KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT [ KM ] AND PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT [PM] ARE COMPLETELY SEPARATE
AND UNRELATED CONCEPTS.
THIS IS NOT TRUE, EVEN AS CONCEPTS, BECAUSE
THE 'PM' CANNOT FUNCTION WITHOUT 'KM' .
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT is a development process
-pay for performance
*JOB ENRICHMENT [KM SUPPORT]
*TRAINING [KM SUPPORT]
*EDUCATION [KM SUPPORT]
*COACHING [KM SUPPORT]
*MENTORING [KM SUPPORT]
If you review the definition , it clearly highlights the
importance of KM SUPPORT required as an input
for the performance management.
BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Here it aims to increase organizational performance by radically re-designing the organization's structures and processes, including by starting over from the ground up.
Simply put, Business performance management includes activities to ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Business Performance management can focus on performance of the organization, a department, processes to build a product or service, employees, etc. Here the KNOWLEDGE required includes concepts in performance management, organization performance management and group performance management.
Principles behind this approach is,
KNOWLEDGE can lead to UNDERSTANDING of the issues, which when focused into priority areas can deliver ACTION for the organisation enabling transformational change.
This calls for KNOWLEDGE orientated Business Reviews, Health checks/diagnostic tools, design and implementation plans.
Business reviews and Improvement reviews maximises the human factor.
Organisations need to improve to survive and knowledge management can often make a significant contribution.
Business improvement can be approached in many different ways. It may be ‘revolutionary’, changing the fundamental nature of a business or significantly altering the way that it currently operates. Alternatively, change may be concerned simply with doing certain things better. Improvement may be tackled in one step or implemented though a sequence of smaller adjustments. It may be ‘business-led’, directed by the goals of the organisation, or ‘opportunity-led’, taking advantage of innovations in technology. The introduction or enhancement of computing facilities may also be perceived in different ways. For example, it may be seen as a software engineering activity, or as a modification to an information system, or, more broadly, as an organisational change. People issues are also important, so the approach to change must adequately address social, political and cultural constraints. Regardless of the basic approach to improvement adopted, successful change must take all relevant factors into account, and where possible these should be made explicit through modelling.
HOW DO WE ACHIEVE THIS ??
USING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT !!
Here it is clearly necessary for us to distinguish between 'information' and 'knowledge'
'Knowledge' is defined as what we know: knowledge involves the mental processes of comprehension, understanding and learning that go on in the mind and only in the mind, however much they involve interaction with the world outside the mind, and interaction with others.
Whenever we wish to express what we know, we can only do so by uttering messages of one kind or another - oral, written, graphic, gestural or even through 'body language'. Such messages do not carry 'knowledge', they constitute 'information', which a knowing mind may assimilate, understand, comprehend and incorporate into its own knowledge structures. These structures are not identical for the person uttering the message and the receiver, because each person's knowledge structures are, 'biographically determined'. Therefore, the knowledge built from the messages can never be exactly the same as the knowledge base from which the messages were uttered.
Knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to the creation, capture, organization, access, and use of an enterprise's information assets. These assets include structured databases, textual information such as policy and procedure documents, and most importantly, the tacit knowledge and expertise resident in the heads of individual employees.
Large number of Companies still see knowledge management as a purely technology solution
Organisations have adopted a number of relevant technologies for KM purposes.
- use the Internet to access external knowledge,
-use an intranet,
- use data warehousing or mining technologies,
- document management systems,
FROM THE ABOVE ANALYSIS, IT COMES CRYSTAL
THAT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IS THE
RESOURCE INPUT FOR
-BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION
is a 4 step process.
The first, is fostering policy, regulatory, and network readiness, by supporting the development of an adequate enabling environment for efficiency, competition, and innovation in knowledge sharing, and development of information and communication technologies.
The second element focuses on building human capacity for the knowledge economy, by promoting training, education, development programs, coaching of new skills needed for information and communication technologies.
The third element of the strategy focuses on continued efforts to expand basic connectivity and access, and invest in information technology applications. Key activities include mobilizing resources to improve information infrastructure, working on ways to reduce the cost of connectivity, supporting staff access programs, and developing local content and entrepreneurial information technology opportunities.
The final key element of the strategy is focused on promoting the generation and sharing of global knowledge, through support for knowledge networking, global research, and communities of practice. This will focus on creating and applying the knowledge necessary to stimulate and facilitate the transition to the knowledge economy-as well as the knowledge necessary to reap its full economic and financial benefits.
In other words, this 'knowledge management strategy' is a training and development programme.
Of course, it is wrapped up in the many of the modern jargons of the day:
THE SIMPLE PROCESS IS
'Development of a structure of competency types and levels;
Defining the competencies required for particular jobs;
Rating the performance of individual employees in particular jobs based on the competencies;
Implementing the knowledge competencies in an online system;
Linkage of the competency model to learning offerings.'
THERE ARE MANY TOOLS AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT
AND ENABLE THE PARTICIPANTS TO FULLY EXPLOIT.
After action review
A process that helps teams to learn quickly from their successes and failures and share their learning with other teams. Involves conducting a structured and facilitated discussion after a task or project has been completed to review what should have happened, what actually happened and why it happened; this allows participants to learn how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses in subsequent tasks or projects.
A business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.
The practice of comparing the performance of your organisation, department or function against the performance of 'the best' - whether they be other organisations, industry standards or internal departments. The aim is to look at how well you are doing compared to others in the same field or industry, and to learn from their best practices as a basis for improving your own.
Best practice (or: Good practice)
A process or methodology that has been proven to work well and produce good results, and is therefore recommended as a model. Some people prefer to use the term 'good practice' as in reality it is debateable whether there is a single 'best' approach.
A one-to-one relationship that aims to bring about individual learning and performance improvement, usually focusing on achieving predefined objectives within a specific time period. The role of the coach is to create a supportive environment in which to challenge and develop the critical thinking skills, ideas and behaviours of the person being coached, so that they might reach their full potential. Related term: Mentoring.
Double-loop learning (or: Generative learning)
In contrast to singleloop learning , which involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions and often based on what has worked in the past, double-loop learning goes a step further and questions existing assumptions in order to create new insights. For example,
the supply chain failures in an organization.
The use of electronic information systems (especially internet technologies) to deliver learning and training.
A website that links an organisation with other specific organisations or people. Extranets are only accessible to those specified organisations or people and are protected via passwords.
Computer software applications that are linked together by networks, and so allow people to work together and share electronic communications and documents
Data that has been organised within a context and translated into a form that has structure and meaning. (Note: while most people have an idea about what information is, it is rather difficult to define in a meaningful way).
A computer network that functions like the internet, but the information and web pages are located on computers within an organisation rather than being accessible to the general public.
Continuous --Learning organisation
An organisation that views its success in the future as being based on continuous learning and adaptive behaviour. It therefore becomes skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting and retaining knowledge and then modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights.
Mentoring is a one-to-one learning relationship in which a senior member of an organisation is assigned to support the development of a newer or more junior member by sharing his or her knowledge, experience and wisdom with them. Related term: Coaching (Note: While the strength of mentoring lies in transferring the mentor's specific knowledge and wisdom, in coaching it lies in the coach's ability to facilitate and develop the other's own personal qualities.)
The ability of an organisation to gain knowledge from experience through experimentation, observation, analysis and a willingness to examine both successes and failures, and to then use that knowledge to do things differently. While organisational learning cannot happen without individual learning, individual learning does not necessarily produce organisational learning. Organisational learning occurs when an organisation becomes collectively more knowledgeable and skillful in pursuing a set of goals.Single-loop learning (or: Adaptive learning)
Single-loop learning involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions, and often based on what has worked in the past.
etc etc etc
KM is more powerful when it addresses specific needs in a particular performance domain (for example, sales and marketing management , HR etc]
HERE WE CAN SEE AN ILLUSTRATION OF HOW '''HR PEFORMANCE MANAGEMENT'''
CAN BE IMPROVED THROUGH ''KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT'' INPUTS.
HR MANAGER'S ACTIVITIES, ROLES, COMPETENCES.
1. HR MANAGER'S ACTIVTIES.
The activities carreied out by HR MANAGER will vary widely
according to the needs of the organization, the context within
which they work and their own capabilites.
As a broad guideline, the HR provide services to the organization
-human resource planning
-recruitment / selection
To varying degrees, HR MANAGERS provide guidance to the
-recommendations on HR STRATEGIES
-approaches to the improvements of process capability
-HR policies/ procedures
HR managers provide advice to line managers, and management
-selection short lists
-handling people / problems associated
As we digest the activities, it leads us to the ROLE OF
HR MANAGER plays different roles.
BUSINESS PARTNER ROLE.
-share responsibility with their line management for the success
of the business and the running of the business.
-contribute to the long term / strategic organizational issues like
*quality of worklife
-proactively contributes to the change management, people
management, team development, new technology introduction
INTERNAL CONSULTANCY ROLE
-acts as a management consultant on HR ISSUES working
alongside the line managers.
-monitors the implementation of HR policies / procedures.
The analysis of the activities and the roles leads us to
WHAT ARE THE COMPETENCIES REQUIRED FOR A
SUCCESSFUL HR MANAGER?
The suggested competencies are
-human relations handling skills
-professional knowledge of HR
-adding value through people development
-strategic thinking capability
-business / culture awareness
-communication [ oral/ written ]
ROLE / COMPETENCE MATRIX
· Organizational Awareness
· Problem Solving
· Customer Service
· Stress Tolerance
· Oral Communication
· Decision Making
· Planning & Evaluation
· Conflict Management
· Oral Communication
· Teaching Others
· Interpersonal Skills
· Oral Communication
· Technical Competence
· Legal, Government, &
· Personnel & Human Resources
· Information Management
· Mathematical Reasoning*
· Customer Service
· Attention to Detail
· Oral Communication
· Creative Thinking
HR / KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
As HR management becomes more and more complex, greater demands are placed on individuals who make the HR field their career specialty. It is useful to know about the competencies required for effective HR management.
A wide variety of jobs can be performed in HR departments. As a firm
grows large enough to need someone to focus primarily on HR activities, the
role of the HR generalist emerges‑that is, a person who has responsibility
for performing a variety of HR activities. Further growth leads to adding
HR specialists who have in‑depth knowledge and expertise in a limited area.
Intensive knowledge of an activity such as. benefits, testing, training, or affirma
tive action compliance typifies the work of HR specialists.
Changes in the HR field are leading to changes in the competencies and capabilities of individuals concentrating on HR management. The development of broader competencies by HR professionals will ensure that HR management plays a strategic role in organizations. The following sets of capabilities are important for HR professionals:
* Knowledge of business and organization
* Influence and change management
* Specific HR knowledge and expertise
Knowledge of Business and Organization
HR professionals must have knowledge of the organization and its strategies if they are to contribute strategically. This knowledge also means that they must have understanding of the financial, technological, and other facets of the industry and the organization. As illustration, in some organizations the top HR executive jobs are being filled by individuals who have been successful operations managers, but have never worked in HR. The thinking behind such a move is that good strategic business managers can rely on the HR specialists reporting to them, while bringing a performance‑oriented, strategic view of HR management to the top of the organization. In other organizations, top HR managers have come up through HR specialties, and have demonstrated that they understand broader business and strategic realities, not just HR management functional issues.
-Strategic planning/ HRM role.
-Political changes impact
-Economic changes impact
-Social changes impact
-Technology changes impact
-Workforce availability/ Quality
-Growth in contingent workforce
-Work / family balancing
-Business Process reengineering
-Financial responsibility for HR results.
Influence and Change Management
Another key capability that HR professionals need is to be able to influence others and to guide changes in organizations. Given the many HR‑related changes affecting today's organizations, HR professionals must be able to influence others.
-interpersonal relations skills
-change, change, change.
HR Specific Knowledge
The idea that "liking to work with people" is the major qualification necessary for success in HR is one of the greatest myths about the field. It ignores the technical knowledge and education needed. Depending on the job, HR professionals may need considerable knowledge about employment law, tax laws, finance, statistics, or information systems. In all cases, they need extensive knowledge about equal employment opportunity regulations and wage/hour regulations.
This outline reveals the breadth and depth of knowledge necessary for HR professionals. Additionally, those who want to succeed in the field must update their knowledge continually. Reading HR / MANAGEMENT publications / websites is one way to stay informed.
Strategic Management .Knowledge Of.
1.lawmaking and administrative regulatory processes .
2. internal and external environmental scanning techniques.
3.strategic planning process and implementation .
4.organizational social responsibility (for example, welfare to work, philanthropy, alliances with community‑based organizations).
5.management processes and functions , including marketing/sales/distribution etc.
6. techniques to sustain creativity and innovation.
Workforce planning and Employment .Knowledge of:
7.Central /state/local. employment‑related laws and regulations .
8.immigration law (for example, visas for overseas employees]
9. quantitative analyses required to assess past and future staffing (for example, cost benefit analysis, costs‑per‑hire, selection ratios, adverse impact).
10. recruitment methods and sources
11.staffing alternatives (for example, telecommuting, outsourcing)
12 planning techniques (for example, succession planning, HR forecasting)
13.reliability and validity of selection tests/tools/methods.
14 use and interpretation of selection tests (for example, psychological/personality, cognitive, and motor/physical assessments).
15. interviewing techniques .
16 relocation practices.
17 impact of compensation and benefits plans on recruitment and retention .
18 international HR and implications of international workforce for workforce planning and employment.
19 downsizing and outplacement .
20 internal workforce planning and employment policies, practices, and procedures.
Human Resource Development: Knowledge of.
21.applicable international, central, state, and local laws and regulations regarding copyrights and patents .
22 human resource development theories and applications (including career
development and leadership development)
23 organizational development theories and applications.
24 training methods, program, and techniques (design, objectives, methods, etc.).
25 employee involvement strategies .
26 task/process analysis .
27 performance appraisal and performance management methods.
28 applicable international issues (for example, culture, local management approaches/ practices, societal norms) .
30 techniques to assess HRD program effectiveness (for Example, satisfaction, learning and job performance of program participants, and organizational outcomes such as turnover and productivity).
Compensation and Benefits .Knowledge of.
31.Central, state, and local compensation and benefits laws.
32 accounting practices related to compensation and benefits (for example excess group term life, compensatory time)
33 job evaluation methods
34 job pricing and Pay structures
35 incentive and variable Pay methods
36 executive compensation
37.non‑cash compensation methods (for example, stock option plans).
38 benefits needs analysis i.e, life insurance, pension,
39 benefit plans (for example, health insurance, education, health club)
40 international compensation laws and practices (for example, expatriate compensation, socialized medicine, mandated retirement)
Employee and Labour relations . Knowledge of
41.applicable federal, state, and local laws affecting employment in union and non‑union environments, such as anti‑discrimination laws, sexual harassment, labor relations, and privacy
42 techniques for facilitating positive employee relations (for example, small group facilitation, dispute resolution, and labor/management cooperative strategies and programs)
43 employee involvement strategies(for example, alternate work schedules, work teams)
44 individual employment rights issues and practices (for example, employment at will, negligent hiring, defamation, employees' rights to bargain collectively)
45.workplace behavior issues/practices (for example, absenteeism, discipline)
46.methods for assessment of employee attitudes, opinions, and satisfaction (for example, opinion surveys, attitude surveys, focus panels)
47 unfair labor practices .
48 the collective bargaining process, strategies, and concepts (up to and after contract)
49 public sector labor relations issues and practices.
50. expatriation and repatriation issues and practices .
51.employee and labor relations for local nationals[ i.e. labour
relations in other countries).
Occupational health,safety,and security. Knowledge of.
52 .Central, state, and local workplace health and safety laws and
regulations (for example, OSHA, Drug‑Free Workplace ]
53 workplace injury and occupational illness compensation laws and programs (for example, worker's compensation)
54 investigation procedures of workplace safety, health, and security enforcement agencies (for example, OSHA)
55 workplace safety risks
56 workplace security risks (for example, theft, corporate espionage, information systems/technology, and vandalism)
57 potential violent behavior and workplace violence conditions .
58 general health and safety practices (for example, fire evacuation,
HAZMAT[hazardous materials], ergonomic evaluations)
59 incident and emergency response plans .
60 internal investigation and surveillance techniques .
61 Employee Assistance Programs .
62 employee wellness programs .
63 issues related to chemical use and dependency (for example, identification of symptoms, drug testing, discipline) . CORE Knowledge Required by HR Professionals
64 needs assessment and analysis .
65 third‑party contract management, including development of requests for proposals
66 communication strategies .
67 documentation requirements .
68 adult learning processes .
69 motivation concepts and applications .
70 training methods .
71 leadership concepts and applications.
72 project management concepts and applications
73 diversity concepts and applications.
74 human relations concepts and applications (for example, interpersonal and organizational behavior) .
75 HR ethics and professional standards .
76 technology and human resource information systems (HRIS) to support
HR activities .
77 qualitative and quantitative methods and tools for analysis, interpretation, and decision‑making purposes .
78 change management .
79 liability and risk management .
80 job analysis and job description methods.
81 employee records management (for example, retention, disposal)
82 the interrelationships among HR activities and programs across
NOW, you can see
-an improvement in HR PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
HELPS TO SUPPORT
-an improvement in BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT.
HENCE, THERE IS A STRONG LINK.
BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
hope this is useful to you,
27th April 2006 From India, Mumbai