ma Started The Discussion:
Dear ones!
Pls help me with d format I've attatched.....The improvements tat need 2 b made 2 make it exhaustive.....
Pls help....also regarding the method of collecting info...'coz I need 2 create 4 all the positions...I felt one-to-one interview wit d job holder n his superior/supervisor wud be ok....A questionnaire wud be tedious n time consuming na? There are around(85 positions)Also...is it better 2 have different competencies or have some basic organizational competencies identified n applied 2 all....
Plz reply ASAP!!!!!!!!
Brgds!
Mithra
It wud be really helpful if u cud help me with any material or work done on JDs for Garment/retail industry earlier.....the formats...etc...
Posted 12th April 2006 From United States, Santa Clara
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HR4all 
Mithra,

The format you have included seems to be quite exhaustive by itself (thats what i think, i don't know what the others have to say) anyways, I think a one to one interview if possible is perfect. i had also worked on creating JDs for my organization and completed 200 odd JDs in this manner.
Posted 12th April 2006 From India, Mumbai
ma 
Dear ones, Thanks a loooooooooooot 4 d valuable inputs....I’m sure it will add value to my work..... Thanks a ton HR4all(sorry don knw ur name) n Jev! Brgds, Mithra
Posted 15th April 2006 From United States, Santa Clara
I HAVE LISTED BELOW
-JOB DESCRIPTION CONTENTS
-JOB POSITION [PERSON]SPECIFICATION
-JOB ANALYSIS FORM--TO HELP YOU CONDUCT
INTERVIEWS ON A ONE -TO-ONE BASIS.

-AN OUTLINE OF THE TOTAL APPROACH AS
A GENERAL GUIDELINE, AS ADDITIONAL RESOURCE.

==========================================
YOUR FORMATS ARE A BIT EXPANDED AND MIXED IN WITH
JOB DESC AND PERSON SPECIFICATION.

KEEP IT SIMPLE AND SEPARATE.

JOB DECRIPTION AND POSITION [ PERSON ]SPECIFICATION
ARE TWO DIFFERENT ELEMENTS AND MUST BE TYPED
ON TWO DIFFERENT PAGES.


JOB DESCRIPTION



POSITION TITLE:
GRADE/ LEVEL :
DATE OF APPROVAL :
DEPARTMENT:
RESPONSIBLE TO: POSITION
RESPONSIBLE FOR: WHO REPORTS TO THIS POSITION
NOS. OF PEOPLE
--------------------------------------------------------------------
1. PURPOSE
A short sentence stating the role of the post in the organisation.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
2. MAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
A list of the main responsibilities and duties to be undertaken set out broadly in order of importance and in logical order as the work flows.
TASKS COMPETENCE REQUIRED
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. SUPERVISION RECEIVED
Details of the post to whom this post reports together with a description of the nature of the supervision (eg. general guidance, detailed supervision, etc).
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. SUPERVISION GIVEN
Details of the posts for whom the post is responsible and details of the nature of the supervision (eg. general guidance, detailed supervision, etc).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. RESPONSIBILITY FOR BUDGETS
-------------------------------------------------------
6. CONTACTS [ WORKING RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS]
Details of the departments/external organisations/bodies with whom there is frequent contact or liaison.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. ACCOUNTABLE FOR [ DELIVERABLES / RESULTS ]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. KEY RESULT AREAS / KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
================================================== ========
JOB [ PERSON ] SPECIFICATION

1.EXPERIENCE - MUST HAVE
- PREFERRED
experience: previous jobs, unpaid work experience, life experience
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. QUALIFICATIONS -MUST HAVE
-PREFERRED
qualifications: exams, certificates, degrees, diplomas (some jobs require specific qualifications, but most do not and it can be fairer to ask for the skills or knowledge represented by the qualification rather than asking for the qualification itself);
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.TRAINING -- MUST HAVE
-PREFERRED

skills, knowledge and abilities: for example, languages, driving, knowledge of specialist fields, ability to use equipment; plus some indication of the level of competence required, and whether the person must have the skills or knowledge beforehand or can learn them on the job (for example "basic knowledge of Microsoft Word, or willingness to learn");
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. ENVIRONMENT

personal attributes: such are strength, ability to lift, willingness to work in a hectic busy environment or on one's own;
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.WORKING

personal circumstances: such as being able to work weekends or evenings or to travel


===============================================
THIS IS USED FOR COLLECTING INFORMATION ABOUT JOBS.


JOB ANALYSIS FORM
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Job title Name
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Department Responsible to
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Responsible to job holder
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OVERALL PURPOSE
Describe as succinctly as possible (one or two sentences) the overall purpose of the
job, ie in general terms, what the job holder is expected to achieve.




-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KEY RESULT AREAS

Specify the key result areas (not more than 10) which govern the achievement of the
overall purpose of the job. Describe each key result area in one sentence beginning
with an active verb.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.
FACTOR ANALYSIS

By reference to the job analysis questionnaire, describe the characteristics of the job with regard to each of the five job evaluation factors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Knowledge and skills



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Responsibility



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Decisions



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Complexity



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Contacts



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Job analysis carried out by (signed) Date
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Agreed by job holder (signed) Date
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Agreed by job holder's manager (signed) Date
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Are there any professional, technical or academic qualifications that you must have to do this job?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. What sort of experience and how much of it did you need before starting your job?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. What sort of training and how much of it did you need before starting your job?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. How long did it take you to become fully competent in your job after you started in it?


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.What sort of training and how much of it have you had since starting your job?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RESPONSIBILITY
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. What contribution do you make to achieving the objectives of your section or department?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11. What resources do you control in the form of people, money or equipment?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12. How much authority have you got over these resources?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13. If someone in your job were to make a major error, what effect would it have on on the performance of your section or department?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
14. How easy or difficult would it be to detect such a mistake?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DECISIONS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
15.How much guidance is available to you on what needs to be done and
how to deal with problems?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
16.Are there any matters on which you have to seek the prior permission of
your manager before taking action?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
17.How often are you in contact with your manager and on what sort of
matters?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
18.How does you manager know that you are doing your job properly?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COMPLEXITY
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
19. To what extent do you have to switch attention to different tasks
or problems during the day?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
20. How many people will you be in contact with on matters concerning your
work during the day?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
21.Do you have to use different sorts of equipment? If so, what?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
22.How complicated are the procedures you have to follow in carrying out
your job?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CONTACTS
----------------------------------------------------------------------
23.With whom do you deal on matters concerning your work and on what
sort of matters?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
24.What skills have you to use in your job in dealing with people?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR YOUR REFERENCE WORK.


Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.

There are two key elements of a job analysis:

1. Identification of major job requirements (MJRs) which are the most important duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled. They are the main purpose or primary reasons the position exists. The primary source of MJRs is the most current, official position description.

2. Identification of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required to accomplish each MJR and the quality level and amount of the KSAs needed. Most job analyses deal with KSAs that are measurable, that can be documented, and produce meaningful differences between candidates. Typically, possession of KSAs is demonstrated by experience, education, or training. The goal of KSAs is to identify those candidates who are potentially best qualified to perform the position to be filled; they are most useful when they provide meaningful distinctions among qualified candidates. Source documents for KSAs may be the position description, HRM standard qualifications and job classification standards.
==========================================
FIRST STEP --CLASSIFY THE JOB

STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS

THIS IS USA BASED . CHECK THE INDIAN SIC [ standard Indian classifications]

The Occupational Classification System manual was created for Bureau of STATISTICS field economists to help ensure correct occupational matches when collecting compensation data. Available to the public, this manual allows the user to lookup job descriptions for occupations and is used by field economists in the classification of thousands of occupations.

Major Occupational Groups (MOGs)

MOG A Professional, Technical and Related Occupations
MOG B Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations
MOG C Sales Occupations
MOG D Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical
MOG E Precision Production, Craft, and Repair Occupations
MOG F Machine Operators, Assemblers, and Inspectors
MOG G Transportation and Material Moving Occupations
MOG H Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers
MOG K Service Occupations, Except Private Household
================================================
SECOND STEP- CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS
Interview Methods
Structured Interviews A structured interview may assume a definite format involving:
charting a job-holder's sequence of activities in performance
an inventory or questionnaire may be used
Care is needed to set up such interactions. A specialist analyst is not involved and participants need to know what they are doing, why and what is expected as a result. They may be intrained as interviewers and not structure the interview as recommended. Notes and records may be needed for subsequent analysis.
A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. The manager is the analyst.

Interview Outcomes
Interviewing is a flexible method for all levels and types of job. An interview may focus on what a hypothetical job might involve.
Interviews generate descriptive data and enable job-holders to interpret their activities. A good interviewer can probe sensitive areas in more depth. Structured questionnaires cannot easily do this. Jobholders can give overviews of their work and offer their perceptions and feelings about their job and the environment. Rigid questionnaires tend to be less effective where the more affective aspects of work are concerned.
However information from different interviews can be
hard to bring together
there is potential for interviewer bias
certain areas of the work may fail to be picked up
an interview may stress one area and neglect others.
there are problems in interpretation and analysis with the possibility of distorted impressions
the subjectivity of the data captured needs to be considered
Interviewing as the sole method of job analysis in any particular project has disadvantages. Interviews are time consuming and training is needed. Co-counselling may remove the analyst and enable jobholders to discuss work between themselves. Through inexperience however they may miss items and there is the natural problem of people not establishing and maintaining rapport with each other during an interview.

Methods of Job Analysis

Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:
review of job classification systems
incumbent interview
supervisor/direct boss interviews
expert panels [ direct boss/HRM/ others]
structured questionnaires
task inventories
check lists
open-ended questionnaires
job observations
incumbent work logs

A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.

The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.

THIRD STEP ---ANALYSIS OF THE JOB.
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:
Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.
Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.
Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.
Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.
What does or should the person do?
What knowledge, skill, and abilities does it take to perform this job?
What is the result of the person performing the job?
How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization?
What is the jobís contribution toward the organizationís goals?

The process may seek to obtain information about the:
work
worker
context within which the job exists
=================================================
FOURTH STEP - DEVELOPING JOB DESCRIPTORS

Worker Functions. The relationship of the worker to data, people, and things.
Work Fields. The techniques used to complete the tasks of the job. Over 100 such fields have been identified. This descriptor also includes the machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in the job.
Materials, Products, Subject Matter, and/or Services. The outcomes of the job or the purpose of performing the job.
Worker Traits. The aptitudes, educational and vocational training, and personal traits required of the worker.
Physical Demands. Job requirements such as strength, observation, and talking. This descriptor also includes the physical environment of the work.
skills
abilities
knowledge
tasks
work activities
work context
experience levels required
job interests
work values/needs


FIFTH STEP -- DEVELOPING JOB DESCRIPTIONS/JOB SPECIFICATIONS

There are as many different formats for job descriptions as there are jobs, but there are some basic pieces of information that most job descriptions have. Include them in yours, if you feel they are appropriate.
Job Scope . This section should contain a brief summary of the information found in more detail elsewhere in the description. A summary shouldn't be more than a few sentences long and should explain the main purposes and functions of the job.
Detailed duties and responsibilities. This is a more detailed description of the duties involved and separates the essential functions of the job from the incidental job functions for purposes of the ADA.
Accountabilities. A list of outcomes, the position is responsible for.
Skills required to perform the job. This can include compensable factors such as education, experience, and abilities.
Importance of job duties and tasks. Ranking the duties from most important to least important is a good way to convey this information since the task that consumes the most time is not necessarily the most important task. You can rank on a scale of one to 10, for example.
When and how often the tasks are performed. You might want to mention that certain tasks are only done once a month, quarter, year etc.
Job environment. Job environments can impact significantly on workers' motivation and job satisfaction. For example, it's a good idea to include in job descriptions factors like the fact that the work is done off-premises, or mention the existence of hazards, noises, physical proximity of other employees, and opportunities to communicate with other employees. Including these factors in the job description helps job applicants better understand the requirements of the job and helps you select the best candidate for the position.
Working Relationship. should include 1] direct reporting 2] dotted line communication 3]others.
Competencies.
KRA [ Key responsible areas]
KPA [ Key performance areas]
KPI [ Key performance indicators]
KPC [ Key performance criteria]



HOPE THIS IS USEFUL TO YOU

REGARDS

LEO LINGHAM
Posted 18th April 2006 From India, Mumbai
ma 
Dear Sir, I don’t have words to express my gratitude for the valuable inputs....I’ll definitely improvise by incorporating the changes.... Thank you very much.... brgds, Mithra
Posted 19th April 2006 From United States, Santa Clara
hai mithra Even i m during my sip on job description hai can u plz help me out in my project
Posted 26th June 2008 From India, Udupi
Hi

You can ref a lot of materials at: <link outdated-removed> ( Search On Cite | Search On Google )

I know that these are many useful ones in this forum. Pls take a moment sending it to my email.

Tks in adv
Posted 16th October 2009 From Vietnam,
HI Mithra,

As you told the One to One Interview are better in the industries like garment sector more over it is quite economical too. If you give questionnaire then think about the Printing and stationery cost. More over in the particular industry all are not well educated & we should keep on clearing the doubts they raise. So more time consuming also.

Jeeva
Posted 16th October 2009 From India, Bangalore
Hi I know that these are many useful ones in this forum. Pls take a moment sending it to my email. Tks in adv
Posted 25th October 2009 From Vietnam,
These are many positions of Sales supervisor department. It can include:

1. Sales supervisor director
2. Sales supervisor coordinator
3. Sales supervisor associate
4. Sales supervisor executive
5. Sales supervisor supervisor
6. Sales supervisor specialist
7. Sales supervisor manager
8. Sales supervisor clerk
9. Sales supervisor officer
10. Sales supervisor assistant manager
11. Sales supervisor assistant

Based on the above positions can help you to set up Sales supervisor dept, design job descriptions, Sales supervisor interview questions.

Apart from that, this link below may be useful: <link outdated-removed>
I hope that this comment can help some info for our communities.

Rgs
Posted 4th June 2010 From Vietnam, Hanoi

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