The song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath
Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as
the national anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on
27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.
The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full
version of the National Anthem :
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately
52 seconds. A short version consisting of first and last lines of the stanza
(playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions.
The following is Tagore’s English rendering of the anthem :
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
dispenser of India’s destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
thou dispenser of India’s destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.
The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji,
was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It
has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when
it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The
following is the text of its first stanza :
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,
Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!
The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in
I bow to thee, Mother,
cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests,
Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,
her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom,
sweet of laughter, sweet of speech,
The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss