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lev and schwartz model in hr accounting

atikshh Started The Discussion:

hello, can anyone guide me how to implement lev and schwartz model ithe organization

simmy2009 - Contributing Member
Hi Atikshh

You can access the below mentioned website for your query-

Docstoc ? Documents, Templates, Forms, Ebooks, Papers & Presentations

5GB of free space to upload and share your files, photos, videos and music - eSnips.com

You may also navigate websites, to which organizations have implemented Schwartz Model in their organization.

rajesh.kumarY - Contributing Member
Dear Atikshh

may this will help u a bit....

Lev and Schw artz’s model is based on human capital theory,
which recognizes human capital as one of several forms of holding wealth for a business enterprise, such as money, securities and physical capital. In this model of accounting, human capital is treated like other forms of earning assets and thus is an important factor explaining
and predicting the future economic growth of the company.

Lev and Schw artz’s accounting model is based on the measurement of human capital using the formula:
Vr = ÓTt=r I(t)/(1+r)t-r,

where Vr = the human capital value of a person “r” years old;
I(t) = the person’s annual earnings up to retirement;
r = a discount rate specific to the person;
T =retirement age

The formula uses an earnings profile, which is a graphic mathematical
representation of the income stream generated by a person. Typically, earnings increase with age. As the person reaches retirement age, productivity declines as a result of technological obsolescence and health deterioration.

This model postulated in 1971 remains largely unused as a result of criticism from Accounting professionals who argue that human capital cannot be purchased or owned by the firm and therefore would not be recognized as an asset. Additionally, critics of human capital theory state that labor force does not have a “service potential”; meaning employees are paid for rendering current services and no asset is formed by these
payments. (posted in Aug,07)

or clock the following link

http://www.citehr.com/search_new.php...ogy+&submit=Go



Rajesh Kumar

09899974507
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sharing with you what was shared with me on this forum

rajesh.kumarY - Contributing Member
Dear Atikshh

may this will help u a bit....

Lev and Schw artz’s model is based on human capital theory,
which recognizes human capital as one of several forms of holding wealth for a business enterprise, such as money, securities and physical capital. In this model of accounting, human capital is treated like other forms of earning assets and thus is an important factor explaining
and predicting the future economic growth of the company.

Lev and Schw artz’s accounting model is based on the measurement of human capital using the formula:
Vr = ÓTt=r I(t)/(1+r)t-r,

where Vr = the human capital value of a person “r” years old;
I(t) = the person’s annual earnings up to retirement;
r = a discount rate specific to the person;
T =retirement age

The formula uses an earnings profile, which is a graphic mathematical
representation of the income stream generated by a person. Typically, earnings increase with age. As the person reaches retirement age, productivity declines as a result of technological obsolescence and health deterioration.

This model postulated in 1971 remains largely unused as a result of criticism from Accounting professionals who argue that human capital cannot be purchased or owned by the firm and therefore would not be recognized as an asset. Additionally, critics of human capital theory state that labor force does not have a “service potential”; meaning employees are paid for rendering current services and no asset is formed by these
payments. (posted in Aug,07)

or click the following link

http://www.citehr.com/search_new.php...ogy+&submit=Go



Rajesh Kumar

09899974507
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sharing with you what was shared with me on this forum

atikshh - 
hello raj , thanks a lot, i have gone through it, but i was looking for a example, and to take out this discount rate, what are the criteria which we take in calculating discount rate, its confusing, waiting for your help.

atikshh - 
hello simmy, i just gone through the site you recomended, i havent found much , for what i am looking for,i need to know the calculation of discount rate regarding L & s model.
thanks and regards
atikshh

gopan - Contributing Member
Atikshh,
What raj described is right. The discounted rate in HR is taken on the reverse order. For example, A person of 20 years of age is palaced in an organisation where the super anuuation is 58 years, he has 38 years of probality to continue in the service. So in the second year while he earnes experience, probability of leaving is to extent of 38-(1) / 21 X 1 to the power of 2 , which tells you the value as of the employee in the 1st year of service. Similarly, for rest of the years it has to be worked out yearwise. Commuttation of service will not give correct result in calculating the value, as V = sigma v1,v2,v3 vi.
Hope you have understood.
You may refer to my article in " i- Manager " management journal of Feb- April 2009 issue Vol.3. for details on this model application, done by many organisations.
Gopan

rajesh.kumarY - Contributing Member
Dear Atikshh,

I was going through one of website and found the below article. This may help you in implementing Lev & Schwartz Model


HR Accounting - A Strategic Use of Lev & Schwartz Model-By

Sumanta Dutta
Lecturer
South City College (Evening)
Kolkata
Visiting Faculty
NSHM Business School



Abstract

Human is the core factor and which is required to be recognized prior to any other 'M's But till now an urgent need based modification is required while identifying and measuring data about human resources. In this paper my objective is to identify the extensive use of Lev & Schwartz model of Human resource accounting, in spite of several criticized from various sides regarding its applicability. Further more, it also portrays the applicability in wide variety of organization of such model (some pubic sector units and IT based sector).

Human is the buzzword in the modern knowledge based society. It is the most vital input on which the success & failure of the organization very much depend upon. Starting from the classical economist to modern human capital economist such development in considered to be a continuous process.






It is one of the most important 'M' associated, which is considered while taken care of 4M's associated with any organization and they are money machines, materials and men. But the most interesting thing is that the first three are recognized and find a place in the assets side of the Balance sheet of the organization. But in case of fourth one ambiguity prevails among the accountant. In spite of its usefulness has been acclaimed is various literature over the decades but its application still remain a suspectable issue, the IASB and the ASB in different countries have not been able to formulate any specific accounting standard for measurement & reporting of such valuable elements.
It is a popular phenomenon among the Indian corporate world is to disclose information relating to human resource in annual statements. In this context, it is necessary to conduct a study to assess the disclosure pattern of HRA information in Indian corporate World.

It first promulgated by BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd), a leading public enterprise, during the financial year 1972-73. Later it was also adopted by other leading public and private sector Organization in the subsequent years. Some of them are Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd.(HMTL). Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.(ONGC), NTPC, Cochin Refineries Ltd. (CRL), Madras Refineries Ltd.,(MRL), Associated Cement Company Ltd.(ACC) and Infosys Technologies Ltd.(ITL).

However, adaptability of various model (mainly Lev and Schwartz model, Flamholtz model and Jaggi and Lev model) and discount rate fixation and disclosure pattern ie. either age wise, skill wise etc in BHEL, SAIL, MMTC (Minerals & Metals Trading Corporation Of India Ltd.) HMTL, NTP make it clear, that there has been no uniformity among Indian enterprises regarding HRA disclosure.

Meaning Of Human Resource Accounting:

HRA has been defined by American Accounting Association's committee –"HRA is the process of identifying & measuring data about human resources & communicating this information to interested parties". Stephen knauf defined HRA as "The measurement & quantification of human organizational inputs such as recruiting, training, experience & commitment."

According to Eric. G flamholtz HRA represents-"Accounting for people as an organizational resource. It is the measurement of the cost & value of people for the organization".

Hence, it can be said that, it is the process of developing financial assessment for people within organization & society & monitoring of these assessment through time, it deals with.

Although HR valuation has important implication for external financial reporting, in the contemporary economic scenario valuing HR has been greater significance for internal HRM decision.

Problem Statement:

Understanding the way of valuation of human resources by using Lev & Schwartz model and how valuation of such asset are related with the other financial variables for financial reporting purpose.

Research Objectives:

The main objectives of the study are:

i) To asses the way of presenting HRA information in the financial statement by selected companies

ii) To identify HRA methods and models (mainly the extensive use of Lev & Schwartz model) which are used to arrive at human resource value.

iii) How human resource are related with the other accounting variables for the purpose of human financial reporting in selected companies.

The ways of presentation of HRA information disclosed
by some of the companies

Name of the HRA introduce Model Discount
organization in the year rate (in%)

BHEL 1973 – 74 Lev & Schwartz model 12

SAIL 1983 – 84 Lev & Schwartz model with 14
Some refinements as suggested by Eric.G.
Flamholtz& Jaggi and Lev

MMTC 1982 – 83 Lev & Schwartz model 12

ONGC 1981 – 82 Lev & Schwartz model 12.25

NTPC 1984 – 85 Lev & Schwartz model 12

INFOSYS 1999 Lev & Schwartz model 12.96

2006-07 Lev & Schwartz model 14.97

Source: Secondary

PRODUCTIVITY & PERFORMANCE INDICATORS







Source: Secondary
Terminology used:

1) PBT-Profit Before Tax
2) HR- Human Resource
3) TA-Total Assets
4) Turn-Turnover ( or Sales)
5) FA-Fixed Assets
6) VA- Value Added

Models of Human Capital Valuation

Many models have been created to value human capital. Some are based on historic costs while some are based on future earnings. But each has its own limitations and one model has proved to be more valid than other. Although the Lev and Schwartz model has been the most widely use model for its ease of use & convenience.

The Lev & Schwortz Model

The Lev and Schwartz model states that the human resource of a co is the summation of value of all the Net present value (NPV) of expenditure on employees. The human capital embodied in a person of age r is the present value of his earning from employment

Under this model, the following steps are adopted to determine HR Value.

i) Classification of the entire labour force into certain homogeneous groups like skilled, unskilled, semiskilled etc. and in accordance with different classed and age wise.eg. In Infosys the classification is based on software professionals & support staff etc.

ii) Construction of average earning stream for each group.eg. At Infosys Incremental earnings based on group/ age have been considered.

iii) Discounting the average earnings at a predetermined rate in order to get present value of human resource's of each group.

iv) Aggregation of the present value of different groups which represent the capitalized future earnings of the concern as a whole,






Where, Vr = the value of an Individual r years old
I (t) = the individual's annual earnings up to retirement
t = retirement age
r = a discount rate specific to the cost of capital to the company.
Critical appraisal of the Lev & Schwartz model: –

1] It is essentially an input measure .It ignores the output i.e. productivity of employees.

2] Service state of each individual employee is not considered.

3] The training expenses incurred by the company on its employees are not considered.

4] The attrition rate in organization is also ignored.

5] Factors responsible for higher earning potentiality of each individual employees like seniority, bargaining capacity, skill, experience etc. which may cause differential salary structure are also ignore.

Conclusion

The conceptual thinking about valuation human resources is still in a developing stage. No model of HR accounting is accepted by the accounting bodies all over the world. However, still we find some application of Lev & Schwartz model is most public sector units and IT based sectors. In knowledge based sectors where human resources are considered to be the key elements for monitoring the business activities to attend their goals successfully, may not overlooked this side. Hence, considering the great significance of HRA proper initiation should be taken by the government along with that other professional & accounting bodies both at the national & international levels for the measurement & reporting of such valuable assets.

atikshh - 
hello Gopan,
thanks a lot, the post was really very nice, i got i, but theres a still confusion, as i want to know that in calculating the present value of a human resource, we used to take discount rate, so how a company or an organizaton took out that discount rate, what are the measures to find those discount rate, what is the process,like 10% or 15 % discount rate,
thanks and regards
atikshh

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