From "Paul Knowler" : Hello All and thank you for taking the time to read this post.
I am trying to write an essay on the links between Performance Management and Knowledge Management for a MSc I am undertaking. The full essay title is:
I am struggling to find some good concrete links between the two and would really appreciate some help, information, guidance etc. :?:
I would be very grateful for any help you could give.
Regards :D
Paul Knowler
25th April 2006 From United Kingdom

leolingham2000 210
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT [ KM ] AND PERFORMANCE

MANAGEMENT [PM] ARE COMPLETELY SEPARATE

AND UNRELATED CONCEPTS.

THIS IS NOT TRUE, EVEN AS CONCEPTS, BECAUSE

THE 'PM' CANNOT FUNCTION WITHOUT 'KM' .

=============================================

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT is a development process

which includes

-pay for performance

-incentives

-bonus payments

-recognition awards

-promotions

*JOB ENRICHMENT [KM SUPPORT]

*TRAINING [KM SUPPORT]

*DEVELOPMENT[KM SUPPORT]

*EDUCATION [KM SUPPORT]

*COACHING [KM SUPPORT]

*MENTORING [KM SUPPORT]

If you review the definition , it clearly highlights the

importance of KM SUPPORT required as an input

for the performance management.

=========================================

BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

Here it aims to increase organizational performance by radically re-designing the organization's structures and processes, including by starting over from the ground up.

Simply put, Business performance management includes activities to ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Business Performance management can focus on performance of the organization, a department, processes to build a product or service, employees, etc. Here the KNOWLEDGE required includes concepts in performance management, organization performance management and group performance management.

Principles behind this approach is,

KNOWLEDGE can lead to UNDERSTANDING of the issues, which when focused into priority areas can deliver ACTION for the organisation enabling transformational change.

This calls for KNOWLEDGE orientated Business Reviews, Health checks/diagnostic tools, design and implementation plans.

Business reviews and Improvement reviews maximises the human factor.

Organisations need to improve to survive and knowledge management can often make a significant contribution.

Business improvement can be approached in many different ways. It may be ‘revolutionary’, changing the fundamental nature of a business or significantly altering the way that it currently operates. Alternatively, change may be concerned simply with doing certain things better. Improvement may be tackled in one step or implemented though a sequence of smaller adjustments. It may be ‘business-led’, directed by the goals of the organisation, or ‘opportunity-led’, taking advantage of innovations in technology. The introduction or enhancement of computing facilities may also be perceived in different ways. For example, it may be seen as a software engineering activity, or as a modification to an information system, or, more broadly, as an organisational change. People issues are also important, so the approach to change must adequately address social, political and cultural constraints. Regardless of the basic approach to improvement adopted, successful change must take all relevant factors into account, and where possible these should be made explicit through modelling.

HOW DO WE ACHIEVE THIS ??

USING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT !!

==================================================

Here it is clearly necessary for us to distinguish between 'information' and 'knowledge'

'Knowledge' is defined as what we know: knowledge involves the mental processes of comprehension, understanding and learning that go on in the mind and only in the mind, however much they involve interaction with the world outside the mind, and interaction with others.

Whenever we wish to express what we know, we can only do so by uttering messages of one kind or another - oral, written, graphic, gestural or even through 'body language'. Such messages do not carry 'knowledge', they constitute 'information', which a knowing mind may assimilate, understand, comprehend and incorporate into its own knowledge structures. These structures are not identical for the person uttering the message and the receiver, because each person's knowledge structures are, 'biographically determined'. Therefore, the knowledge built from the messages can never be exactly the same as the knowledge base from which the messages were uttered.

Knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to the creation, capture, organization, access, and use of an enterprise's information assets. These assets include structured databases, textual information such as policy and procedure documents, and most importantly, the tacit knowledge and expertise resident in the heads of individual employees.

Large number of Companies still see knowledge management as a purely technology solution

Organisations have adopted a number of relevant technologies for KM purposes.

- use the Internet to access external knowledge,

-use an intranet,

- use data warehousing or mining technologies,

- document management systems,

-decision support,

-groupware and

- extranets.

FROM THE ABOVE ANALYSIS, IT COMES CRYSTAL

CLEAR,

THAT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IS THE

RESOURCE INPUT FOR

-BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

-PERFORMATION MANAGEMENT.

==============================================

THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

is a 4 step process.

The first, is fostering policy, regulatory, and network readiness, by supporting the development of an adequate enabling environment for efficiency, competition, and innovation in knowledge sharing, and development of information and communication technologies.

The second element focuses on building human capacity for the knowledge economy, by promoting training, education, development programs, coaching of new skills needed for information and communication technologies.

The third element of the strategy focuses on continued efforts to expand basic connectivity and access, and invest in information technology applications. Key activities include mobilizing resources to improve information infrastructure, working on ways to reduce the cost of connectivity, supporting staff access programs, and developing local content and entrepreneurial information technology opportunities.

The final key element of the strategy is focused on promoting the generation and sharing of global knowledge, through support for knowledge networking, global research, and communities of practice. This will focus on creating and applying the knowledge necessary to stimulate and facilitate the transition to the knowledge economy-as well as the knowledge necessary to reap its full economic and financial benefits.

================================================== ====

In other words, this 'knowledge management strategy' is a training and development programme.

Of course, it is wrapped up in the many of the modern jargons of the day:

THE SIMPLE PROCESS IS

'Development of a structure of competency types and levels;

Defining the competencies required for particular jobs;

Rating the performance of individual employees in particular jobs based on the competencies;

Implementing the knowledge competencies in an online system;

Linkage of the competency model to learning offerings.'

THERE ARE MANY TOOLS AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT

AND ENABLE THE PARTICIPANTS TO FULLY EXPLOIT.

================================================== ====

After action review

A process that helps teams to learn quickly from their successes and failures and share their learning with other teams. Involves conducting a structured and facilitated discussion after a task or project has been completed to review what should have happened, what actually happened and why it happened; this allows participants to learn how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses in subsequent tasks or projects.

Balanced scorecard

A business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.

Benchmarking

The practice of comparing the performance of your organisation, department or function against the performance of 'the best' - whether they be other organisations, industry standards or internal departments. The aim is to look at how well you are doing compared to others in the same field or industry, and to learn from their best practices as a basis for improving your own.

Best practice (or: Good practice)

A process or methodology that has been proven to work well and produce good results, and is therefore recommended as a model. Some people prefer to use the term 'good practice' as in reality it is debateable whether there is a single 'best' approach.

Coaching

A one-to-one relationship that aims to bring about individual learning and performance improvement, usually focusing on achieving predefined objectives within a specific time period. The role of the coach is to create a supportive environment in which to challenge and develop the critical thinking skills, ideas and behaviours of the person being coached, so that they might reach their full potential. Related term: Mentoring.

Double-loop learning (or: Generative learning)

In contrast to singleloop learning , which involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions and often based on what has worked in the past, double-loop learning goes a step further and questions existing assumptions in order to create new insights. For example,

the supply chain failures in an organization.

E-Learning

The use of electronic information systems (especially internet technologies) to deliver learning and training.

Extranet

A website that links an organisation with other specific organisations or people. Extranets are only accessible to those specified organisations or people and are protected via passwords.

Groupware

Computer software applications that are linked together by networks, and so allow people to work together and share electronic communications and documents

Information

Data that has been organised within a context and translated into a form that has structure and meaning. (Note: while most people have an idea about what information is, it is rather difficult to define in a meaningful way).

Intranet

A computer network that functions like the internet, but the information and web pages are located on computers within an organisation rather than being accessible to the general public.

Continuous --Learning organisation

An organisation that views its success in the future as being based on continuous learning and adaptive behaviour. It therefore becomes skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting and retaining knowledge and then modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights.

Mentoring

Mentoring is a one-to-one learning relationship in which a senior member of an organisation is assigned to support the development of a newer or more junior member by sharing his or her knowledge, experience and wisdom with them. Related term: Coaching (Note: While the strength of mentoring lies in transferring the mentor's specific knowledge and wisdom, in coaching it lies in the coach's ability to facilitate and develop the other's own personal qualities.)

Organisational learning

The ability of an organisation to gain knowledge from experience through experimentation, observation, analysis and a willingness to examine both successes and failures, and to then use that knowledge to do things differently. While organisational learning cannot happen without individual learning, individual learning does not necessarily produce organisational learning. Organisational learning occurs when an organisation becomes collectively more knowledgeable and skillful in pursuing a set of goals.Single-loop learning (or: Adaptive learning)

Single-loop learning involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions, and often based on what has worked in the past.

etc etc etc

================================================== ===============

KM is more powerful when it addresses specific needs in a particular performance domain (for example, sales and marketing management , HR etc]

HERE WE CAN SEE AN ILLUSTRATION OF HOW '''HR PEFORMANCE MANAGEMENT'''

CAN BE IMPROVED THROUGH ''KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT'' INPUTS.

HR MANAGER'S ACTIVITIES, ROLES, COMPETENCES.

1. HR MANAGER'S ACTIVTIES.

The activities carreied out by HR MANAGER will vary widely

according to the needs of the organization, the context within

which they work and their own capabilites.

SERVICE

As a broad guideline, the HR provide services to the organization

-human resource planning

-recruitment / selection

-employee development

-reward systems

-employee relations

-health/safety management

-staff amenities

-salary administration

-personnel administration

etc etc.

GUIDANCE

To varying degrees, HR MANAGERS provide guidance to the

management, like

-recommendations on HR STRATEGIES

-culture change

-approaches to the improvements of process capability

-performance management

-reward management

-HR policies/ procedures

etc

ADVICE

HR managers provide advice to line managers, and management

in general

-recruitment advertising

-selection short lists

-training needs

-health/ safety

-handling people / problems associated

-industrial relations

etc etc

2. ROLES

As we digest the activities, it leads us to the ROLE OF

HR MANAGER.

HR MANAGER plays different roles.

BUSINESS PARTNER ROLE.

-share responsibility with their line management for the success

of the business and the running of the business.

STRATEGIST ROLE

-contribute to the long term / strategic organizational issues like

*people selection

*people requirement

*people development

*organization development

*quality of worklife

etc

INTERVENTIONIST ROLE

-proactively contributes to the change management, people

management, team development, new technology introduction

etc etc

INTERNAL CONSULTANCY ROLE

-acts as a management consultant on HR ISSUES working

alongside the line managers.

MONITORING ROLE

-monitors the implementation of HR policies / procedures.

3. COMPETENCIES.

The analysis of the activities and the roles leads us to

the question

WHAT ARE THE COMPETENCIES REQUIRED FOR A

SUCCESSFUL HR MANAGER?

The suggested competencies are

-initative

-personal effectiveness

-human relations handling skills

-leadership skills

-professional knowledge of HR

-adding value through people development

-continuing learning

-strategic thinking capability

-influencing

-negotiating skills

-interpersonal skills

-business / culture awareness

-service delivery

-communication [ oral/ written ]

-presentation

etc

ROLE / COMPETENCE MATRIX

STRATEGIC PARTNER

· Organizational Awareness

· Problem Solving

· Customer Service

· Stress Tolerance

· Oral Communication

-----------------------------------

LEADER

· Decision Making

· Planning & Evaluation

· Conflict Management

· Self-Management

· Self-Esteem

· Oral Communication

--------------------------------

EMPLOYEE CHAMPION

· Flexibility

· Teaching Others

· Learning

· Interpersonal Skills

· Oral Communication

-------------------------------------

TECHNICAL EXPERT

· Technical Competence

· Legal, Government, &

Jurisprudence

· Personnel & Human Resources

· Information Management

· Mathematical Reasoning*

--------------------------------------

· Customer Service

· Writing

· Reading

· Memory

· Attention to Detail

· Oral Communication

-----------------------------------

CHANGE CONSULTANT

· Teamwork

· Reasoning

· Influencing/Negotiating

· Integrity/Honesty

· Creative Thinking

HR / KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

As HR management becomes more and more complex, greater demands are placed on individuals who make the HR field their career specialty. It is useful to know about the competencies required for effective HR management.

A wide variety of jobs can be performed in HR departments. As a firm

grows large enough to need someone to focus primarily on HR activities, the

role of the HR generalist emerges‑that is, a person who has responsibility

for performing a variety of HR activities. Further growth leads to adding

HR specialists who have in‑depth knowledge and expertise in a limited area.

Intensive knowledge of an activity such as. benefits, testing, training, or affirma­

tive action compliance typifies the work of HR specialists.

Changes in the HR field are leading to changes in the competencies and capabilities of individuals concentrating on HR management. The development of broader competencies by HR professionals will ensure that HR management plays a strategic role in organizations. The following sets of capabilities are important for HR professionals:

* Knowledge of business and organization

* Influence and change management

* Specific HR knowledge and expertise

Knowledge of Business and Organization

HR professionals must have knowledge of the organization and its strategies if they are to contribute strategically. This knowledge also means that they must have understanding of the financial, technological, and other facets of the industry and the organization. As illustration, in some organizations the top HR executive jobs are being filled by individuals who have been successful operations managers, but have never worked in HR. The thinking behind such a move is that good strategic business managers can rely on the HR specialists reporting to them, while bringing a performance‑oriented, strategic view of HR management to the top of the organization. In other organizations, top HR managers have come up through HR specialties, and have demonstrated that they understand broader business and strategic realities, not just HR management functional issues.

Knowledge Base

-Strategic planning/ HRM role.

-Political changes impact

-Economic changes impact

-Social changes impact

-Technology changes impact

-Workforce availability/ Quality

-Growth in contingent workforce

-Demographic issues

-Work / family balancing

-Organizational Restructuring

-Occupational shifts

-Global competition

-Business Process reengineering

-Financial responsibility for HR results.

-Intellectual capital

ETC.

Influence and Change Management

Another key capability that HR professionals need is to be able to influence others and to guide changes in organizations. Given the many HR‑related changes affecting today's organizations, HR professionals must be able to influence others.

Knowledge Base

-sales ability

-persuasion skills

-presentation skills

-negotiation skills

-interpersonal relations skills

-change, change, change.

HR Specific Knowledge

The idea that "liking to work with people" is the major qualification necessary for success in HR is one of the greatest myths about the field. It ignores the technical knowledge and education needed. Depending on the job, HR professionals may need considerable knowledge about employment law, tax laws, finance, statistics, or information systems. In all cases, they need extensive knowledge about equal employment opportunity regulations and wage/hour regulations.

This outline reveals the breadth and depth of knowledge necessary for HR professionals. Additionally, those who want to succeed in the field must update their knowledge continually. Reading HR / MANAGEMENT publications / websites is one way to stay informed.

Strategic Management .Knowledge Of.

1.lawmaking and administrative regulatory processes .

2. internal and external environmental scanning techniques.

3.strategic planning process and implementation .

4.organizational social responsibility (for example, welfare to work, philanthropy, alliances with community‑based organizations).

5.management processes and functions , including marketing/sales/distribution etc.

6. techniques to sustain creativity and innovation.

================================================== =

Workforce planning and Employment .Knowledge of:

7.Central /state/local. employment‑related laws and regulations .

8.immigration law (for example, visas for overseas employees]

9. quantitative analyses required to assess past and future staffing (for example, cost benefit analysis, costs‑per‑hire, selection ratios, adverse impact).

10. recruitment methods and sources

11.staffing alternatives (for example, telecommuting, outsourcing)

12 planning techniques (for example, succession planning, HR forecasting)

13.reliability and validity of selection tests/tools/methods.

14 use and interpretation of selection tests (for example, psychological/personality, cognitive, and motor/physical assessments).

15. interviewing techniques .

16 relocation practices.

17 impact of compensation and benefits plans on recruitment and retention .

18 international HR and implications of international workforce for workforce planning and employment.

19 downsizing and outplacement .

20 internal workforce planning and employment policies, practices, and procedures.

Human Resource Development: Knowledge of.

21.applicable international, central, state, and local laws and regulations regarding copyrights and patents .

22 human resource development theories and applications (including career

development and leadership development)

23 organizational development theories and applications.

24 training methods, program, and techniques (design, objectives, methods, etc.).

25 employee involvement strategies .

26 task/process analysis .

27 performance appraisal and performance management methods.

28 applicable international issues (for example, culture, local management approaches/ practices, societal norms) .

30 techniques to assess HRD program effectiveness (for Example, satisfaction, learning and job performance of program participants, and organizational outcomes such as turnover and productivity).

Compensation and Benefits .Knowledge of.

31.Central, state, and local compensation and benefits laws.

32 accounting practices related to compensation and benefits (for example excess group term life, compensatory time)

33 job evaluation methods

34 job pricing and Pay structures

35 incentive and variable Pay methods

36 executive compensation

37.non‑cash compensation methods (for example, stock option plans).

38 benefits needs analysis i.e, life insurance, pension,

39 benefit plans (for example, health insurance, education, health club)

40 international compensation laws and practices (for example, expatriate compensation, socialized medicine, mandated retirement)

Employee and Labour relations . Knowledge of­

41.applicable federal, state, and local laws affecting employment in union and non‑union environments, such as anti‑discrimination laws, sexual harassment, labor relations, and privacy

42 techniques for facilitating positive employee relations (for example, small group facilitation, dispute resolution, and labor/management cooperative strategies and programs)

43 employee involvement strategies(for example, alternate work schedules, work teams)

44 individual employment rights issues and practices (for example, employment at will, negligent hiring, defamation, employees' rights to bargain collectively)

45.workplace behavior issues/practices (for example, absenteeism, discipline)

46.methods for assessment of employee attitudes, opinions, and satisfaction (for example, opinion surveys, attitude surveys, focus panels)

47 unfair labor practices .

48 the collective bargaining process, strategies, and concepts (up to and after contract)

49 public sector labor relations issues and practices.

50. expatriation and repatriation issues and practices .



51.employee and labor relations for local nationals[ i.e. labour

relations in other countries).

b

Occupational health,safety,and security. Knowledge of.

52 .Central, state, and local workplace health and safety laws and

regulations (for example, OSHA, Drug‑Free Workplace ]

53 workplace injury and occupational illness compensation laws and programs (for example, worker's compensation)

54 investigation procedures of workplace safety, health, and security enforcement agencies (for example, OSHA)

55 workplace safety risks

56 workplace security risks (for example, theft, corporate espionage, information systems/technology, and vandalism)

57 potential violent behavior and workplace violence conditions .

58 general health and safety practices (for example, fire evacuation,

HAZMAT[hazardous materials], ergonomic evaluations)

59 incident and emergency response plans .

60 internal investigation and surveillance techniques .

61 Employee Assistance Programs .

62 employee wellness programs .

63 issues related to chemical use and dependency (for example, identification of symptoms, drug testing, discipline) . CORE Knowledge Required by HR Professionals

64 needs assessment and analysis .

65 third‑party contract management, including development of requests for proposals

66 communication strategies .

67 documentation requirements .

68 adult learning processes .

69 motivation concepts and applications .

70 training methods .

71 leadership concepts and applications.

72 project management concepts and applications

73 diversity concepts and applications.

74 human relations concepts and applications (for example, interpersonal and organizational behavior) .

75 HR ethics and professional standards .

76 technology and human resource information systems (HRIS) to support

HR activities .

77 qualitative and quantitative methods and tools for analysis, interpretation, and decision‑making purposes .

78 change management .

79 liability and risk management .



80 job analysis and job description methods.

81 employee records management (for example, retention, disposal)

82 the interrelationships among HR activities and programs across

functional areas.

=================================================

NOW, you can see

-an improvement in HR PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

HELPS TO SUPPORT

-an improvement in BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT.

HENCE, THERE IS A STRONG LINK.

BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT

THROUGH

VVVVVVVVVVVVV

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

THROUGH

VVVVVVVVVVV

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

VVVVVVVVVVV

THROUGH

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT



hope this is useful to you,

regards

LEO LINGHAM
27th April 2006 From India, Mumbai
kusum 1
Dear Leo,
oops! your post on Knowledge managment was really awesome. Thanx a lot. Actually, I too needed information regarding knowledge managment. could you forward some case studies on the subject. I am compiling "approaches to Knowledge managment" and also trying to study how different industries effectively use this for more effective and effecient functioning. I have kind of got IBM and TATA Steel. SAP has introduced recently. Could you help in this area, please.
regards,
DK
29th April 2006 From India, Mangaluru
padmaja_rao
Hello Kusum, as ur project title matches with mine when i was doing my MBA ....can i help u in any manner....do u need only case studies or u need some material on it? Regards Padmaja :D
7th May 2006 From India, Bharat
bloo
hi LEO, wow really very very usefull :D every time i log in iget smthing new. its really a good addiction.
1st October 2007 From India, Indore
prabhu.k
Hello Leo, that a really good contribution, i just request for its reference/source from where u had got it from. Regards, Prabhu.K
5th November 2007 From India, Bangalore
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