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how to measure the effectiveness of OD programs...
what to measure...
how to decide for the timespan to look for the results....???
what if you dont get the visible results in the decided time but then you still have hopes...is the program effective in that case...???

hi I don’t know the answers bu I know someone who can reply. Pl call mr.Kunhunni At 04662 221161. He will answer you regards veera





Organizational Development

Organizational development (OD) is an application of behavioral science to organizational change. It encompasses a wide array of theories, processes, and activities, all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations. Generally speaking, however, OD differs from traditional organizational change techniques in that it typically embraces a more holistic approach that is aimed at transforming thought and behavior throughout an entity. Definitions of OD abound, but they are all predicated on the notion of improving organizational performance through proactive activities and techniques. It is also worth noting that organizational development, though concerned with improving workforce performance, should not be mistaken for human resource development.


"Organization development is the planned process of developing an organization to be more effective in accomplishing its desired goals," "It is distinguished from human resource development in that HRD focuses on the personal growth of individuals within organizations, while OD focuses on developing the structures, systems, and processes within the organization to improve organizational effectiveness."


Organizational Development Basics

Although the field of OD is broad, it can be differentiated from other systems of organizational change by its emphasis on process rather than problems. Indeed, traditional group change systems have focused on identifying problems in an organization and then trying to alter the behavior that creates the problem.

OD initiatives focus on identifying the behavioral interactions and patterns that cause and sustain problems. Then, rather than simply changing isolated behaviors, OD efforts are aimed at creating a behaviorally healthy organization that will naturally anticipate and prevent (or quickly solve) problems.

OD programs usually share several basic characteristics. For instance, they are considered long-term efforts of at least one to three years in most cases. In addition, OD stresses collaborative management, whereby managers and employees at different levels of the hierarchy cooperate to solve problems. OD also recognizes that every organization is unique and that the same solutions cannot necessarily be applied at different companies—this assumption is reflected in an OD focus on research and feedback. Another common trait of OD programs is an emphasis on the value of teamwork and small groups. In fact, most OD systems use small teams—or even individuals—as a vehicle to implement broad organizational changes.

The catalyst—whether a group or individual—that facilitates the OD process is known as the "change agent." Change agents are often outside consultants with experience managing OD programs, although companies sometimes utilize inside managers. The advantage of bringing in outside OD consultants is that they often provide a different perspective and have a less biased view of the organization's problems and needs. The primary drawback associated with outside change agents is that they may lack an in-depth understanding of key issues particular to the company. In addition, outside change agents may have trouble securing the trust and cooperation of key players in the organization. For these reasons, some companies employ an external-internal team approach, which seeks to combine the advantages of internal and external change agents while minimizing the drawbacks associated with the two approaches. "Are change agents necessary for organizational development to take place?" "Once we recognize that organizational development involves substantial changes in how individuals think, believe, and act, we can appreciate the necessity of someone to play the role of change agent. But who should play the role? Existing managers? New managers? Or individuals hired specifically for that purpose? Depending upon the situation, any of these can be called upon to orchestrate the organizational development process. The point is that the role of the change agent is necessary for organizational development to occur."


Managing Change Through Organizational Development

Organization development initiatives do not automatically succeed. The benefits of effective OD programs are myriad, as many executives, managers, and business owners will attest. But OD interventions that are pursued in a sloppy, half-hearted, or otherwise faulty manner are far less likely to bring about meaningful change than those that have the full support of the people involved. Several conditions that had to be present if an OD intervention could have any meaningful chance of bringing about the desired change:

Ownership and all involved personnel needed to be genuinely and visibly committed to the effort.

People involved in OD have to be informed in advance of the nature of the intervention and the nature of their involvement in it.

The OD effort has to be connected to other parts of the organization; this is especially true of such areas as the evaluation and reward systems.

The effort has to be directed by appropriate managers and guided by change agents (which, if used, must be competent).

The intervention should be based on accurate diagnosis of organizational conditions.

Owners and managers should show their commitment to OD at all stages of the effort, including the diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation.

Evaluation is key to success, and should consist of more than asking people how they felt about the effort.

Owners and managers need to show employees how the OD effort relates to the organization's goals and overriding mission

Implementing OD Programs

OD efforts basically entail two groups of activities: [1] "action research" and [ 2 ]"interventions."

1. Action research is a process of systematically collecting data on a specific organization, feeding it back for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data. Data gathering techniques include everything from surveys and questionnaires to interviews, collages, drawings, and tests. The data is often evaluated and interpreted using advanced statistical analysis techniques.

Action research can be thought of as the diagnostic component of the OD process. But it also encompasses the intervention component, whereby the change agent uses action plans to intervene in the organization and make changes, as discussed below. In a continuous process, the results of actions are measured and evaluated and new action plans are devised to effect new changes. Thus, the intervention process can be considered a facet of action research.

2. OD interventions are plans or programs comprised of specific activities designed to effect change in some facet of an organization. Numerous interventions have been developed over the years to address different problems or create various results. However, they all are geared toward the goal of improving the entire organization through change. In general, organizations that wish to achieve a high degree of organizational change will employ a full range of interventions, including those designed to transform individual and group behavior and attitudes. Entities attempting smaller changes will stop short of those goals, applying interventions targeted primarily toward operating policies, management structures, worker skills, and personnel policies. Typically, organization development programs will simultaneously integrate more than one of these interventions.


A few of the more popular interventions are briefly described below.


INTERPERSONAL INTERVENTIONS. Interpersonal interventions in an OD program are designed to enhance individual skills, knowledge, and effectiveness. This type of program utilizes group dynamics by gathering individuals together in loosely structured meetings. Subject matter is determined by the group, within the context of basic goals stipulated by a facilitator. As group members try to exert structure on fellow members, group members gain a greater awareness of their own and other's feelings, motivations, and behaviors. Other types of interpersonal interventions include those designed to improve the performance review process, create better training programs, help workers identify their true wants and set complementary career goals, and resolve conflict.


GROUP INTERVENTIONS. OD group interventions are designed to help teams and groups within organizations become more effective. Such interventions usually assume that the most effective groups communicate well, facilitate a healthy balance between both personal and group needs, and function by consensus as opposed to autocracy or majority rule.

Group diagnostic interventions are simply meetings wherein members of a team analyze their unit's performance, ask questions about what the team needs to do to improve, and discuss potential solutions to problems. The benefit of such interventions is that members often communicate problems of which their co-workers were unaware. Ideally, such communication will spur problem-solving and improved group dynamics.

Role analysis technique (RAT) is used to help employees get a better grasp on their role in an organization. In the first step of a RAT intervention, people define their perception of their role and contribution to the overall company effort in front of a group of coworkers. Group members then provide feedback to more clearly define the role. In the second phase, the individual and the group examine ways in which the employee relies on others in the company, and how they define his or her expectations. RAT interventions help people to reduce role confusion, which can result in either conflict or the perception that some people are not doing their job. A popular intervention similar to RAT is responsibility charting, which utilizes a matrix system to assign decision and task responsibilities.


INTERGROUP INTERVENTIONS. Intergroup interventions are integrated into OD programs to facilitate cooperation and efficiency between different groups within an organization. For instance, departmental interaction often deteriorates in larger organizations as different units battle for limited resources or become detached from the needs of other units.

Conflict resolution meetings are one common intergroup intervention. First, different group leaders are brought together to secure their commitment to the intervention. Next, the teams meet separately to make a list of their feelings about the other group(s). Then the groups meet and share their lists. Finally, the teams meet to discuss the problems and to try to develop solutions that will help both parties. This type of intervention, say supporters, helps to gradually diffuse tension between groups that has arisen because of faulty communication.

Rotating membership interventions are used by OD change agents to minimize the negative effects of intergroup rivalry that arise from employee allegiances to groups or divisions. The intervention basically entails temporarily putting group members into their rival groups. As more people interact in the different groups, greater understanding results.

OD joint activity interventions serve the same basic function as the rotating membership approach, but these involve melding members of different groups to work together toward a common goal. Similarly, common enemy interventions achieve the same results by finding an adversary common to two or more groups and then getting members of the groups to work together to overcome the threat. Examples of common enemies targeted in such programs include competitors, government regulation, and economic conditions.


COMPREHENSIVE INTERVENTIONS. OD comprehensive interventions are used to directly create change throughout an entire organization, rather than focusing on organizational change through subgroup interventions. One of the most popular comprehensive interventions is survey feedback. This technique basically entails surveying employee attitudes at all levels of the company and then disseminating a report that details those findings. The employees then use the data in feedback sessions to create solutions to perceived problems. A number of questionnaires developed specifically for such interventions have been developed.

Structural change interventions are used by OD change agents to implement organizational alterations related to departmentalization, management hierarchy, work policies, compensation and benefit incentives programs, and other cornerstones of the business. Often, the implemented changes emanate from feedback from other interventions. One benefit of change interventions is that companies can often realize an immediate and very significant impact in productivity and profitability (provided the changes are warranted and implemented appropriately).

Sociotechnical system design interventions are similar to structural change techniques, but they typically emphasize the reorganization of work teams. The basic goal is to create independent groups throughout the company that supervise themselves. This administration may include such aspects as monitoring quality or disciplining team members. The theoretic benefit of sociotechnical system design interventions is that worker and group productivity and quality is increased because workers have more control over (and subsequent satisfaction from) the process in which they participate.

A fourth OD intervention that became extremely popular during the 1980s and early 1990s is total quality management (TQM). TQM interventions utilize established quality techniques and programs that emphasize quality processes, rather than achieving quality by inspecting products and services after processes have been completed. The important concept of continuous improvement embodied by TQM has carried over into other OD interventions.

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Approach and Domains Criteria

1. Output Goals

Goal attainment: Achievement of main objectives IN STRATEGIC PLANNING


Outputs‑quantity: Productivity (number or value of sales, services­

sometimes per unit or cost of labor); profits, revenues


Outputs‑quality: Reliability (e.g., rejects, returns); reputation (customer

satisfaction, expert ratings); institutional standards

(e.g., approval by quality assurance body)


2. Internal System State

Efficiency and costs : Efficiency measures (e.g., output value + cost with

constant quality); wastage; costs per unit of output


Human outcomes: Quality of work life (satisfaction with pay, working

conditions); work effort and commitment (low

absenteeism, turnover); employee health and safety;

motivation; organizational image; citizenship behavior


Consensus/conflict:Goal and procedural consensus; cohesion (mutual

attraction and identification with work group and

organization); cooperation within and between units;

conflict behavior (work stoppages, protests, flights)


Work and information flows:Work coordination (smooth flow of products,

Information between units; few delays and snags);

adequacy and quality of information, multidirectional flows


Interpersonal relations: Trust; moderation of status differences (reduced

prominence of status symbols and executive perks);

openness, honesty of interpersonal communication,

acceptance of diverse backgrounds and orientations


Employee involvement: Empowerment; participation in decision making


Fits : Alignment of internal system, components, subcomponents, and



3. System Resources and Adaptation

Resources‑quantity: Size (employees, physical, financial, capital assets);

resource flows (sales, budget allocations)


Resources‑quality: Human capital (training, experience of work force);

staff reputation; knowledge base; desirability of clients

(e.g., college selectivity)


Adaptation: Ability to cope with external change and uncertainty;

crisis management capabilities


Proactiveness: Impact on environment‑clients (e.g., demand), competitors, suppliers, regulators; entrepreneurialism

Innovativeness: Technological and administrative innovation; implementation of new techniques and ideas

Legitimacy : Support by community and by public agencies or regulators; complianre with legal, professional, regulatory standards

Competitive position : standing compared to competitors (e.g., market share); reputation for leadership in industry or sector

Fit : Alignment of internal system with environment


4. Multiple Stakeholder Assessments

Standards : Effectiveness domains and criteria selected and defined by stakeholders

Satisfaction : Satisfaction with organization on standards specified by stakeholders; stakeholders' overall level of satisfaction with organization.





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Evaluate organizational performance

Assess organizational culture

Conduct employee 360 evaluations

Assess leadership strengths and weaknesses

Assess employee satisfaction levels

Evaluate organizational effectiveness

Analyze and evaluate companies



















The choice of the method lies on a number of factors like

-objectives of the exercise

-choice of interventions

-length of the program

-frequency of evaluations

-resource available

-time constraint

etc etc

============================================= .


The following ten FACTORS ARE USEFUL.

1.Be clear about what you are trying to accomplish.

2.Evaluators need good diagnostic skills to work on this task prior to any discussion of assessment. Good evaluation will also look for goals from various stakeholders as well as unintended consequences, but formal goals are a necessity, especially when the program is externally supported. The process is likely to be a cyclical one since goals are refined through evaluation of progress.

3.Link theory of the intervention to outcomes. Evaluators need to help define theories of change that underlie their operations - that is, the relationships among their assumptions, resources, program activities and expected results. The evaluators can help the program staff determine how important these alliances are in producing the desired program outcomes, as well as monitor the resources and activities devoted to them. Explicating these theories of change, or logic models as they are sometimes called, is often a very useful formative evaluation task in itself since it helps identify gaps among resources, activities and outcomes. This is a first step toward building a shared understanding in the organization and provides a framework for dialogue about evaluation findings and continuous improvement of the project. This is a compelling need in nearly every organizational setting, and a skill that evaluation and OD professionals should share.

4.Setting the stage properly.

It is important to clarify why the evaluation is being done at a particular point of time and how that information will be used. These issues need to be dealt with early on and revisited continually throughout an evaluation. The evaluator needs good brokering skills to work interested parties to regularly clarify expectations about the purposes of evaluation.

5.Pay attention to stakeholders. It is important that key stakeholders are involved in the process - to determine the important questions that need to be addressed and how success will be measured. Evaluators can start by asking stakeholders what challenges or dilemmas they are facing in their work. In this way, evaluation has a higher likelihood that the stakeholders will cooperate with the evaluation and that the results will be used.

6.Integrate evaluation into the program. The stakeholders need to build in at the outset the expectation that evaluation should be done and also the resources to do it well. Too often, the thought for evaluation comes once a program is finished with the result that useful baseline data and resources are missing to make evaluation meaningful and reliable.

7.Integrate evaluation into daily work. Evaluation activities can be integrated into routine work such as assessing needs at staff level, although the information processing demands on employees represent a significant challenge to keep in mind. The point here is to take advantage of relevant and accessible data rather than requiring additional work for information gathering. Evaluators who are sensitive to workload and workplace dynamics can be helpful in this process.

8.Identify just a few things to evaluate. Pick the fewest indicators that provide the most information about program assumptions, resources, activities and outcomes. Evaluators who are knowledgeable about information overload in organizations will obviously be helpful in this process, as will well developed theories of change to identify key information needs.

9.Coordinate evaluation reports with internal decision-making. Findings need to be presented on a timely basis to inform learning and action and throughout a program's life - not just at the end. Evaluators need skills in understanding organizational power, budgeting, decision-making and culture that will attune them to how and when findings can be useful.

10.Use evaluation as a process not simply as a report. Stakeholders and staff get more out of the evaluation process than its final report. Regular feedback and opportunities for varied interpretations of findings strengthen a program as well as any evaluation of it. Methods other than written reports, such as video, photos, and human-interest stories, can serve as effective communications tools within the program as well as with stakeholders.

Do evaluation only when an organization is ready. Clear goals and theories of change are important for effective evaluation, but other conditions are also essential. As documented from the field of OD, evaluation is truly useful when there is a commitment to and resources for candid feedback.


we have pushed on the field of OD program evaluation to embrace the OD practitioner's skills as a means of creating more dynamic, learning organizations in the nonprofit sector. This shift in emphasis, while still requiring technical and methodological expertise, would be used to accomplish several critical goals including:

Surfacing multiple points of view

Helping to make hidden agendas visible

Contributing to building a sense of community and connection

Facilitating individual, team and organizational reflection and learning

Creating the capacity for adaptation and change

The skills that are needed to accomplish these goals, such as group process, negotiation, team building, and interpersonal communications, are common to the OD field but new to the evaluation field.




Draws from multiple disciplines that inform an understanding of human systems, including applied behavioral and physical sciences


Approaches stakeholders and organizations as open systems; that is, acts with the knowledge that change in one area of a system always results in changes in other areas; and change in one area cannot be sustained without supporting changes in other areas of the system.

ACTION Research

Continuously reexamines, reflects and integrates discoveries throughout the process of change in order to achieve desired outcomes. In this way, the staff members are involved both in doing their work, and in dialogue about their reflection and learning in order to apply them to achieve shared results.


Intervenes in organizational processes to help bring about positive change and help the STAFF work toward desired outcomes


Involves proactive inquiry and assessment of the internal environment in order to discover and create a compelling need for change and the achievement of a desired future state of the organization . Some methods include survey feedback, assessment tools, interviewing, focus groups, story telling, process consultation and observation.

STAFF Centered

Focuses on the needs of the STAFF in order to continually promote STAFF ownership of all phases of the work and support the STAFF’s ability to sustain change after the consultant engagement ends.



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lingam sir, thanks alot... ur reply has been really helpful... & thanks esp for the 'long way' as it is what i think helped most...as it is with the basics!!
hello, any related study on the topic "job satisfaction i relation to performance". Likewise, what are the most applicable theories to this study
Leo, Do Indian OD practitioners follows any measurement tools for pre or post intervention implementation..?
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