Employee Engagement and Satisfaction Models
Research into Employee Engagement and Satisfaction
There are many models on the market and each provider claims that their model is based on empirical research. For this I am sure, however for each organization that undertakes this they appear to arrive at different conclusions.
So are they all correct or are they all incorrect?
The jury is out on this. What we do know is that no two organizations are the same and that the prevailing culture makes a great deal of difference in the results.
Using normative data also takes the edge off of excellent organizations, so for instance one organization may score high in some and low in other factors; the net result is that they score x. This is then the benchmark that the research organization/ provider uses.
The important driver
The key driver in measuring employee engagement and satisfaction is not necessarily a particular set of factors, but that fact that the same factors are measured repeatedly over time, and interpreted in conjunction with the current and future required culture in the organization, along with business performance measures.
Katz and Kahn
Identified three levels.
- Joining and staying in the organization. This includes recruitment into the company, low absenteeism and low turnover.
- Dependable behaviour. These indicators relate to meeting or exceeding standards of job performance.
- Innovative behaviour This level goes beyond individual roles to how people collaborate with colleagues, make suggestions to improve the organization, and work to improve the organization's standing in the external environment.
Have four degrees of engagement:
- Actively engaged,
- Engaged but leaving,
No page on the net looking at Employee engagement would be complete without looking at the Gallup Q12.
Gallup began creating a measurement and feedback system for employers that would identify elements of employee engagement closely linked to the bottom line. Factors such as:
<LI class=.normal>Customer loyalty
<LI class=.normal>Productivity and
The Three Types of Employees identified by Gallup are:
- Not Engaged
- Actively Disengaged
To help identify common factors in employee engagement the CIPD commissioned Kingston University and Ipsos/MORI to undertake a survey of employee attitudes. From this research they determined that Engagement can be said to have three dimensions:
Emotional engagement - being very involved emotionally with one's work
Cognitive engagement - focusing very hard whilst at work
Physical engagement - being willing to 'go the extra mile' for your employer.
From BSI consulting
In a white paper looking at Employee Engagement they identify the following scales:
<LI class=.normal>Performance & Motivation
<LI class=.normal>Affective <LI class=.normal>Commitment & Engagement
<LI class=.normal>Skills and Workload
<LI class=.normal>Commitment (Normative & Continuance)
<LI class=.normal>Engagement (emotional)
<LI class=.normal>Identification (rational)
<LI class=.normal>Team Orientation
- Motivation Compatibility
Employer Contribution -v- Employee Contribution
Corporate Appeal --- Engagement
Leadership --- Identification
Belonging --- Team Orientation
Job Design --- Motivation
Working Conditions --- Compatibility
The EESS looks at the following scales:
<LI class=normal>Effective Management
<LI class=normal>Equal Opportunities
<LI class=normal>Health and Safety
<LI class=normal>HR Policy
<LI class=normal>Personal Growth
<LI class=normal>Team Spirit
The Employee Engagement Index is the average of the three scales:
- <LI class=normal>Organisational Commitment. <LI class=normal>Job Satisfaction.
- Intention To Stay.
According to a survey by Kenexa, you can summarise employee engagement with these four primary principles, or drivers, that show that workers are engaged by:
- Leaders who inspire confidence in the future.
- Managers who respect and appreciate their employees.
- Exciting work that employees know how to do.
- Employers who display a genuine responsibility to employees and communities.
- Advocacy and
Components of Index (Insight now)
Have an instrument called the Employee Engagement Index in which the index is broken down into the following segments:
- Employee attitude towards their customers.
- Employee attitude towards their company.
- Employee attitude towards the products or services they are providing.
- Employee attitude towards their immediate management, motivation, recognition and control structures.
- Employee attitude towards their role, contribution and development.
- Employee loyalty to their contact centre.
Burke company Employee Engagement Index - EEI
Burke takes a different approach and look at populations and target audiences and how they answer key questions.
- Work Group
- Career/ Profession
- Customer/ Client
BCWI Employee Engagement Index - EEI
This organisation uses a simple three scale approach:
Mercer - Employee Engagement
Mercer's research "What's Working?" surveys have gathered data from a cross-section of industries. These surveys had questions grouped into 13 dimensions:
- Work processes
- Quality and customer focus
- Work/life balance
- Job security and career growth
- Teamwork and cooperation
- Ethics and integrity
- Immediate manager
- Performance management
- Leadership and direction
- Training and development
From these dimensions Mercer Identified four global drivers:
- The work itself, including opportunities for development
- Confidence and trust in leadership engagement
- Recognition and rewards
- Organizational communication
Then using further data from this research they developed Mercer's Employee Engagement Model©:
- Satisfied --> Motivated --> Committed --> Advocate
Employee Engagement - people or leadership?
How can leaders engage heads, hearts, and hands of their people? An article in Ivey Business Journal believes that by starting to apply the following 10 C's of employee engagement:
- Connect: Leaders must show that they value employees. Employee engagement is a direct reflection of how employees feel about their relationship with the immediate boss.
- Career: Leaders should provide challenging and meaningful work with opportunities for career advancement. Most people want to do new things in their job.
- Clarity: Leaders must communicate a clear vision. Success in life and organizations is, to a great extent, determined by how clear individuals are about their goals and what they really want to achieve.
- Convey: Leaders clarify their expectations about employees and provide feedback on their functioning in the organization.
- Congratulate: Exceptional leaders give recognition, and they do so a lot; they coach and convey.
- Contribute: People want to know that their input matters and that they are contributing to the organization's success in a meaningful way.
- Control: Employees value control over the flow and pace of their jobs and leaders can create opportunities for employees to exercise this control.
- Collaborate: Studies show that, when employees work in teams and have the trust and cooperation of their team members, they outperform individuals and teams which lack good relationships.
- Credibility: Leaders should strive to maintain a company�??s reputation and demonstrate high ethical standards.
- Confidence: Good leaders help create confidence in a company by being exemplars of high ethical and performance standards.
Employee engagement is not about the employees, it's about effective leadership.
Blessing White - Employee Engagement
According to Blessing White:
"the most successful organizations make engagement an ongoing priority, not a once-a-year event. They take a multi-faceted approach to address problem areas and improve engagement scores organization wide."
- Maximise managers - they are the main connection in the employee engagement equation.
- Align, align, align - clarify strategy and organizational goals.
- Redefine career - employees need line-of-sight on their future to be truly engaged.
- Pay attention to culture - culture and employee motivation go hand-in-hand.
- Survey less, act more - don't rely purely on an employee engagement survey to drive your strategy
- Disengaged --> Crash & Burn --> Newlyweds & Hamsters --> Almost Engaged --> Fully Engaged
In one report they also use the scale:
Disengaged --> Crash & Burn --> Honeymooners & Hamsters --> Almost Engaged --> Fully Engaged
Factors of Employee Engagement
Many organizational factors influence employee engagement and retention such as:
- A culture of respect where outstanding work is valued
- Clear job expectations
- Adequate tools to complete work responsibilities
- High levels of motivation
- Availability of constructive feedback and mentoring
- Opportunity for advancement and professional development
- Fair and appropriate reward, recognition and incentive systems
- Availability of effective leadership
Even I am looking for how the companies calculate the employee engagement index and how they reach a conclusion, but it is not available by general search. Only the inferences are given on various sites but the complete process is not disclosed for general viewers!! Hope somebody posts the calculation part as well.....
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