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As capability maturity model, the P-CMM guides organizations in establishing and improving their workforce practices through five evolutionary stages. Achieving each maturity level in the P-CMM institutionalizes new capabilities for developing the knowledge and skills of the workforce, resulting in an overall increase in the talent of the organization. Growth through the maturity levels creates fundamental changes in how people are developed and organized and in their working culture.
The Five Maturity Levels of the P-CMM
1. Imports of practices and echoism
2. Instill basic discipline into workforce activities
3. Identify primary competencies & align workforce activities with them
4. Quantitatively manage organizational growth in work force Capabilities & establish competency-based teams.
5. Continuously improve methods for developing personal and Organisational competence.
LEVEL1- THE INITIAL LEVEL
At the initial level, the performance of workforce activities is inconsistent. The organization typically provided forms for activities such as performance appraisals or position requisitions, but offers little guidance or training in conducting the activities supported by these forms. In the worst circumstances, managers in Level 1 organisations do not accept developing the members of their units as a primary personal responsibility. They perform workforce activities such as interviewing job candidates or conducting performance appraisals with little preparation, often resulting in poor staffing decisions or disgruntled employees. The human resources department too often imports practices and applies them with little analysis of their effectiveness. Individuals in most Level 1 organisations do not take workforce practices seriously, since they do not believe the practices have much relation to their real work and level of contribution to the organization.
LEVEL 2- THE REPEATABLE LEVEL
The primary objectives at the Repeatable level are to eliminate problems that keep people from being able to perform their work responsibilities effectively and to establish a foundation of workforce practices that can be continuously improved in developing the workforce. The most frequent problems that can keep people from being able to perform effectively in low-maturity organizations include:
Unclear performance objectives
Lack of relevant knowledge or skill
LEVEL 3- THE DEFINED LEVEL
Organisations at the repeatable level find that although performing basic workforce practices there is inconsistency in how these practices are performed across units. The organization is not capitalizing on opportunities to standardize its best workforce practices, because it has not identified the common knowledge and skills needed across its units and the best practices for developing them. The organization is motivated to achieve the Defined level in order to gain a strategic competitive advantage from its core competencies.
At the Defined level, the organisation begins to adapt its workforce practices to the specific nature of its business. By analyzing the skills required by its workforce and the business functions they perform, the organisation identifies the core competencies and then adapts its workforce practices to develop the specific knowledge and skills that compose these core competencies on the basis of identified best practices.
LEVEL 4- THE MANAGED LEVEL
Organisations at the Defined level have established the foundation for continuously improving their workforce. At the Managed level, the Organisation takes the first steps in capitalizing on managing its core competencies as a strategic advantage. It sets quantitative objectives for growth in core competencies and for the alignment of performance across the individual, team, unit, and organizational levels. These measures establish the quantitative foundation for evaluating trends in the capability of the organisation's workforce. Further, it seeks to maximize the effectiveness of applying these competencies by developing teams that integrate complementary knowledge and skills.
At the managed level, high-performance teams composed of people with complementary knowledge and skills are developed where conditions support their functioning. Team-building activities are performed to improve the effectiveness of these teams.
LEVEL 5- THE OPTIMISING LEVEL
At the Optimising level, there is a continuous focus on improving individual competencies and finding innovative ways to improve workforce motivation and capability. The organisation supports individuals' efforts toward continuous development of personal competencies. Coaches are provided to support further development of personal or team competencies.
Data on the effectiveness of workforce practices are used to identify needs for innovative workforce practices or technologies. Innovative practices and technologies are evaluated and the most promising are used in explanatory trials. Successful innovations are then transferred into use throughout the organisation.
KPA AT THE REPEATABLE LEVEL
These focus on establishing basic workforce practices and eliminating problems that hinder work performance.
Work Environment is designed to establish and maintain working conditions that allow individuals to concentrate on their tasks without unnecessary or inappropriate distractions.
Communication is designed to establish a social environment that supports effective interaction and to ensure that the workforce has the skills to share information and coordinate their activities effectively.
Staffing is designed to establish and use a formal process by which talent is recruited, selected, and transitioned into assignments.
Performance Management is designed to establish objective criteria against which unit & individual performance can be measured, to provide performance feedback, and to enhance performance continuously.
Training is designed to ensure that all individuals have the skills required to perform their assignments.
Compensation is designed to provide all individuals with remuneration and benefits based on their contribution and value to the organisation.
KPA AT THE DEFINED LEVEL
The KPAs at the Defined Level address organisational issues, as the organisation tailors its defined workforce practices to the core competencies required by its business environment.
Knowledge & Skills Analysis is designed to identify to knowledge and skills required to perform core business processes so that may be developed and used as a basis for workforce practices.
Workforce planning is designed to coordinate workforce activities with current and future business needs at both the organisational and unit levels.
Competency Development is designed to constantly enhance the capability of the workforce to perform their tasks and responsibilities.
Career Development is designed to ensure that all individuals are motivated and are provided opportunities to develop new skills that enhance their ability to achieve career objectives.
Competency-based Practices are designed to ensure that all workforce practices are based in part on developing the skills and knowledge of the workforce.
Participatory Culture is designed to ensure a flow of information within the organisation.
KPA AT THE MANAGED LEVEL
The KPAs at the managed level focus on building competency-based teams and establishing a quantitative understanding of trends in the development of knowledge and skills and in the alignment of performance across different levels of the organisation.
Mentoring is designed to use the experience of the organisation's workforce to provide personal support and guidance to other individuals or groups.
Team building is designed to capitalize on opportunities to create teams that maximize the integration of diverse knowledge and skills to perform business functions.
Team-based Practices are designed to tailor the organisation's workforce practices to support the development, motivation, and functioning of teams.
Organisational Competency Management is designed to increase the capability of the organisation in its core competencies and to determine the effectiveness of its activities in achieving specific competency growth goals.
Organisational Performance Alignment is designed to enhance alighment of performance results at the individual, team, unit and organisational levels with the appropriate goals and to quantitative assess the effectiveness on achieving alignment.
KPA AT THE OPTIMISING LEVEL
The KPAs at the Optimising Level cover the issues that both the organisation and individuals must address in implementing continuous improvements in their capability.
Personal Competency Development to provide a foundation for professional self-development.
Coaching to provide expert assistance to enhance the performance of individuals/teams.
Continuous Workforce Innovation to identify and evaluate improved workforce practices and technologies, and implement the most promising ones throughout the organisation.
THEMES IN THE PEOPLE-CMM
By definition, key process areas are exposed at an expressed at a single maturity level. There are, however, relationships between the key process areas that stretch across maturity levels. These relationships establish four themes that run through the P-CMM:
Building Teams and Culture
Motivating and Managing Performance
Shaping the workforce
The KPAs are mapped to the four themes in the following figure
MATURITY LEVELS DEVELOPING CAPABILITES BUILDING TEAMS & CULTURE MOTIVATING & MANAGING PERFORMANCE SHAPING THE WORKFORCE
5 Optimising Coaching Personal Competency Development
4 Managed Mentoring Team Building Organisational Performance Alignment
Team-Based Practices Organisations Competency Management
3 Defined Competency Development Knowledge & Skills Analysis Participatory Culture Competency-Based PracticesCareer Development Workforce Planning
2 Repeatable Training Communication Communication CompensationPerformance ManagementWork Environment Staffing
The effort to develop the capabilities of the people in the organisation begins at the Repeatable level with identifying the immediate training needs of people in each unit (Training). Oral and written communication capabilities are improved through training (Communication). At the Defined level, the organisation takes a more systematic look at the knowledge and skills required to perform the organisation's business process (Knowledge & Skills Analysis) and identifies core competencies. The organisation also establishes an organisation-wide development programme for these competencies (Competency Development) at the Managed level mentors are provided to guide individuals or teams in their development (Mentoring). Finally at the Optimising level, people can initiate an individual programme to develop their competencies (personal Competency Development), and coaches will be provided for those who want assitance (Coaching). The maturity trend in developing the workforce starts with indentifying current training needs within a unit, graduates to the identification core competencies that are developed by the organisation, and then returns to individuals being able to establish their own group program of professional development.
The effort to improve the ways in which people are organised and interact in the organisation begins at the Repeatable level with a focus on improving both the formal and interpersonal communications within the organisation (Communication). At the Defined level the organisation develops a participatory culture by increasing the involvement of the workforce in decisions that affect their workforce (Participatory Culture). At the Managed level the organisation begins building high-performance, competency-based teams and provides them with an appropriate level of autonomy (Team Building). At the Optimising level the organisation continuously searches for innovative ways to improve the culture or the functioning of the teams (Continuous Workforce Innovation). The maturity trend in building teams and culture begins with establishing basic communication skills, grows to developing a participatory culture, and continues on into formal team building and continuos improvement of team capabilities.
The focus on motivating and performance begins at the Repeatable level with establishing an environment that has adequate resources and does not impede or distract from job performance (Work Environment). Discussions about how to improve performance are held periodically, unacceptable performance is managed, and recognition is provided for outstanding performance (Performance Management). The basic compensation and benefits system is defined at this level, and its administration is partly tied to performance (Compensation). At the Defined level the workforce practices established at the Repeatable level are adopted to motivate the development of core competencies (Competency-Based Practices). The organisation also establishes a set of graduated career opportunities designed to motivate and reward people for developing additional skill (Career Development). At the Managed level the workforce practices are again adapted, this time for use with competency-based systems (Tam-Based Practices). The organisation also sets and tracks targets for the alignment of performance of the individual, team, unit and organisational levels (Organisational Performance Alignment). At the Optimising level the organisation searches for innovate workforce practices and technologies that can further motivate or enhance competency development or work performance (Continuous Workforce Innovation). The maturity trend in motivating and managing performance begins with establishing basic performance management and compensation practices through adapting them to competency development and team building, and then looks for constant sources of innovation.
The effort to shape the workforce to meet business needs begins at the Repeatable level by establishing basic practices for recruiting, selecting among job candidates, orienting people into new assignments (Staffing). At the Defined level the organisation begins developing strategic and near-term plans for ensuring that it has the core competencies that it needs to meet current and future business demands (Workforce Planning). At the Managed level the organisation sets and tracks targets for the development of knowledge and skill in each of its core competencies (Organisational Competency Management). At the Optimising level the organisation searches for innovative practices or technologies to shape its workforce (Continuous Workforce Innovation). The maturity trend in shaping the workforce begins with establishing basic staffing practices, grows to developing plans for workforce development, sets and tracks objectives for competencies in the workforce development, sets and tracks objectives for competencies in the workforce, and then looks constant sources of innovation.
Today many Indian Companies such as WIPRO,INFOSYS and such have realised the value of PCMM and are actively pursuing the journey to reach the desired levels of certification.