Krupapavani
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Hi, I am doing Emba from NIBM Chennai do you have assignments for 1st Semister.Please Help I have to furnish before 31st of this month.
From China
What is crime against humanity and law? Is it dealt under the international Criminal Court? How is UN Security Council responsible?

Crimes Against Humanity

In our society, there exist many crimes against humanity. A crime against humanity is a term in international law that refers to acts of a persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. The Rome Statue Explanatory Memorandum states that crimes against humanity “are particularly odious offences in that they constitute a serious attack on human dignity or grave humiliation or a degradation of one or mote human beings. They are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy (although the perpetrators need not identify themselves with this policy) or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government or a de facto authority. However, murder extermination, torture, rape, political, racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice. Isolated inhumane acts of this nature may constitute grave infringements of human rights, or depending on the circumstances, war crimes, but may fall short of meriting the stigma attaching to the category of crimes under discussion.”

The war crimes are also crimes against humanity. It takes the life of many a people. Under the Nuremberg Principles, the supreme international crime is that of commencing a war of aggression because it is the crime from which all war crimes follow. The definition of such a

crime is planning, preparing, initiating, or waging a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements, or assurances.

International Criminal Court

The crimes against humanity dealt under the International Criminal Court. In 2002, the International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in The Hague (Netherlands) and the Rome Statue provides for the ICC to have jurisdiction over genocide, crime against humanity and war crimes. Article 7 of the treaty stated

that: For the purpose of this Statute, “crime against humanity” means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:

• Murder

• Extermination

• Enslavement

• Deportation or forcible transfer of population;

• Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;

• Torture;

• Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;

• Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;

• Enforced disappearance of persons;

• The crime of apartheid

• Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.

Crimes against humanity are particularly odious offences in that they constitute a serious attack on human dignity or grave humiliation or a degradation of one or more human beings. They are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy (although the perpetrators need not identify themselves with this policy) or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government or a de facto authority. However, murder, extermination, torture, rape, political, racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice. Isolated inhumane acts of this nature may

constitute grave infringement of human rights, or depending on the circumstances, war crimes but may fall short of meriting the stigma attaching to the category of crimes under discussion. On the other hand, and individual may be guilty of crime against humanity even if he perpetrates one or two of the offences mentioned above, or engages in one such offence against only a few civilians, provided those offences are part of a consistent pattern of a misbehavior by a number of persons linked to that offender (for example, because they engage in armed action on the same side of because they are parties to a common plan or for any similar reason.) Consequently when one or more individuals are not accused of planning or carrying out a policy of inhumanity, but simply of perpetrating specific atrocities or vicious acts, in order to determine whether the necessary threshold is met one should use the following test: one ought to look at these

atrocities or acts in their context and verify whether they may be regarded as part of an overall policy or a consistent pattern of a inhumanity , or whether they instead constitute isolated or sporadic acts of cruelty and wickedness.

Responsibility of UN Security Council

UN Security Council Resolution 1674, adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 28 April 2006, “ reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity”. The resolution commits the Council to action to protect civilians in armed conflict.

A recognizable body of international criminal law does exist. However, the precise parameters of this body of law are often unclear, perhaps due to rapid and complex developments of our global society. International Criminal Law can be categorized according to whether the conduct in question is international, constituting an offense against the world community, or whether the act transnational, affecting the interests of more than one state. International criminal law is an autonomous branch of law which deals with international crimes and the courts and tribunals set up to adjudicate cases in which persons have incurred international criminal responsibility.

Which are the precautions you will take to avoid failures in strategies if you are the general manager of a production unit?

If am the General Manager of a production unit, I will take many types of precautions to avoid failures in strategies. In today's highly competitive business environment, budget-oriented planning or forecast-based planning methods are insufficient for a large corporation to survive and prosper. The firm must engage in strategic planning that clearly defines objectives and assesses both the internal and external situation to formulate strategy, implement the strategy, evaluate the progress, and make adjustments as necessary to stay on track. A simplified view of the strategic planning process is shown by the following

The Strategic Planning Process

Mission & Objectives

Environmental Scanning

Strategy Formulation

Strategy Implementation

Evaluation & Control

Mission and Objectives

The mission statement describes the company's business vision, including the unchanging values and purpose of the firm and forward-looking visionary goals that guide the pursuit of future opportunities.

Guided by the business vision, the firm's leaders can define measurable financial and strategic objectives. Financial objectives involve measures such as sales targets and earnings growth. Strategic objectives are related to the firm's business position, and may include measures such as market share and reputation.

Environmental Scan The environmental scan includes the following components:

Internal analysis of the firm

Analysis of the firm's industry (task environment)

External microenvironment (PEST analysis)

The internal analysis can identify the firm's strengths and weaknesses and the external analysis reveals opportunities and threats. A profile of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats is generated by means of a SWOT analysis

An industry analysis can be performed using a framework developed by Michael Porter known as Porter's five forces. This framework evaluates entry barriers, suppliers, customers, substitute products, and industry rivalry.

Strategy Formulation

Given the information from the environmental scan, the firm should match its strengths to the opportunities that it has identified, while addressing its weaknesses and external threats. To attain superior profitability, the firm seeks to develop a competitive advantage over its rivals. A competitive advantage can be based on cost or differentiation. Michael Porter identified three industry-independent generic strategies from which the firm can choose.

Strategy Implementation

The selected strategy is implemented by means of programs, budgets, and procedures. Implementation involves organization of the firm's resources and motivation of the staff to achieve objectives. The way in which the strategy is implemented can have a significant impact on whether it will be successful. In a large company, those who implement the strategy likely will be different people from those who formulated it. For this reason, care must be taken to communicate the strategy and the reasoning behind it. Otherwise, the implementation might not succeed if the strategy is misunderstood or if lower-level managers resist its implementation because they do not understand why the particular strategy was selected.

Evaluation & Control

The implementation of the strategy must be monitored and adjustments made as needed.

Evaluation and control consists of the following steps:

1. Define parameters to be measured

2. Define target values for those parameters

3. Perform measurements

Strategy can be formulated on three different levels:

• Corporate level

• Business unit level

• Functional or Departmental level.

While strategy may be about competing and surviving as a firm, one can argue that products, not corporations compete, and products are developed by business units. The role of the corporation then is to manage its business units and products so that each is competitive and so that each contributes to corporate purposes.

Consider Textron, Inc., a successful conglomerate corporation that pursues profits through a range of businesses in unrelated industries. Textron has four core business segments:

Aircraft - 32% of revenues

Automotive - 25% of revenues

Industrial - 39% of revenues

Finance - 4% of revenues

While the corporation must manage its portfolio of business to grow and survive, the success of a diversified firm depends upon its ability to manage each of its product lines. While there is no single competitor to Textron, we can talk about the competitors and strategy of each of its business units. In the finance business segment, for example, the chief rivals are major banks providing commercial financing. Many managers consider the business level to be the proper focus for strategic planning.

Corporate Level Strategy

Corporate level strategy fundamentally is concerned with the selection of businesses in which the company should compete and with the development and coordination of that portfolio of businesses.

Corporate level strategy is concerned with:

A. Reach

Defining the issues that are corporate responsibilities; these might include identifying the overall goals of the corporation, the types of businesses in which the corporation should be involved, and the way in which businesses will be integrated and managed.

B. Competitive Contact

Defining where in the corporation competition is to be localized. Take the case of insurance: In the mid-1990, Aetna as a corporation was clearly identified with its commercial and property casualty insurance products. The conglomerate Textron was not. For Textron, competition in the insurance markets took place specifically at the business unit level, through its subsidiary, Paul Revere. (Textron divested itself of The Paul Revere Corporation in 1997.)

C. Managing Activities and Business Interrelationships

Corporate strategy seeks to develop synergies by sharing and coordinating staff and other resources across business units, investing financial resources across business units, and using business units to complement other corporate business activities. Igor Ansoff introduced the concept of synergy to corporate strategy.

D. Management Practices

Corporations decide how business units are to be governed: through direct corporate intervention (centralization) or through more or less autonomous government (decentralization) that relies on persuasion and rewards.

Corporations are responsible for creating value through their business. They do so by managing their portfolio of businesses, ensuring that the businesses are successful over the long-term, developing business units, and sometimes ensuring that each business is compatible with others in the portfolio.

Business Unit Level Strategy

A strategic business unit may be a division, product line, or other profit center that can be planned independently from the other business units of the firm.

At the business unit level, the strategic issues are less about the coordination of operating units and more about developing and sustaining a competitive advantage for the goods and services that are produced. At the business level, the strategy formulation phase deals with: positioning the business against rivals anticipating changes in demand and technologies and adjusting the strategy to accommodate them influencing the nature of competition through strategic actions such as vertical integration and through political actions such as lobbying.

Michael Porter identified three generic strategies (cost leadership, differentiation, and focus) that can be implemented at the business unit level to create a competitive advantage and defend against the adverse effects of the five forces.

Functional Level Strategy

The functional level of the organization is the level of the operating divisions and departments. The strategic issues at the functional level are related to business processes and the value chain. Functional level strategies in marketing, finance, operations, human resources, and R&D involve the development and coordination of resources through which business unit level strategies can be executed efficiently and effectively. Functional units of an organization are involved in higher level strategies by providing input into the business unit level and corporate level strategy, such as providing information on resources and capabilities on which the higher level strategies can be based. Once the higher-level strategy is developed, the functional units translate it into discrete action-plans that each department or division must accomplish for the strategy to succeed.

These all precautions will help to avoid failures in strategies put forward by me in the company and will lead to the success of the company.

Suppose you are the Chief Manager in a distribution firm, how will you implement MIS in the organization?

If I will the Chief Manager in a distribution firm, I will implement MIS in the organization through many ways.

Implementation of MIS

The choice of the system or the sub-system depends on its position in the total MIS plan, the size of the system, the user understands of the system and the complexity and its interface with other systems. The designer first develops systems independently and starts integrating them with other systems, enlarging the system scope and meeting the varying information needs.

Determining the position of the system in the MIS is easy. The real problem in the degree of structure, and formalization in the system and procedures which determine the timing and duration of development of the system. Higher the degree of structured ness and formalization, greater is the stabilization of the rules, the procedures, decision making and the understanding of the overall business activity. Here, it is observed that the user’s and the designer interaction are smooth, and each other’s need are clearly understood and respected mutually. The development becomes a methodical approach with certainty in input-process and outputs.

MIS is generally used by medium and larger scale organizations. However, small organizations are yet to understand its application. There is dire need to build up computer culture by properly disseminating information about computer applications and its benefits.

Implementation of MIS can be achieved by using any of the methods such as direct, parallel, modular or phase in.

• Direct Approach

Direct installation of the new system with immediate discontinuance of the old existing system is reffered as “cold turnkey” approach. This approach becomes useful when these factors are considered.

1. The new system does no replace the existing system.

2. Old system is regarded absolutely of no value

3. New system is compact and simple.

4. The design of the new system is inexpensive with more advantages and less risk involved.

• Parallel Approach

The selected new system is installed and operated with current system. This method is expensive because of duplicating facilities and personal to maintain both the systems. In this approach a target date must be fixed when the operations of old system cease and new one will operate on its own.

• Modular Approach

This is generally recognized as “Pilot approach”, means the implementation of a system in the Organization on a piece-meal basis.

This has few advantages / merits

1. The risk of systems failure is localized

2. The major problem can be easily identified and corrected before further implementation.

3. Operating personal can be trained before system is installed in a location.

• Phase-in-Implementation

This approach is similar to modular method but it differs because of segmentation of system, however, not the organization. It has advantages that the rate of changes in a given Organization can be totally minimized and the data processing resource can be acquired gradually over a period of time. System exhibits certain disadvantages such as limited applicability, more costs incurred to develop interface with old system and a feeling in the Organization that system is never completed.

Implementation Procedures

• Planning the Implementation

After designing the MIS it is essential that the organization should plan carefully for implementation. The planning stage should invariably include the following:

1. Identification of tasks of Implementation

Planning the implementation activities, acquisition of facilities, procedures development, generating files and forms, testing the system and evaluating and maintenance of the system.

2. Relationship establishment among the activity

Network diagram must be prepared to correlate concurrent and sequential activities.

3. Establishing of MIS

For monitoring the progress of implementation and for proper control of activities, efficient information system should be developed.

4. Acquisition of Facilities

For installation of new system or to replace current system the manager should prepare a proposal for approval from the management by considering space requirement movement of personal and location for utility outlets and controls.

5. Procedure Development

This is an important stop for implementation of the system including various activities such as evaluation selection of hardware, purchase or development of software, testing and implementation strategies.

6. Generating Files and Forms

The MIS manager should generate files and formats for storing actual date. This requires checklist data, format date storage forms and other remarks in data base.

7. Testing of the System

Test should be performed in accordance with the specifications at the implementation stage consisting of component test sub system test and total system test.

• Evaluation and maintenance of system

The performance should e evaluated in order to find out cost effectiveness and efficacy of the system with minimum errors due to designs environmental changes or services.

Software Maintenances

The proper maintenance is the enigma of the system development and it holds software industry captive lying up programming resources. There are some problems in maintenance such as regarding it as non rewarding non availability of technicians and tools no cognizance of users about maintenance problem and cost lack of standard procedures and guidelines. Most programmers feel maintenance as low level drudgery. If proper attentions is paid over a period of time eventually less maintenance is required.

Types of Maintenance

The maintenance of system are classified into corrective/adaptive/perfective. Corrective maintenance means repairing process or performance failures. Adaptive maintenance means changing the programming function whereas perfective maintenance deals with enhancing the performance or modifying the program.

Primary Activities of a Maintenance Procedure

Documentation is major part of maintenance in system development. Maintenance staff receives requests from the authorized user. Programming library should be maintained.

Reduction in Maintenance Costs

Several organizations having MIS generally go in for reducing maintenance costs and it consists of three major phases.

1. Maintenance management audit through questionnaires and interviews.

2. Software system audit.

3. Software modification.

Evaluation Methods

Evaluation of the MIS in an organization is integral part of the control processes. There are several evaluation approaches such as quality assurance review compliance of audits budget performance review computer personal productivity assessment computer performance evaluation service level monitoring user audit survey post installation review and cost benefit analysis.

Evaluation performance measurement can be classified into two classes as effectiveness and efficiency. The relationship between effectiveness and efficiency is that the format is a measure of goodness of out put and the latter is a measure of the resources required to achieve the output.

From India, Mumbai
Dear smith
u can find the answer from the following link
spknowledgehub: MIS

From India, Delhi
hi dear all, I am doing EMBA 1st Sem. If you have assignments of SEm -I,Pls help. Yours worth
From India, Hubli
I am doing Emba from NIBM Chennai do you have assignments for 1st Semister.Please Help I have to furnish
From India, Hubli
Principles & Practices of Management
How will influence people to strive willingly for group objectives in your organization (target based industry)? Apply your interpersonal influence through communication process towards attaining your specialized goals?

Human Resource Management
The Present State of recession in IT Industry - as Human Resource manager how are you going to undertake Human Resource Planning at Macro Level to tide over this crisis?

Financial Management
What will your outlook towards maintenance of liquid assets to ensure that the firm has adequate cash in hand to meet its obligations at all times?

Marketing Management :
If you are working in a super market, what techniques/tools you will use in data collection. How are you going to analysis the data and make inferences? How will you finally apply your market research to improve sales and win over customers?

Organizational Behaviour
If you are made the campaign leader for a particular political party. How will you use your leadership skills to motivate your party men to ensure success of the party nominee in the elections? (Focus on the individual, motivate and apply leadership style).

Principles of Economics
Suppose the price of elasticity of demand for text books is two and the price of the text book is increased by 10%. By how much does the quantity demand fall?
Inter the result and discuss reasons for the fall in quantity demand?

From India, Hubli
hi friends

plz send me assignment fully solved for ist semester nibm emba

Principles & Practices of Management

How will influence people to strive willingly for group objectives in your organization (target based industry)? Apply your interpersonal influence through communication process towards attaining your specialized goals?

Human Resource Management

The Present State of recession in IT Industry - as Human Resource manager how are you going to undertake Human Resource Planning at Macro Level to tide over this crisis?

Financial Management

What will your outlook towards maintenance of liquid assets to ensure that the firm has adequate cash in hand to meet its obligations at all times?

Marketing Management :

If you are working in a super market, what techniques/tools you will use in data collection. How are you going to analysis the data and make inferences? How will you finally apply your market research to improve sales and win over customers?

Organizational Behaviour

If you are made the campaign leader for a particular political party. How will you use your leadership skills to motivate your party men to ensure success of the party nominee in the elections? (Focus on the individual, motivate and apply leadership style).

Principles of Economics

Suppose the price of elasticity of demand for text books is two and the price of the text book is increased by 10%. By how much does the quantity demand fall?

Inter the result and discuss reasons for the fall in quantity demand?

From India, Bangalore
What should be the components of a fair policy with regard to collecting, maintaining, and disseminating information about employees?( this is my question plz send me the solution as soon as possible)
From Pakistan, Islamabad
Hi any one please forward me the EMBA Chennai 1st year assignements and Model Q n A . The last date to submit April end 2010.. will be very greatfull to the sender. Thanks in advance..
From India, Bangalore
Dear friends, anybody can send me the below questions answer...... What is Fund Statement Explain its purposes sources of fund application of fund etc? Thanks
From United Arab Emirates, Dubai

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