other employees or whose suggestions and recommendations are given particular weight

Administrative (Both Duties are required)

1) Performance of office or non-manual work directly related to the management or general business operations of the employer or the employer’s customers:
2) The exercise of discretion and independent judgment with respect to matters of significance.

Professionals (Either duty is sufficient)

1) Performance of work requiring knowledge of an advanced type in a field of science or learning customarily acquired by a prolonged course of specialized intellectual instructions; or
2) Performance of work requiring invention, imagination, originally or talent in a recognized field of artistic or creative endeavor.

1963 Equal Pay Act

An amendment to the Fair Labor standards act designed to require equal pay for women doing the same work as men.

The Equal Pay Act, an amendment tot e fair Labor standards act, states that employees of one sex may not be paid wages at a rate lower than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for doing roughly equivalent work. Specifically if the work requires equal skills, effort and responsibility and involves similar working conditions employees of both sexes must receive equal pay, unless the differences in pay stem from a seniority system, a merit system the quantity or quality of production or any factor other than sex.

From India, Mumbai
A mood swing is caused due to an interplay that stems from dissatisfaction an employee experiences w.r.t his/her professional and personal achievements. Since a major part of an employee’s time is spent in office he/she tends to carry a certain amount of work stress back home. At the same time, personal tensions also tend to spill over at the workplace. This is not an ideal situation, but unless a employee achieves a work life balance such frustrations tend to lead to mood swings What an organization needs to do in such a scenario is support the employees and help him/her cope with such temporary phases. Moods have their own variety, which defines an impact it could have on the individual. It could be positive or negative in nature and have an immediate effect on the working relationship with co-workers or client. Some of the reasons for this could be issues at homes which an employee carries to work like a lack of sleep improper diet, burnout etc. all these issues can be dealt with tactfully if HR conducts regular counseling sessions. Along with this psychological assessment and workshops to improve emotional well being can go a long way towards mood management.

HR should take care of employees’ problems and try to sort them out by discussing the matter with them. Such discussions prove to be fruitful as they help employees come out of their shell and provide them the opportunity to share their issues without hesitation. We also make sure that their concerns are kept confidential to avoid any future confusion. We have a HR team that ensures to reach out to the employees and speaks to them as a friend when they undergo such mood swings issues related to mood swings should be addressed at the right time, otherwise it could have some serious repercussions. The best way to help an employee who goes through frequent mood swings is to help him /her become aware of it. The employee will then recognizing the moods and their subsequent impacts. Self affirmation is the best way to deal with moods – use your feelings or your feelings will use you.

From India, Mumbai
As my Company is an Infrastructure Company. We have few Employees to Whom we have kept them as Contractor. Bcz of which we are not able to provide the Facilities as like our Employees are provided. What can be provided to them
From India, Thana
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