To establish and operate an effective organization, all managers
perform several major functions or activities. These functions
enable managers to create a positive work environment and
to provide the opportunities and incentives . The key
management functions include
Each of these functions are critical to the success of any
manager and organizations.
The primary function of the four is PLANNING.
Planning is the process of analyzing the situation, determining
the goals/ objectives that will be pursued in the future, and
deciding in advance the actions that will be taken to achieve
The following are the steps involved in PLANNING PROCESS
1.Reviewing the current operation situation.
2. Conducting the current operation strengths/ weaknesses.
3. STudying the External environmental factors affecting
4. Studying the expectations of the operations.
5. Determine the opportunities for improvements/growth
and negatives constraints.
6.Based on the above analyses, determine the
for the operation for the future period.
7.Based on the objectives, determine your strategy
- how you are going to achieve the objectives.
8. Based on the strategy, determine the action plans
that has to be implemented.
9. Your action plan will determine the resources required
10. Finally a system to monitor the plan/its progress.
The PLANNING is the most challenging, because
FUNCTIONALLY, it provides
-opportunity to determine the environmental impact on the
organization / business.
-opportunity to assess the organization's strengths/ weaknesses.
-opportunity to determine the business opportunities/ threats
-opportunity to develop strategic plans for the company.
-opportunity to develop long term/short term plans.
-opportunity to develop a vision for the organization.
-opportunity to develop a mission statement for the organization.
-opportunity to develop business objectives for the organization.
-opportunity to develop business strategies for the organization.
-opportunity to develop the action/ implementation planning
guidelines, which provides the platform for
*organization and staffing.
*direction for the organization approach.
The PLANNING is the most challenging, because
SKILLWISE , it provides opportunity to use various skills/
PLANNING IS THE PREMIER FUNCTION, BECAUSE
-you cannot organize
-without organization , you cannot direct
-without direction, you cannot control.
-without control , you cannot get results.
For success/ results, you need PLANNING.
HENCE PLANNING IS THE PRIMARY FUNCTION.
PLANNING PLAYS A VITAL PART IN MANY
ASPECTS OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
WHY PLANNING FOR HR
DIFFICULTIES / CHALLENGES HR FACES.
-as the economy grows/declines, the demand for HR resources
changes not only in quantity but also in quality/ types.
-social pressure to provide the right environment for employees.
-political pressure to employ local population, irrespective
of skills/ knowledge.
-legal challenges to recruitment / compensation on
-technology changes means getting right type of people
or provide the right type of training.
-competitive pressure to get the right talent at the right
-strategic planning seeks strategic HR planning.
-BUDGET constraint put pressure on HR to get the
best resources for the least.
-sales / production increases in business, puts pressure
on HR to recruit more.
-sales / production decreases in business, puts pressure
on HR to rationalise recruitment.
-new venture means demand for new type of skills/ knowledge.
-acquisitions / mergers means rationalization of HR.
-Organization development means HR implementing new
structure, new culture, new systems etc.
-Job redesign means HR implementing new
methods, new process, new systems etc.
-Globalization means managing HR diversity, new culture
change, new training etc.
-HR challenges / difficulties include
*managing voluntary retirement schemes
*managing leave of absence.
*managing part time workers/ causals.
-Balancing the INTERNAL SUPPLY ESTIMATES AND
EXTERNAL SUPPLY ESTIMATES.
*INTERNAL SUPPLY ESTIMATES
-staff skills inventories
*EXTERNAL SUPPLY ESTIMATES
-labor market supply
*MANAGING WORK OPTIONS
WHY PLANNING FOR PROJECT
DIFFICULTIES / CHALLENGES PROJECT FACES.
Planning for project is a process of determining project's
WHY PLANNING FOR MARKETING
DIFFICULTIES / CHALLENGES MARKETING FACES.
Planning for marketing is the application of marketing resources
to achieve marketing objectives like
PLANNING IS ALSO USED FOR MEETING
DIFFICULTIES AND CHALLENGES IN
-STRATEGIC SCENORIA PLANNING
APART FROM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT ,
PLANNING IS ALSO USED IN
-PLANNING FOR NATIONAL EMERGENCIES
-PLANNING FOR NATIONAL DISASTERS
-PLANNING FOR NATIONAL ECONOMY
-PLANNING FOR NATIONAL SECURITY
PLANNING COULD ALSO BE USED
-IN HOUSEHOLD BUDGETING, TO ALLOCATE RESOURCES.
-IN FAMILY PLANNING
IN ALL THE ABOVE CASES , THE PLANNING PROVIDES
-SENSE OF PURPOSE
-SENSE OF DIRECTION
-MEAN FOR ACTION
-SENSE OF TIMING
-MEAN TO ALLOCATE RESOURCES.
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